Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army

The Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army (Chinese: 马来亚人民抗日军; abbreviated MPAJA) was a paramilitary group that was active during the Japanese occupation of Malaya from 1942 to 1945. Composed mainly of ethnic Chinese guerrilla fighters, the MPAJA was the biggest anti-Japanese resistance group in Malaya. Founded on 18 December 1941 during the Japanese invasion of Malaya, the MPAJA was conceived as a part of a combined effort by the Malayan Communist Party (MCP), British colonial government, and various anti-Japanese groups to resist the Japanese occupation of Malayan territory. Although the MPAJA and the MCP were officially different organisations, many saw the MPAJA as a de facto armed wing of the MCP due to its leadership being staffed by mostly ethnic Chinese communists.[2] Many of the ex-guerrillas of the MPAJA would later join the MCP in its open conflict with the BMA during the Malayan Emergency.[3]

Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army
马来亚人民抗日军
Participant in the Anti-Japanese resistance movement in Malaya during World War II
The British Reoccupation of Malaya SE5878
MPAJA guerrillas marching through the street of Johor Bahru during their disbandment ceremony in December 1945.
ActiveDecember 1941 – December 1945
IdeologyCommunism
Political positionFar-left
LeadersLai Teck, Chin Peng
Area of operationsJapanese-occupied Malaya and Singapore
Size~6,500 (claimed); 10,000 (estimated)[1]
Opponent(s) Empire of Japan
Battles and war(s)World War II
Flag of the MPAJA
Flag of the Malayan Peoples' Anti Japanese Army

Background

Rise of anti-Japanese sentiments and the Malayan Communist Party

Anti-Japanese feelings among the Chinese community in Malaya first began in 1931, with the Japanese invasion and annexation of Manchuria. Anti-Japanese sentiments reached new heights again when a formal full-scale war was declared between Japan and China in 1937.

Due to its leading role in promoting strong anti-Japanese and anti-Imperialist sentiments, the MCP enjoyed huge support from the Chinese community in Malaya. More importantly, many young Chinese were attracted to the communists because they believed the MCP represented a system that would oppose Japan and her imperialist expansionism. The anti-Japanese movement naturally attracted more support from the Malayan Chinese than the other races, hence resulting in Chinese dominance of the MCP leadership.

Forming a united front

While being anti-Japanese, the MCP was also involved in its local struggle against British Imperialism in Malaya. However, political developments in 1941 prompted the MCP to withhold its hostilities against the British and seek co-operation instead. First of all, war between the Soviet Union and Germany had made the Soviets join the Allies against the Axis powers which included Japan. Additionally, the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had formed a united front against the Japanese invasion in mainland China. As a communist organisation closely associated with the CCP and the Soviet Union, the MCP had to alter its stance towards the British as the Soviets and CCP became wartime allies with them.[4] Secondly, the MCP viewed the imminent Japanese invasion of Malaya as a greater threat than the British.[3] Therefore, an offer of mutual co-operation against a potential Japanese aggression was first made in July 1941 to the British.[3] However, the offer was rejected as British officials felt that recognising the MCP would give them an unnecessary boost in legitimising its nationalist agenda[5]

Nevertheless, the eventual Japanese invasion of Malaya on 8 December 1941 presented the MCP another opportunity to seek co-operation with the British. After the Japanese forces made rapid gains against the British defences in Malaya, the MCP came out publicly to support the British war effort, encouraging Malayan Chinese to pledge their assistance to the British. As the British faced further military setbacks with the sinking of its battleships Prince of Wales and Repulse, the British finally accepted the MCP's offer of assistance on 18 December 1941.[3] A secret meeting was held in Singapore between British officers and two MCP representatives, one of whom was Lai Teck, the MCP's secretary general.[3]

The agreement between the MCP and the British was that the MCP would recruit, and the British would provide training to resistance groups. Also, the trained resistance fighters would be used as the British Military Command saw fit.[6] The recruits were to undergo training in sabotage and guerrilla warfare at the 101 Special Training School (STS) in Singapore, operated by the Malayan wing of the London-based Special Operations Executive (SOE).[3] On 19 December 1941, the MCP also brought together various anti-Japanese groups, organisations such as the KMT and the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, under a broad front called the "Overseas Chinese Anti-Japanese Mobilisation Federation" (OCAJMF) with Tan Kah Kee as the leader of its "Mobilisation Council".[3][4] The OCAJMF became a platform to recruit Chinese volunteer soldiers to form an independent force, which would be later known as Dalforce. The MCP contributed the most soldiers to Dalforce, although it had also received volunteers from the KMT and other independent organisations.[3] Dalforce was disbanded upon Singapore's surrender to the Japanese on 14 February 1942.

