Malcolm X Day

Malcolm X Day is an American holiday in honor of Malcolm X that is celebrated on either May 19 (his birthday) or the third Sunday of May. The commemoration of the civil rights leader has been proposed as an official state holiday in the U.S. state of Illinois in 2015. As of present, only the city of Berkeley, California observes the holiday with city offices and schools closed.[1]

Malcolm X Day
Malcolm X NYWTS 2a
Malcolm X
Observed byBerkeley, California, United States
TypeNationwide festivities
Local holiday (May 19)
DateMay 19
2018 dateMay 18
2019 dateMay 17
2020 dateMay 15
2021 dateMay 21
Frequencyannual

History

The Malcolm X Day holiday has been an official holiday in the municipality of Berkeley, California since 1979. Since then, there have been multiple proposals for the holiday to be official elsewhere. Most recently in 2015, a proposal put forth by the Council of Islamic Organizations of Chicago to make the holiday official in the U.S. state of Illinois.[2] The Illinois proposal differs from the Berkeley, California resolution in that the holiday would be observed May 19 instead of the third Friday in May.[3] Before that, unsuccessful attempts were made in Atlanta, Georgia, and Washington, D.C., with numerous calls for it to be celebrated alongside Martin Luther King, Jr. Day[4] as a federal holiday.[5] In 1993, this holiday was proposed at the federal level to Congress as H.J.R. #323 by Congressman Charles Rangel.[6] In 2015, the Illinois Senate unanimously passed the resolution for the official holiday designation where the law "... officially designated 'May 19, 2015, and every May 19 thereafter' as Malcolm X Day.[7] Though the resolution passed making the holiday official, the Illinois official list of holidays still has yet to reflect the holiday.[8]

Observances by state

State Current local observances
California Holiday marked with an official event in San Jose and San Francisco.[9] In Berkeley, California, there is currently a legal status on this holiday.[1] This holiday has been in place since 1979.[10][11]
District of Columbia Schools such as the Malcolm X Elementary School in Washington, D.C., mark this holiday through UPEACE, US's DCPEACE program.[12] The first known celebration of Malcolm X Day took place in Washington, D.C., in 1971.[13] Was once proposed as a holiday.
Florida Holiday marked with an official event in Jacksonville in the Historic Durkeville neighborhood. The events are marked with live performances and a parade.[14]
Georgia Holiday marked with festival since 1989 in Atlanta's West End Park.[15] Was once proposed as a holiday.
Illinois As of 2015, the holiday has a legal status in this state.[2]
Minnesota Malcolm X Day is celebrated with the Malcolm X Conference in Minneapolis.[16]
Missouri A house bill HB 172 was introduced to the state legislature for the observation of Malcolm X Day.[17][18]
Nebraska Malcolm X Day was celebrated in Malcolm X's birth city of Omaha starting in 1968.[19] The holiday was celebrated from 1968 until at least 1997, with official proclamations from the City of Omaha for several years.
New York Malcolm X Day is celebrated in the Harlem section of New York City with a music event.[20]
Ohio Malcolm X Day is celebrated with the "Malcolm X Heritage Festival" in Columbus, Ohio.[21]
Oregon Malcolm X Day is marked with a peaceful demonstration in Salem, Oregon.[22]
Pennsylvania Malcolm X Day became significant after the Ferguson riots. Events are marked with community activities in Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, and other places.[23][24][25]
Tennessee Malcolm X Day is celebrated in Nashville.[26]
Texas Malcolm X Day is celebrated in San Antonio.[27]
Washington Malcolm X Day is marked with a music festival at Umojafest.[28]
Wisconsin Malcolm X Day is celebrated with a general public event with speakers in Milwaukee.[29]

Origins

Malcolm X (/ˈmælkəm ˈɛks/) (born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), and also known as el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz[A] (Arabic: الحاجّ مالك الشباز‎), was an American Muslim minister and a human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.

See also

Other holidays honoring African Americans

Notes

  1. ^ This name includes the honorific El-Hajj, given on completion of the Hajj to Mecca. Malise Ruthven (1997). Islam: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-19-285389-9.

