The maleo (Macrocephalon maleo) is a large megapode and the only member of the monotypic genus Macrocephalon. The maleo is endemic to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. It is found in the tropical lowland and hill forests, but nests in the open sandy areas, volcanic soils, or beaches that are heated by the sun or geothermal energy for incubation.

Macrocephalon maleo - Muara Pusian (2)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Megapodiidae
Genus: Macrocephalon
S. Müller, 1846
M. maleo
Binomial name
Macrocephalon maleo


The maleo ranges from 55–60 cm (22–24 in) long with blackish plumage, bare yellow facial skin, reddish-brown iris, reddish-orange beak, and rosy salmon underparts.[2] The crown is ornamented with a prominent, bony, dark casque - which is the origin of its genus name Macrocephalon (Macro meaning "large" and cephalon meaning "head"). The greyish blue feet have four long sharp claws, separated by a membranous web. The sexes are almost identical with a slightly smaller and duller female. Juveniles have largely brownish and paler heads with short blackish-brown crests and browner upperparts.[3]

Behaviour and ecology

The maleo's egg is large, about five times as large as that of the domestic chicken's. The female lays and covers each egg in a deep hole in the sand and allows the incubation to take place through solar or volcanic heating. After the eggs hatch, the young birds work their way up through the sand and hide in the forest. The young birds are able to fly and are totally independent. They must find food and defend themselves from predators such as monitor lizards, reticulated pythons, wild pigs, and cats.

The maleo is monogamous and members of a pair stay close to each other all the time. Its diet consists mainly of fruits, seeds, mollusks, ants, termites, beetles, and other small invertebrates.

Breeding and habitat

This species is endemic to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. It is usually not present on altitudes exceeding 1,000 meters and is usually found in lowland hills or rain forests. Ideal nesting locations include river banks, lake shores, and coastal areas of the island. Maleos are communal nesters.[3]

Maleos breed all year round, but peak breeding season varies depending upon the location on the island.[2] When prepared to lay her eggs, the female maleo, accompanied by her mate, will leave the cover of the Sulawesian forest in search of historic coastal breeding grounds. Females can lay anywhere between 8-12 eggs over the course of a year. Once an optimal spot is chosen, the maleos dig a deep hole and lay the egg inside. After the egg is laid, the parents bury the egg securely in sand, sometimes covering the sand with other debris to better camouflage the hole.[4] After the egg has been securely buried, the parents leave and never return, leaving the maleo chick to fend for itself.

The hot sand of Sulawesi acts as an incubator for maleo eggs, which are warmed with geothermal heat or solar heat.[5] A maleo chick is completely self-sufficient only hours after hatching. For this reason, maleo eggs are approximately five times the size of a domestic chicken’s, as they contain nearly full-formed maleos inside. It must dig its way up through the sand immediately after birth and subsequently has the ability to fly and feed itself.

Current threats and conservation

A large number of former nesting sites have been abandoned as a result of egg poaching and land conversion to agriculture. Of the 142 known nesting grounds, only 4 are currently considered non-threatened.[6] The shrinking and fragmentation of forest habitats on the island pose serious threats to the surviving and future populations of the species. Wildfires in 2000 and 2004 cleared large areas of forest and what grew as a result of these fires was not a suitable habitat for the maleo. There has also been increasing isolation between non-breeding habitats and coastal breeding grounds as a result of human urban development. Because of this, mortality risk associated with moving to breeding grounds has drastically increased.[3]

Since 1972, this species has been protected by the Indonesian government. As of 2005, it is estimated that only 4,000-7,000 breeding pairs currently exist in the wild and these numbers are rapidly declining.[6] Due to aforementioned threats, current population numbers, and deemed value of the species, the maleo is evaluated as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[1] It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

In 2009, US-based Wildlife Conservation Society worked with local government to purchase 36 acres (150,000 m2) of Indonesian beach front property where approximately 40 nests are located in an effort to further conservation efforts and protect this bird.[4] Thanks to Alana O'Sullivan, a Senior Keeper of Ornithology, the Bronx Zoo is the only place in the world where the maleo exists outside of Indonesia and breeding efforts are currently taking place there as well.[7] A breeding pair of maleos at the Bronx Zoo were featured in an episode of the Animal Planet show The Zoo. O'Sullivan appeared and talked about the species and the threats they face. She also lamented that most people don't know they exist. Details about the maleo not yet mentioned include having an elaborate courtship ritual and loving peanuts. It's easy to tell when the female will lay her egg because she will lose interest in everything else, including peanuts, and at that point the keepers know she will lay her egg within the next 24 hours.