MPAJA during the Japanese occupation (1942–1945)

Birth of the Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA)

The 101 Special Training School may be regarded as the birthplace of the MPAJA.[5] A total of 165 party members were selected by the MCP to participate in the training, which began on 21 December 1941.[5] The training was rushed through, with individual courses lasting only ten days and a total of 7 classes. Receiving only basic training and poorly-equipped, these graduated recruits would be sent across the peninsular to operate as independent squads.[5] The first batch of 15 recruits was sent near Kuala Lumpur, where they had some success in disrupting Japanese communication lines in northern Selangor.[4] However, many were killed within the first few months of fighting, but the surviving ones went on to form the core leadership of the MPAJA and train new recruits. In March 1942, after liaising with the Central Committee of the MCP, these graduates of the 101 STS would officially form the First Independent Force of the MPAJA.[4]

Going underground

The MCP decided to go underground as British defences collapsed quickly in the face of the Japanese army's onslaught. A policy of armed resistance throughout the occupation was declared by all top-ranking MCP members at a final meeting in Singapore in February 1942.[4] This decision proved beneficial to the MCP's political and military advancement, as they were the only political organisation prepared to commit itself to a policy of active anti-Japanese insurgency. After the fall of Singapore resistance forces were cut off from external assistance. The lack of proper equipment and training had forced the MPAJA to go on the defensive. Hanrahan describes the early months of the MPAJA as "an all-out struggle for bare survival. Most of the Chinese guerillas were ill-prepared, both mentally and physically, to live in the jungle, and the toll from disease, desertions, enemy attacks and insanity increased by the day".[7] At the end of 18 months, an estimated one-third of the entire guerrilla force perished.[4]

Nevertheless, the harsh and brutal treatment of the Chinese by the Japanese occupation forces drove many Chinese to the relative safety of the jungle. The desire for revenge against the Japanese inspired many young Chinese to enlist with the MPAJA guerrillas, thus ensuring a steady supply of recruits to maintain the resistance effort despite suffering from heavy losses.[5]

Lai Teck's betrayal and the Batu Caves massacre

Unbeknownst to the leadership of the MCP, the MCP Secretary-General and MPAJA leader Lai Teck was a double agent working for the British Special Branch.[3] Subsequently, he became triple-agent working for the Japanese after his arrest by the Kempeitai in early March 1942. There were many different accounts of how Lai Teck was caught by the Kempeitai and his subsequent agreement to collaborate with the Japanese. In his book Red Star Over Malaya, Cheah Boon Keng describes Lai Teck's arrest as such:

"Lai Teck was arrested by the Kempeitai in Singapore in early March 1942. Through the interpreter Lee Yem Kong, a former photographer in Johor, Major Onishi and Lai Teck struck a bargain. They agreed that Lai Teck would give the names of the MCP's top executives and gather them in one place where they could be liquidated by the Japanese. In return, Lai Teck's life would be spared and he could earn a considerable sum of money. Towards the end of April he walked out of Kempeitai headquarters 'a free man with a bundle of dollars in his pocket'. Contact was thereafter to be established at a certain cafe in Orchard Road, or Lai Teck would call on his bicycle at the home of Lee Yem Kong, who acted as interpreter for Warrant Officer Shimomura, the man present to receive all information."[3]

In August 1942 Lai Teck arranged for a full meeting which included the MCP's Central Executive Committee, state party officials, and a group leaders of the MPAJA at the Batu Caves, about ten miles from Kuala Lumpur. The party meeting was then held in a small village near the caves. At daybreak of 1 September 1942, Japanese forces surrounded and attacked the village where the MCP and MPAJA leaders were resting. Caught by surprise, the ambush ended with 92 members of the resistance dead.[4] Among those who were killed, 29 were top-ranking party officials which included 4 MPAJA "Political Commissars".[3] The Batu Caves Massacre had effectively wiped out the entire pre-war leadership of the MCP and influential members of the MPAJA.