References

  1. ^ a b Malcolm X Day celebrated at namesake school
  2. ^ a b "Illinois Designates May 19 as Malcolm X Day".
  3. ^ "Malcolm X Day on May 19 Proposed for State of Illinois".#
  4. ^ "We Need a Malcolm X Day", Time, January 20, 2012
  5. ^ Does Malcolm X Deserve a Federal Holiday?
  6. ^ "H.J.RES.323 -- Whereas Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska; (Introduced in House - IH)".
  7. ^ Chambers, Bill (May 19, 2015). "Illinois Designates May 19 as Malcolm X Day". The Chicago Monitor. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
  8. ^ "Illinois State Holidays".
  9. ^ "San Jose: Claim Malcolm X Day San Jose".
  10. ^ Malcolm X Day — more than a day off?
  11. ^ City of Berkeley: 2012 Holiday and Reduced Service Days Schedule
  12. ^ Malcolm X Day
  13. ^ Gay, Kathlyn (2007). African-American Holidays, Festivals and Celebrations. Detroit: Omnigraphics. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-7808-0779-2.
  14. ^ "The Malcolm X Festival and Parade".
  15. ^ "Malcolm X Festival".
  16. ^ "Minnesota's 1st Annual Malcolm X Day".
  17. ^ "HB 172 -- MALCOLM X DAY COMMISSION".
  18. ^ "HOUSE BILL NO. 172 / 98th General Assembly" (PDF).
  19. ^ "A History of Omaha's Malcolm X Day".
  20. ^ "You Are Invited to Malcolm X's 90th Birthday Celebration in New York City".
  21. ^ "MALCOLM X HERITAGE FESTIVAL".
  22. ^ "SURJ on Malcolm X's Birthday at the Capitol in Salem, Oregon".
  23. ^ "Malcolm X Day".
  24. ^ "Community Day at Malcolm X Park in Philadelphia".
  25. ^ "Malcolm X Day Pittsburgh".
  26. ^ "2nd Annual Malcolm X Day Celebration".
  27. ^ "1st Annual From Malcolm to Me: A weekend celebration of the life and legacy of Malcolm X".
  28. ^ "Malcolm X Day Conference and Music Fest at Umojafest P.E.A.C.E. Center".
  29. ^ "Milwaukee: Malcolm X Day Celebration- Milwaukee!".

External links

American Family Day

American Family Day is the 14th state-recognized holiday in Arizona, Title 1-301. American Family Day, much like Mothers Day or Father's Day is a non-paid holiday established as a separate day to appreciate family members by spending time with them. Families are discouraged from buying gifts or other material items.

Arizona resident, John Makkai, is credited with pushing the holiday through the Arizona legislation. American Family Day began as a 1-year proclamation, signed by then Governor Raúl Héctor Castro, declaring August 7, 1977 American Family Day. The following year, American Family Day was signed into law as an official Arizona holiday by Governor Bruce Babbitt. The holiday also caught on in several other states, including North Carolina and Georgia.

From the Georgia Department of Education Parent Engagement Program, "American Family Day- this day brings families together to share their love and appreciation of one another."

Attallah Shabazz

Attallah Shabazz (born November 16, 1958) is the eldest daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz. She is an actress, author, ambassador, and motivational speaker.

Cesar Chavez Day

Cesar Chavez Day is a U.S. federal commemorative holiday, proclaimed by President Barack Obama in 2014. The holiday celebrates the birth and legacy of the civil rights and labor movement activist Cesar Chavez on March 31 every year.

Death of a Prophet

Death of a Prophet is a 1981 television film, written and directed by Woodie King Jr., and starring Morgan Freeman as Malcolm X.

Fred Korematsu Day

The Fred Korematsu Day of Civil Liberties and the Constitution is celebrated on January 30 in California to commemorate the birthday of Fred Korematsu, a Japanese-American civil rights activist (see Korematsu v. US). It is the first day in U.S. history named after an Asian American. It was signed into law by then-California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger on September 23, 2010.The day was first commemorated in 2011 at the University of California, Berkeley, as a day recognizing American civil liberties and rights under the Constitution of the United States. Educational materials were also distributed to school teachers for classroom use.The states of Hawaii (2013), Virginia (2015), and Florida (2016) have since followed suit and passed legislative bills recognizing Fred Korematsu Day in perpetuity.