The Alliance for Tompotika Conservation works with communities in Sulawesi to educate locals about the maleo's endangered status and prevent the harvesting of eggs. The eggs are not a staple food source, but are a popular delicacy.[8]


  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2013). "Macrocephalon maleo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b "Maleo". Retrieved 2015-10-30.
  3. ^ a b c "EDGE of Existence". EDGE of Existence. Retrieved 2015-10-30.
  4. ^ a b "Daud Badu: A savior of maleo birds". Retrieved 2015-10-30.
  5. ^ "IUCN - Sulawesi youth find their power in conservation". Retrieved 2015-10-30.
  6. ^ a b "Macrocephalon maleo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. November 1, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  7. ^ Foley, James A. (March 9, 2013). "Rare Maleo Eggs Successfully Incubated And Hatched At Bronx Zoo". Nature World News. Nature World News. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  8. ^ "Maleo Conservation" (in English and Indonesian). Alliance for Tompotika Conservation. Retrieved 4 February 2013.

External links

Abinomn language

The Abinomn language (Avinomen, Foya) is a language isolate initially reported by Mark Donohue from Papua province, Indonesia. It is also known as Avinomen, Baso (deprecated), and Foia. There are about 300 speakers.Although surrounded by Lakes Plain languages, Abinomn highly differs from Lakes Plain.


Acidofilia is the tenth studio album by Polish thrash metal band Acid Drinkers. It was released on May 13, 2002. The album was mastered at High-End Studio by Grzegorz Piwkowski. It was rereleased in 2008 by Metal Mind with a bonus video for the song "Acidofilia". It is the final album to feature Przemek "Perła" Wejmann.

The album title was created by Dariusz "Maleo" Malejonek (Maleo Reggae Rockers, Izrael, Houk, 2Tm2,3, and Arka Noego). The original album cover featured frontman Titus pregnant, but was quickly changed before the release of the album.

Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park

Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park is a 2,871 km2 (1,108 mi2) National Park on Minahassa Peninsula on Sulawesi island, Indonesia. Formerly known as Dumoga Bone National Park, it was established in 1991 and was renamed in honour of Nani Wartabone, a local resistance fighter who drove the Japanese from Gorontalo during World War II. The park has been identified by Wildlife Conservation Society as the single most important site for the conservation of Sulawesi wildlife and is home to a large number of species endemic to Sulawesi.


Bungku is a town and the administrative centre of the Regency of Morowali, in Central Sulawesi Province of Indonesia.Bungku was originally not the capital of Morowali. In 1999, the capital of Morowali was Kolonodale. In 2004, the plan to shift the Morowali capital southeast from Kolonodale to Bungku left non-Bungku residents, both Protestant and Muslim, feeling further disenfranchised.The city is served by Maleo Airport, opened in March 2017.


Castelgerundo is a new comune (municipality) in the Province of Lodi in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 55 kilometres (34 mi) southeast of Milan and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) southeast of Lodi.

Casrelgerundo borders the following municipalities: Formigara, Castiglione d'Adda, Maleo, Terranova dei Passerini, Pizzighettone, Cavacurta, Codogno.

The new municipality, from 1 January 2018, was made from the union of Cavacurta and Camairago. The municipality contains also the frazione (subdivision) Bosco Valentino e Mulazzana.

Corno Giovine

Corno Giovine (Lodigiano: Corn Giun or 'l Corn) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Lodi in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southeast of Milan and about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southeast of Lodi.

Corno Giovine borders the following municipalities: Maleo, Cornovecchio, Santo Stefano Lodigiano, Santo Stefano Lodigiano, Caselle Landi, Piacenza.


Cornovecchio (Lodigiano: Corvèch) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Lodi in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southeast of Milan and about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southeast of Lodi.

Cornovecchio borders the following municipalities: Pizzighettone, Maleo, Crotta d'Adda, Meleti, Corno Giovine, Caselle Landi.

List of airlines of Indonesia

This is a list of airlines which have an Air Operator Certificate issued by the Civil Aviation Authority of Indonesia.