Revival and expansion

The untimely deaths in the MCP and MPAJA hierarchy provided an opportunity for a new breed of leaders to emerge. Among this new generation of leaders was Chin Peng, who would eventually become leader of the MCP and one of the key figures in the post-war conflict with the British government of Malaya. Another individual would be Liao Wei-chung, also known as Colonel Itu, who commanded the MPAJA 5th Independent Regiment from 1943 till the end of the war.[5]

By late 1943 many of the veteran Japanese soldiers were replaced by fresh units which were less successful in executing counter-insurgency operations against the MPAJA. Meanwhile, the MPAJA were able to gain sympathy and widespread support among the Chinese communities in Malaya, who supplied them with food, supplies, intelligence and also fresh recruits. The main link and support organisation which backed the MPAJA was the Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Union (MPAJU). The MPAJU pursued an open policy of recruiting people regardless of race, class, and political belief as long as they were against the Japanese regime.[3] Therefore, members of the MPAJU were not necessarily Chinese or communists.

The MPAJA recruited manpower by organising volunteer units called the Ho Pi Tui (Reserves) in villages, towns and districts. These volunteers were not required to leave their local areas unless they were called up. After a 2-month course in the jungle, they were sent back to their villages and left under the control of village elders or other trusted community representatives to provide self-defense in the villages.[4] By the end of 1944, the MPAJA had increased their membership to over 7,000 soldiers.[5]

Contact with Force 136

After the fall of Singapore, the MPAJA had lost contact with the British command in Southeast Asia. The British attempted to reestablish communications by landing army agents in Malaya by submarine. The first party, consisting of Colonel John Davis and five Chinese agents from the Special Operations Executive organisation called Force 136, landed on the Perak coast on 24 May 1943 from a Dutch submarine.[4] Other groups followed, including Lim Bo Seng, a prominent Straits-born Chinese businessman and KMT supporter who volunteered to join the Force 136 Malayan Unit.[4] On 1 January 1944, MPAJA leaders arrived at the Force 136 camp at Bukit Bidor and entered into discussions with the Force 136 officers.[8] The MPAJA agreed to accept the British Army's orders while the war with Japan lasted in return for arms, money, training, and supplies.[3] It was also agreed that at the end of the war, all weapons supplied by Force 136 would be handed back to British authorities, and all MPAJA fighters would disarm and return to civilian life.[4]

However, Force 136 was unable to keep several pre-planned rendezvous with its submarines, and had lost its wireless sets; the result was that Allied command did not hear of the agreement until 1 February 1945, and it was only during the last months of the war that the British were able to supply the MPAJA by air.[3] Between December 1944 and August 1945, the number of air drops totalled more than 1000, with 510 men and £1.5 million worth of equipment and supplies parachuted into Malaya.[4]

End of Japanese occupation

For the MPAJA, the period from 1944 until the end of the war in August 1945 was characterised as one of both "consolidation" and continued growth.[3] With the Japanese surrender on 15 August 1945, an "interregnum" followed which marked a period of lawlessness and unrest before the delayed arrival of the British forces.[3] During this time, the MPAJA focused its efforts on seizing control of territory across Malaya and punishing "collaborators" of the Japanese regime.[4] Many of the "collaborators" were ethnic Malays, many of whom the Japanese employed as policemen. Although the MCP and MPAJA consistently espoused non-racial policies, the fact that their members came predominantly from the Chinese community caused their reprisals against Malays who had collaborated to be a source of racial tension. As a result, interracial clashes involving the Chinese-dominated MPAJA and Malay settlers were frequent. For example, the Malays in Sungai Manik in Perak, fought with the MPAJA and local Chinese settlers after the MPAJA attempted to take over Sungai Manik and other neighbouring towns. Fighting continued until the arrival of the British army in September.[3]

Post-war

Return of British rule

The British Reoccupation of Malaya SE5882
British Brigadier J J McCully inspects men of the 4th Regiment of the MPAJA guerrillas at Johor Bahru after the end of war in 1945.

The British Military Administration (BMA) formally took over control of Malaya on 12 September 1945. The British army saw the MPAJA guerrillas as hindrance to their tasks of establishing law and order in the country and were anxious to demobilise the MPAJA as soon as possible. Fearing that the MPAJA might challenge British authority, the British army ordered all MPAJA units to concentrate in certain centres and to come under its overall command.[3] Force 136 officers would continue to be liaison officers with the MPAJA. The BMA also declared the MPAJA no longer operational after 12 September, although they were allowed to remain armed until negotiations were finalised for their disarmament. Additionally, the MPAJA was not allowed to conduct further extrajudicial punishment on collaborators without permission from the British authorities.[3]

Disbandment of the MPAJA

The British Reoccupation of Malaya SE5883
Thousands of MPAJA guerrillas during their disbandment ceremony in Kuala Lumpur after the end of war in 1945.