Fred Korematsu Day was also celebrated in Illinois in 2014, but it isn't clear whether then-Gov. Pat Quinn's proclamation extended past the year. Georgia, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Utah have submitted resolutions honoring the day, and South Carolina has submitted a bill to their legislature.

Google recognized Fred Korematsu Day in 2017 with a Google Doodle by artist Sophie Diao, featuring a patriotic portrait of Korematsu wearing his Presidential Medal of Freedom, a scene of the internment camps to his back, surrounded by cherry blossoms, flowers that have come to be symbols of peace and friendship between the US and Japan.

Harriet Tubman Day

Harriet Tubman Day is an American holiday in honor of the anti-slavery activist Harriet Tubman, observed on March 10 in the whole country, and in the U.S. state of New York. Observances also occur locally around the U.S. state of Maryland.

Harvey Milk Day

Harvey Milk Day is organized by the Harvey Milk Foundation and celebrated each year on May 22 in memory of Harvey Milk, a gay rights activist assassinated in 1978. Harvey Milk was a prominent gay activist during the twentieth century. He ran for office three times before becoming the first openly gay person elected into California public office, where he acted as a city supervisor. Harvey Milk Day came about as a day to remember and teach about Milk's life and his work to stop the discrimination against gays and lesbians.

Lee–Jackson Day

Lee–Jackson Day is a legal holiday celebrated in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the U.S., for the birthdays of Confederate generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. The original holiday, created in 1889, celebrated Lee's birthday on January 19th. Jackson's name was added to the holiday in 1904; his birthday was January 21st.

In 1983, the holiday was merged with the new Federal holiday, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, as Lee–Jackson–King Day in Virginia. This merger was reversed in 2000.

Lee–Jackson Day is currently observed on the Friday that immediately precedes Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (the third Monday in January). Typical events include a wreath-laying ceremony with military honors, a Civil War themed parade, symposia, and a gala ball. State offices are closed for both holidays.Many Virginia cities, such as Charlottesville, Fairfax, Fredericksburg, Hampton, Newport News, Richmond, and Winchester, choose not to observe Lee–Jackson Day. In 2017, the Town of Blacksburg decided to stop observing the day as well.

Malcolm X

Malcolm X (May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965) was an American Muslim minister and human rights activist who was a popular figure during the civil rights movement. He is best known for his controversial advocacy for the rights of blacks; some consider him a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans, while others accused him of preaching racism and violence.

Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, he relocated to New York City's Harlem neighborhood in 1943, after spending his teenage years in a series of foster homes following his father's murder and his mother's hospitalization. In New York, Little engaged in several illicit activities, and was eventually sentenced to ten years in prison in 1946 for larceny and breaking and entering. In prison, he joined the Nation of Islam (NOI) and changed his name to Malcolm X. After his release, he quickly became one of the organization's most influential leaders after being paroled in 1952.

During the civil rights movement, Malcolm X served as the public face of the controversial group for a dozen years, where he advocated for black supremacy, the separation of black and white Americans, and rejected the notion of the civil rights movement for its emphasis on racial integration. He also expressed pride in some of the social achievements he made with the Nation, particularly its free drug rehabilitation program. In the 1950s, Malcolm X endured surveillance from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for the Nation's supposed links to communism.

In the 1960s, Malcolm X began to grow disillusioned with the Nation of Islam, and in particular, with its leader Elijah Muhammad. Expressing many regrets about his time with them, which he had come to regard as largely wasted, he instead embraced Sunni Islam. Malcolm X then began to advocate for racial integration and disavowed racism after completing Hajj, whereby he also became known as el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz. After a brief period of travel across Africa, he notably repudiated the Nation of Islam, and founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. (MMI) and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) to emphasize Pan-Africanism.

Throughout 1964, his conflict with the Nation of Islam intensified, and he was repeatedly sent death threats. On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was preparing to address the OAAU in Manhattan when he was assassinated by Thomas Hagan, Thomas Johnson, and Norman Butler, three members of the Nation of Islam. The trio were sentenced to indeterminate life sentences, and were required to serve a minimum of 20 years in prison. Conspiracy theories regarding the assassination, and whether it was conceived or aided by leading members of the Nation or with law enforcement agencies, have persisted for decades after the shooting.