There are two types of AOC in Indonesia, AOC 121 and AOC 135. AOC 121 is for commercial scheduled airlines with more than 30 passengers. AOC 135 is for commercial scheduled airlines with 30 or less passengers and chartered airlines. There are 22 AOC 121 holders and 32 AOC 135 holders.By 12 January 2012 all Indonesian scheduled airlines have to operate with at least ten aircraft, and a minimum of five aircraft should be owned. The Ministry of Transport has the right to withdraw their operating certificate in case they do not comply with this regulation (Law Number 1, 2009 about air transport). The application of the regulation was postponed for one year, while in the postponed time the airlines should give a business plan and a contract letter for the leasing aircraft for at least one year ahead.The largest low-cost carrier airlines include Lion Air, Indonesia AirAsia and Citilink, a subsidiary of Garuda Indonesia.The safety-related ban on Indonesian airlines flying to European Union has been partially lifted since 2009 with Garuda Indonesia, Airfast Indonesia, Mandala Airlines, Express Transportasi Antarbenua, Indonesia AirAsia and Batavia Air being taken off the list. On 21 April 2011 the EU lifted the ban of Cardig Air, Republic Express, Asia Link and Air Maleo - all being cargo carriers. The ban had been imposed after a string of accidents.On 14 June 2018, all Indonesian Airlines were removed from the list of air carriers banned in the EU. There are three categories of On Time Performance (OTP) for commercial scheduled airlines in Indonesia (2017 average published by Indonesian Directorate General Of Civil Aviation):

Green, more than 80 percent (the airlines in this category are NAM Air: 92.62 percent, Sriwijaya Air: 88.69 percent, Batik Air: 88.66 percent, Garuda Indonesia: 88.53 percent and Citilink: 88.33 percent)

Yellow, 70 to 80 percent (Indonesia AirAsia X: 77.42 percent, Indonesia AirAsia: 75.94 percent, Express Air: 74.40 percent, Susi Air: 72.65 percent, TransNusa: 71.36 percent) and Lion Air: 71.32 percent

Red, below 70 percent (Wings Air: 65.47 percent, Kalstar Aviation - Ceased Operation in 30 September 2017: 58.10 percent and Trigana Air: 42.49 percent)Since 1 January 2012 the airlines have to give a Rp300,000 ($22) voucher to each passenger as compensation for a delayed flight of more than four hours and the voucher should be able to be disbursed on that day or on the following day. Bad weather or operational and technical problems, such as refueling delays or a damaged runway are exempted from this requirement. For flights diverted to other destinations the airlines have to make all necessary arrangements to get the passengers to their original destinations plus Rp.150,000 compensation. Any flight cancellations must be made seven days prior to a flight and passengers will receive a full refund and cancellation within seven days of departure. The airlines have to pay compensation equal to the value of the ticket on top of the full refund. Batavia Air was the first airline with a delay more than four hours of Palangkaraya-Surabaya route due to operational problem on 2 January 2011. The airlines should pay a total of Rp42 million ($4,242) compensation to all passengers.

List of railway stations in Lombardy

This is the list of the railway stations in Lombardy owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato and by Ferrovienord.

Lore Lindu National Park

Lore Lindu National Park is a protected area of forest on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, in the province of Central Sulawesi. The Indonesian national park is 2,180 km² covering both lowland and montane forests (200 to 2,610 meters above mean sea level). It provides habitat to numerous rare species, including 77 bird species endemic to Sulawesi. The national park is designated as part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves. In addition to its rich wildlife, the park also contains megaliths dating from before 1300 AD.The easiest access to visit the national park is from Palu to Kamarora (50 kilometers in 2.5 hours drive). Due to a lot of rainfall up to 4,000 mm a year in the southern part of the national park, the best time to visit is from July to September.

Maleo, Lombardy

Maleo (Lodigiano: Malé) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Lodi in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Milan and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) southeast of Lodi.

Maleo borders the following municipalities: Pizzighettone, Castelgerundo, Codogno, Cornovecchio, Corno Giovine, San Fiorano, Santo Stefano Lodigiano.

Maleo Airport

Maleo Airport (Indonesian: Bandar Udara Maleo) is an airport located at Morowali, Central Sulawesi in Indonesia. The airport was inaugurated on May 27, 2018.The Airport has a land area of 158 hectares.