The MPAJA was formally dissolved on 1 December 1945. A gratuity sum of $350 was paid to each disbanded member of the MPAJA, with the option for him to enter civilian employment or to join the police, volunteer forces or the Malay Regiment.[3] 5,497 weapons were handed in by 6,800 guerrillas in demobilisation ceremonial parades held at MPAJA headquarters around the country.[4] However, it was believed that the MPAJA did not proceed to disarm with full compliance. British authorities discovered that most of the surrendered arms were old-type weapons and suspected that the MPAJA hid the newer weapons in the jungles. One particular incident reinforced this suspicion when the British army stumbled upon an armed Chinese settlement that had its own governing body, military drilling facilities and flag while conducting a raid on one of the old MPAJA encampments. Members of this settlement open fired at the British soldiers on sight, and the skirmish ended with one Chinese man dead.[3]

Post-disarmament influence

Nevertheless, after the formal demobilisation of the MPAJA, associations for demobilised personnel, known as the Malayan Peoples Anti-Japanese Ex-Service Comrades Association, were established in areas where regiments had operated.[4] The president and vice-president of the associations were the same men who commanded the MPAJA regiments in their respective areas. In other words, the leadership structure of these veteran clubs mirrored that of the former MPAJA. Although there was no direct evidence that all leaders of these associations were communists, representatives of these veteran clubs participated in meetings with communist-sponsored groups that passed political resolutions.[3] Cheah Boon Keng argues that these ex-guerrilla associations would later become well-organised military arms for the MCP during its open conflict with the BMA in 1948.[3]

Organisation

Organisational set-up

Between 1942 and 1945, the MPAJA had a total of 8 independent regiments as follows:[8]

Independent Regiments Place of Origin Date of Inception Leaders
1st Selangor December 1941 Chen Tian Ching
Chou Yan Pin (1945)
2nd Negri Sembilan April 1942 Lai Loi Fook
Teng Fu Long (1945)
3rd Johor (North) January 1942 Xiao Yang
Wu Ke Xiong (1945)
4th Johor (South) January 1942 Ah Fu
Chen Tien (1945)
5th Perak December 1942 Lai Loi Fook
Liao Wei Chung (1945)
6th Pahang (West) and Terengganu August 1943 Zeng Guan Biao
Wang Ching (1945)
7th Pahang (East) November 1944 Chang Chi
Chuang Ching (1945)
8th Kedah and Perlis 15 August 1945 He Xiao Li

All eight independent regiments took orders from the Central Military Committee of the MCP.[8] Therefore, the MPAJA was de facto controlled by the Communist leadership. Each MPAJA regiment comprised five or six patrols, and the average regimental strength was between 400 and 500 members.[3] The 5th Regiment was considered the strongest under the leadership of Chin Peng, then-Perak State Secretary of the MCP, and Colonel Itu (aka Liao Wei Chung).

Membership and life in the MPAJA

There was no class distinction in the MPAJA. Each member addressed each other simply as "comrade", including the Chairman of the Central Military Committee. Although the MPAJA was directly controlled by the MCP leadership, many members were not communists, contrary to popular belief.[3] Many had signed up for the MPAJA because of their resentment towards the Japanese army's brutal treatment of civilians.

When not engaged in guerrilla activities, a typical life in an MPAJA camp consisted of military drilling, political education, cooking, collection of food supplies, and cultural affairs.[3] The soldiers organised gatherings and invited residents, particularly the young, to participate in singing and drama events. Whenever these activities were going on, guards armed with machine-guns would be stationed at main exits of villages to keep a look-out for Japanese soldiers. The objectives of such activities was to demonstrate the strength of the group and instill public confidence.[8]

Personal accounts by British army officers who lived side-by-side with MPAJA guerrillas during the war revealed MPAJA cadres as “disciplined people” who had “great seriousness of purpose”. The MCP/MPAJA leader, Chin Peng, was also labelled as a man “with a reputation for fair dealing”. Also, the MPAJA in Perak was said to enjoy good relations with the aborigines, or Orang Asli, who “held a party for MPAJA forces” on New Year’s Eve.[9]