Malcolm X was posthumously honored with Malcolm X Day, which commemorates him in various cities and countries worldwide. Hundreds of streets and schools in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, while the Audubon Ballroom, the site of his assassination, was in-part redeveloped in 2005 to accommodate the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center.

Malcolm X (soundtrack)

Malcolm X is the soundtrack to the 1992 Spike Lee film, Malcolm X.

National Aviation Day

The National Aviation Day (August 19) is a United States national observation that celebrates the development of aviation.

The holiday was established in 1939 by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who issued a presidential proclamation which designated the anniversary of Orville Wright's birthday to be National Aviation Day (Mr. Wright, born in 1871, was still alive when the proclamation was first issued, and would live another nine years). The proclamation was codified (USC 36:I:A:1:118), and it allows the sitting US President to proclaim August 19 as National Aviation Day each year, if desired. Their proclamation may direct all federal buildings and installations to fly the US flag on that day, and may encourage citizens to observe the day with activities that promote interest in aviation.

National Freedom Day

National Freedom Day is a United States observance on February 1 honoring the signing by Abraham Lincoln of a joint House and Senate resolution that later became the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. President Lincoln signed the Amendment outlawing slavery on February 1, 1865, although it was not ratified by the states until later.

Pan American Aviation Day

Pan American Aviation Day is a United States Federal Observance Day observed December 17. According to 36 U.S.C. § 134, on Pan American Aviation Day the president calls on "all officials of the United States Government, the chief executive offices of the States, territories, and possessions of the United States, and all citizens to participate in the observance of Pan American Aviation Day to further, and stimulate interest in, aviation in the American countries as an important stimulus to the further development of more rapid communications and a cultural development between the countries of the Western Hemisphere."The date commemorates the first successful flight of a mechanically propelled heavier-than-air craft, accomplished on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Robert E. Lee Day

Robert E. Lee Day, also called Lee's Birthday, is a public holiday commemorating the birth of Robert E. Lee, observed each year on the third Monday in January. Because Lee was the General in Chief of the Armies of the Confederacy, it is mainly observed in the U.S. South, particularly in Alabama and Mississippi.Although Lee's actual birthdate, January 19, 1807, remains a legal holiday in the Florida statute books,celebrated every year on that day, by and large it is not observed. In Alabama and Mississippi, it is celebrated together with Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. Arkansas combined the observance of Robert E. Lee Day with Martin Luther King, Jr. Day in 1985, after two years of requiring state employees to select between the two holidays or their own birthday as a day off from work. In 2017, it passed a law removing General Lee's name from the January holiday and instead establishing a state memorial day on the second Saturday of October in honor of Lee.

Susan B. Anthony Day

Susan B. Anthony Day is a commemorative holiday to celebrate the birth of Susan B. Anthony and women's suffrage in the United States. The holiday is February 15—Anthony's birthday.

Women's Equality Day

Women's Equality Day is celebrated in the United States on August 26 to commemorate the 1920 adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution, which prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex. It was first celebrated in 1973 and is proclaimed each year by the United States President.

Wright Brothers Day

Wright Brothers Day (December 17) is a United States national observation. It is codified in the US Code, and commemorates the first successful flights in a heavier-than-air, mechanically propelled airplane, that were made by Orville and Wilbur Wright on December 17, 1903, near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. On September 24, 1959 U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower declared December 17 to be Wright Brothers Day.Wright Brothers Day was announced as an official commemorative day in Ohio, on October 5, 2011, celebrating 100 years of practical flight for the Wright Brothers.

X, The Life and Times of Malcolm X

X, The Life and Times of Malcolm X is an opera with music by Anthony Davis and libretto by Thulani Davis. Based on the life of the civil rights leader Malcolm X. The opera premiered in a semi-staged production in Philadelphia in 1985 and received its first fully staged production at the New York City Opera in 1986.

X-Day

X-Day may refer to:

Malcolm X Day

X-Day (Church of the SubGenius), a festival associated with the Church of the SubGenius

X-Day (manga), a 2002 manga written by Setona Mizushiro

March 20, 2003 anti-war protest, a protest against the Iraq War

The first day of Operation Downfall, the planned Allied invasion of Japan during World War II

X Day (musical), a musical by Akinori Nakagawa

Yomei Kensaku Sābisu X-Day, a 1993 Namco arcade game

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