The megapodes, also known as incubator birds or mound-builders, are stocky, medium-large, chicken-like birds with small heads and large feet in the family Megapodiidae. Their name literally means "large foot" (Greek: mega = large, poda = foot), and is a reference to the heavy legs and feet typical of these terrestrial birds. All are browsers, and all but the malleefowl occupy wooded habitats. Most are brown or black in color. Megapodes are superprecocial, hatching from their eggs in the most mature condition of any bird. They hatch with open eyes, bodily coordination and strength, full wing feathers, and downy body feathers, and are able to run, pursue prey, and in some species, fly on the same day they hatch.

Otanaha Fortress

Otanaha Fortress is one of the tourism site in Gorontalo province, Indonesia. It was built in 1522 by King Ilato from Gorontalo Kingdom and Portuguese sailors to strengthen the area security and defense. Located in Dembe Hill, this fort was made from mixture of sand, calcium, and eggs of Maleo birds. To reach the top of this fort, there are 348 steps, which separated into four stopovers: 52 steps from base to the first stopover, 83 steps from first to second stopover, 53 second to third stopover, and 89 steps from third to fourth stopover. From the last stopover, there are another 71 steps to reach the fort. From the top of this fortress, there are panoramic view of Limboto Lake and some part of Gorontalo region.

San Fiorano

San Fiorano (Lodigiano: San Fiuràn) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Lodi in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Milan and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) southeast of Lodi. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,724 and an area of 8.9 square kilometres (3.4 sq mi).The municipality of San Fiorano contains the frazioni (subdivisions, mainly villages and hamlets) Campone, Divizia, Lazzaretto, and Regone.

San Fiorano borders the following municipalities: Codogno, Maleo, Fombio, Santo Stefano Lodigiano.

Santo Stefano Lodigiano

Santo Stefano Lodigiano (Lodigiano: San Steu) is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Lodi in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Milan and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) southeast of Lodi.

Santo Stefano Lodigiano borders the following municipalities: Maleo, Corno Giovine, Corno Giovine, Fombio, San Fiorano, Caselle Landi, Piacenza, Piacenza, San Rocco al Porto.

The municipality is home to a Baby & Toy Museum with more than 1,700 items.


The scrubfowl are the genus Megapodius of the mound-builders, stocky, medium-large chicken-like birds with small heads and large feet in the family Megapodiidae. They are found from south-east Asia to north Australia and islands in the west Pacific.

They do not incubate their eggs with their body heat in the orthodox way, but bury them. They are best known for building a massive mound of decaying vegetation, which the male attends, adding or removing litter to regulate the internal heat while the eggs hatch. The species in taxonomic order are:

†Pile-builder scrubfowl (Megapodius molistructor)

†Viti Levu scrubfowl (Megapodius amissus)In all of the above, the name "scrubfowl" is sometimes exchanged with "megapode". Traditionally, most have been listed as subspecies of M. freycinet, but today all major authorities consider this incorrect. Nevertheless, there are unresolved issues within the genus, and for example the taxon forstenii has been considered a subspecies of M. freycinet, a subspecies of M. cumingii, or a monotypic species. An additional species, the Moluccan megapode, has sometimes been placed in Megapodius, but today most place it in the genus Eulipoa instead. The maleo is also associated with these genera, and together the three form a group.

Suster Keramas

Patur Keramas is an adult horror comedy movie from Indonesia produced by Maxima Pictures and distributed by Maleo Pictures. The film was directed by Helfi Kardit and starred Herfiza Novianti as Kayla, Shinta Bachir as Jeng Dollie and Rin Sakuragi as Mitchiko.

The film is about a Japanese tourist (Rin Sakuragi) looking for her sister who works as a nurse in Indonesia. Ironically, her sister already died. Meanwhile, three friends, Kayla, Barry, and Ariel, are disturbed by the ghost of a nurse.Suster Keramas was released in Indonesia on 31 December 2009 and sold more than 800,000 tickets, compared to other local films at the time that were unlikely to sell even 300,000 tickets. However, the film was controversial in Indonesia because of its sexual aspects.

Trecchi Castle (Maleo)

Trecchi Castle is a 15th-century fortress located in Maleo, Province of Lodi, Lombardy, Italy.

The construction of the building is attributed to architect Pellegrino Tibaldi. The castle was transformed into a country villa over time.

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