While the MPAJA was officially a multi-racial organisation, membership was made up predominantly by Chinese. Mandarin was the lingua franca of the MPAJA, although concessions to the Malay, Tamil, and English languages were made in some of the propaganda news-sheets published by the MPAJA's propaganda bureau.[3] Nevertheless, there were token numbers of Malay and Indians among their ranks. In Lim Pui Huen’s book, War and Memory in Malaysia and Singapore, an Indian war survivor Ramasamy recalled that “in the plantations, news of guerilla activities were often a great joy to the [Indian] laborers”, and that the Indian MPAJA leaders like “Perumal and Muniandy were looked upon… as heroes because they punish the estate kirani”.[10]

The total strength of the MPAJA at the time of demobilisation was said to be between 6,000 and 7,000 soldiers.[3]

Objectives of the MPAJA

The true objectives of the MPAJA remains a debatable issue. While officially the MPAJA was an organisation formed to resist the Japanese invasion, the true motives behind its formation has often been touted by historians as an elaborate ploy by MCP to create an armed force that would resist British imperialism after the end of the Japanese Occupation of Malaya.

In Ban and Yap’s book Rehearsal for War: The Underground War against the Japanese, both authors argued that “while the MCP cooperated with the British against the more immediate threat from the Japanese, it never detracted from its aim of seizing power” and that its ultimate aim “right from the formation of the party in April 1930… is a communist Malaya”.[5] Although the MPAJA was officially a separate organisation from the MCP, it was claimed that “from the start the Malayan Communist Party sought to exert an authoritarian and direct control…with Liu Yao as Chairman to oversee the activities and direction of the MPAJA”.[5] The Central Military Commission, which was “reorganized to take full control of the MPAJA”, was headed by MCP leaders “Lai Teck, Liu Yao and Chin Peng”.[5] Furthermore, the MPAJA deliberately kept “open and secret field units”, whereby “portions of the MPAJA field units were carefully kept out of sight, husbanded as reserves for a future conflict.”[5] One example was the comparison between the “open” 5th Independent Regiment based in Perak which was the strongest and most active in Malaya, and the “secret” 6th Regiment in Pahang which was as well-equipped but “had a less aggressive stance”.[5] In fact, according to Ban and Yap, “within a year of the fall of Malaya it was obvious [to the MCP]… that the return of the British was inevitable” and that the “MCP was ready to contend with its former colonial rulers.”[5] Although “clashes between the MPAJA and the Japanese Occupation Army occurred, these never threatened the overall Japanese control of the peninsula” as the “MPAJA was conserving its resources for the real war against colonialism once the Japanese were evicted.”[5] Therefore, the authors suggest that the MPAJA’s main enemy was all along the British, and its main purpose was to wrestle independence from the British rather than to resist the Japanese.

Cheah Boon Kheng’s Red Star Over Malaya also echos Ban and Yap’s argument. Cheah acknowledges that the MPAJA was under control of the MCP, with the “Central Military Committee of the MCP acted as supreme command of the MPAJA.”[3] Cheah also agrees that the MCP harboured hidden motives while agreeing to co-operate with the British against the Japanese by holding on to its “secret strategy of ‘Establish the Malayan Democratic Republic’”, “ready to take advantage of the opportunity to expel the British from Malaya as soon as practicable”.[3]

On the other hand, historian Lee Ting Hui argues against the popular notion that the MCP had planned to use the MPAJA to invoke an armed struggle against the British. In his book The Open United Front: The Communist Struggle in Singapore he asserts that the MCP “was pursuing the objective of a new democratic revolution” and had “preferred to operate in the open and in conformity with the law”.[2] The MCP had adopted Mao Tze Dong’s strategy of a “peaceful struggle”, which was to take over the countryside and get “workers, peasants and others” to conduct “strikes, acts of sabotage, demonstrations, etc.”[2] Following Mao’s doctrine, the MPAJA would “forge alliance with its secondary enemy against the primary enemy” in which secondary enemy referred to the British and the primary enemy was the Japanese. Therefore, during the war, the “MCP’s only target was the Japanese”.[2]

Contribution to the war

Casualty figures provided by both MPAJA and Japanese sources differed greatly:[3][4][5]

MPAJA claim Japanese claim
Japanese forces casualties 5,500 Japanese soldiers
2,500 collaborators
600 Japanese soldiers
2,000 local volunteers
MPAJA casualties 1,000 MPAJA 2,900 MPAJA
Total 8,000 Japanese forces
1,000 MPAJA
2,600 Japanese forces
2,900 MPAJA

With regards to the MPAJA's contribution to the war, here are some assessments given by historians:

Cheah, in his assessment of the military results of the MPAJA insurgency, says that "British accounts have reported that the guerrillas carried out a number of military engagements against Japanese installations. The MPAJA's own account claims its guerrillas undertook 340 individual operations against the Japanese during the occupation, of which 230 were considered "major" efforts -- "major" meaning involving an entire regiment."[3] The MPAJA claimed to have eliminated 5,500 Japanese troops while losing 1,000 themselves. The Japanese claimed that their losses (killed and wounded) were 600 of their own troops and 2000 local police, and that the MPAJA losses were 2,900. Cheah believes that the Japanese report is probably more reliable, although only approximate.[3]

Ban and Yap agree with Cheah in his figures, mentioning that the MPAJA "claimed it had eliminated 5,500 Japanese soldiers and about 2,500 'traitors' while admitting that they had lost some 1,000 men".[5] On the other hand, the Japanese released their "own figures of 600 killed or wounded and 2,000 casualties from their volunteer forces".[5] They also claimed to have "killed some 2,900 members of the MPAJA".[5] However, Ban and Yap feel that the Japanese might have "under-reported their casualties as the MPAJA had always been depicted as a band of ragged bandits who could pose no threat to the Imperial Army".[5] Also, they noted that towards the end of the war the "guerrillas were matching the Japanese blow for blow" and "Japanese records admitted that they suffered some 506 casualties in one of the attacks while 550 guerrillas were killed".[5]

Cooper mentions similar casualty figures of both MPAJA and Japanese accounts in his book Decade of Change: Malaya and the Straits Settlements 1936-1945, but nevertheless suggests that the “value of the MPAJA to the Allied cause is debatable” and describes their strategy as “tantalizing [the Japanese], invariably disappearing into the depths of the jungle whenever the Japanese tried to engage them” because they were “little or no match against the Japanese”.[4] He goes even further to add that the MPAJA’s contribution “is no more than a minor irritant and certainly no strategic threat to the Japanese".[4]

On the other hand, Tie and Zhong felt that "if the atomic bomb had not put an abrupt end to the 'war and peace' problems, the anti-Japanese force could have achieved even more".[8]

References

  1. ^ Wong Heng (2002). "Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army". National Library Board, Singapore. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d Lee, T. H. (1996). The Basic Aims or Objectives of the Malayan Communist Movement. In T. H. Lee, The Open United Front: The Communist Struggle in Singapore (pp. 2-29). Singapore : South Seas Society.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Cheah, B. (1983). Red Star Over Malaya. Singapore: Singapore University Press.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Cooper, B. (1998). The Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and the Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA). In B. Cooper, Decade of Change: Malaya and the Straits Settlements 1936-1945 (pp. 426-464). Singapore: Graham Brash.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Ban, K. C., & Yap, H. (2002). Rehearsal for War: The Underground War against the Japanese. Singapore: Horizon Books.
  6. ^ Chapman, Spencer (2003). The Jungle Is Neutral. Guilford, Connecticut: Globe Pequot Press.
  7. ^ Hanrahan, Gene (1971). The Communist Struggle in Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.
  8. ^ a b c d e Tie, Y., & Zhong, C. (1995). An Account of the Anti-Japanese War Fought Jointly by the British Government and MPAJA. In C. H. Foong, & C. Show, The Price of Peace: True Accounts of the Japanese Occupation (pp. 45-63). Singapore: Asiapac Books.
  9. ^ Bayly, C., & Harper, T. (2004). Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945. London: Penguin Group.
  10. ^ Lim, P., & Wong, D. (2000). War and Meory in Malaysia and Singapore. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
Battle of Kuala Lumpur

The Battle of Kuala Lumpur was a battle between Japanese invasion forces and the British forces in Kuala Lumpur, then capital of the-Federated Malay States, a British protectorate.

Bombing of Singapore (1944–1945)

The Bombing of Singapore (1944–1945) was a military campaign conducted by the Allied air forces during World War II. United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) long-range bomber units conducted 11 air raids on Japanese-occupied Singapore between November 1944 and March 1945. Most of these raids targeted the island's naval base and dockyard facilities, and minelaying missions were conducted in nearby waters. After the American bombers were redeployed, the British Royal Air Force assumed responsibility for minelaying operations near Singapore and these continued until 24 May 1945.

The raids had mixed results. While significant damage was inflicted on Singapore's important naval base and commercial port, some raids on these targets were not successful and other attacks on oil storage facilities on islands near Singapore were ineffective. The minelaying campaign disrupted Japanese shipping in the Singapore area and resulted in the loss of three vessels and damage to a further ten, but was not decisive. The Allied air attacks were successful in raising the morale of Singapore's civilian population, who believed that the raids marked the impending liberation of the city. The overall number of civilian casualties from the bombings was low, though civilian workers were killed during attacks on military facilities; one attack rendered hundreds of people homeless.

Circumstances prior to the Malayan Emergency

In 1948, the Communists and the British colonial government in Malaya entered a period of guerrilla fighting which has become known to history as the Malayan Emergency.

The name derives from the state of emergency declared by the colonial administration in June 1948 to extend the powers of the police and military. The state of emergency was officially lifted in July 1960.

In the broadest context, the events leading to the emergency include the following:

The establishment of British hegemony over Malaya in the 19th century.

The importation of large numbers of Chinese and Indians as labourers for colonial industry, primarily tin mining and rubber planting.

The formation of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) in the 1930s.

The rout by the Japanese of the British in the early part of World War II. For many Malayans this dispelled a myth of British omnipotence.

The rise of the MCP-led Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) as the main resistance against the Japanese during their period of occupation.This article focuses on the immediate antecedents to the Emergency, beginning shortly after the Japanese surrender and British reoccupation in August and September 1945.

Dalforce

Dalforce, or the Singapore Overseas Chinese Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army (星华义勇军; Xinghua Yi Yong Jun) was an irregular forces/guerrilla unit within the British Straits Settlements Volunteer Force during World War II. Its members were recruited among the ethnic Chinese people of Singapore. It was created on 25 December 1941 by Lieutenant Colonel John Dalley of the Federated Malay States Police Force. The unit was known to the British colonial administration as Dalforce, after its chief instructor and commanding officer, John Dalley, whereas the Chinese in Singapore only knew it as the Singapore Overseas Chinese Anti-Japanese Volunteer Army. This formation took part in the Battle of Singapore and some members conducted a guerrilla campaign against Japanese forces during the Japanese occupation.

The British noted how ferociously the Chinese volunteers in Dalforce fought, earning them the nickname Dalley's Desperadoes.

Ferret Force

Ferret Force was a counter-insurgency unit formed by the British and Malayan authorities as part of their response to the communist insurgency during the Malayan Emergency. The unit only existed for six months, but was to help establish doctrine for British operations in the jungle.

Freddie Spencer Chapman

Frederick Spencer Chapman, DSO & Bar, ED (10 May 1907 – 8 August 1971) was a British Army officer and World War II veteran, most famous for his exploits behind enemy lines in Japanese occupied Malaya. His medals include the following: the Distinguished Service Order and Bar, the Polar Medal, Gill Memorial Medal, Mungo Park Medal, and the Lawrence of Arabia Memorial Medal.

Harun Idris

Dato' Seri Harun bin Haji Idris (22 December 1925 – 19 October 2003) was a Malaysian politician and the 8th Menteri Besar of Selangor. Apart from his career in politics, Harun Idris (as he is informally known) was heavily involved in sports particularly organising the Muhammad Ali vs Joe Bugner fight in Kuala Lumpur as well as overseeing Malaysia and Selangor football teams most successful periods. Harun was the president of the Football Association Selangor from 1961-1983 and was the manager of the Malaysian National team in the 1972 Olympics. Harun is widely acknowledged to be responsible for unearthing some of Malaysia’s best talents such as Dato Santokh Singh, Dato Soh Chin Aun and even the late Mokhar Dahari.

Index of World War II articles (M)

M-1941 Field Jacket

M-24 (Japanese midget submarine)

M B Etheredge

M-class minesweeper (Germany)

M Special Unit

M. A. Yegorov

M. R. D. Foot

M. Z. Kiani

Maori Battalion

Möbelwagen

Möhne Reservoir

Mörser Karl

MÁVAG Heja I/II

M1 bayonet

M1 carbine

M1 Garand rifle

M1 Helmet

M1 mine

M10 tank destroyer

M101 howitzer

M114 155 mm howitzer

M115 203 mm howitzer

M116 howitzer

M12 Gun Motor Carriage

M15/42 tank

M18 Hellcat

M1903 Springfield rifle

M1905 bayonet

M1911 pistol

M1917 Browning machine gun

M1917 Enfield rifle

M1917 revolver

M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle

M1919 Browning machine gun

M1938 mortar

M1941 Johnson machine gun

M1941 Johnson rifle

M1942 bayonet

M2 Browning machine gun

M2 flamethrower

M2 Half Track Car

M2 Hyde

M2 Light Tank

M2 Medium Tank

M22 Locust

M24 Chaffee

M26 Pershing

M29 Weasel

M3 GMC

M3 Half-track

M3 Lee

M3 Scout Car

M3 submachine gun

M36 tank destroyer

M38 Wolfhound

M39 Pantserwagen

M4 Sherman variants

M4 Sherman

M40 Gun Motor Carriage

M42 Truppenfahrad

M50 Reising submachine gun

M6 Fargo

M6 heavy tank

M7 Priest

M8 Greyhound

Ma clique

Ma Zhanshan

MAB Model D pistol

Mabillon (Paris Métro)

MAC 1934

Mac Speedie

MacArthur (film)

Macchi C.200

Macchi C.202

Macchi C.205

Macelj massacre

Machijiri Kazumoto

Machtergreifung

Maciej Aleksy Dawidowski

Maciej Kalenkiewicz

Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion

MacRobert's Reply

Madagascar Plan

Madame de Pompadour

Madeleine (Paris Métro)

Madeleine Damerment

Madeleine Renaud

Madelyn Dunham

Mademoiselle Fleury

Mademoiselle Mars

Madge Oberholtzer

Madonna of Chancellor Rolin

Madsen machine gun

Maeda Ku-1

Maeda Ku-6

Magda Goebbels

Magda Herzberger

Magda Trocmé, see André and Magda Trocmé

Magdolna Purgly

Magenta (Paris RER)

Magic (cryptography)

Maginot Line

Magnar Solberg

Magne Thomassen

Magneto (comics)

Magnum crimen

Magnus von Braun

Mahamadou Dissa

Maiales

Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees

Main Line of Resistance

Main Street Electrical Parade

Main Street, U.S.A.

Mairie d'Issy (Paris Métro)

Mairie de Clichy (Paris Métro)

Mairie de Montreuil (Paris Métro)

Mairie des Lilas (Paris Métro)

Maison Blanche (Paris Métro)

Maison de la Chimie

Maison de la Mutualité

Maison de Verre

Maison de Victor Hugo

Maisons-Laffitte (SNCF)

Maisons-Laffitte Racecourse

Maisons Jaoul

Maizuru Naval Arsenal

Maizuru Naval District

Maja Bogdanović

Majdanek

Major Zemo

Majors Airport (Texas)

Makan Dioumassi

Makapili

Makin Island raid

Making History (novel)

Making History: The Calm & The Storm

Maks Baće Milić

Maksim Purkayev

Maksymilian Ciężki

Mal Aldrich

Mala Zimetbaum

Malabar Battery

Malakand Field Force

Malaya (film)

Malaya Zemlya

Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army

Malchiel Gruenwald

Malchow concentration camp

Malcolm C. Grow

Malcolm David Wanklyn

Malcolm Lewis Pratt

Malcolm Milne

Malcolm Munthe

Malcolm Nokes

Malcolm Wilson (New York)

Male Call

Malesherbes (Paris Métro)

Malgré-nous

Malinta Tunnel

Malken Mierzynek

Malmedy massacre trial

Malmedy massacre

Malta Conference (1945)

Malta Convoys

Malta Story

Maly Trostenets extermination camp

Malèna

Mamadou Bagayoko

Mamadou Diallo (Malian footballer)

Mamadou Konte

Mamadou Sakho

Mamary Traoré

Mamayev Kurgan

Mamert Stankiewicz

Mamie Eisenhower

Mamoru Oshii

Mamoru Shigemitsu

Man's Search for Meaning

Man Hunt (1941 film)

Man Ray (bar)

Manchester Blitz

Manchukuo Air Force

Manchukuo Film Association

Manchukuo Imperial Army

Manchukuo Imperial Guards

Manchukuo Imperial Navy

Manchukuo National Airways

Manchukuo yuan

Manchukuo

Manchuria national football team

Manchurian Industrial Development Company

Manci Howard, Lady Howard of Effingham

Manfred Eigen

Manfred Freiherr von Killinger

Manfred Roeder

Manfred Schmid

Manfred von Knobelsdorff

Manfred von Richthofen

Manhattan Project

Manhunt (1969 TV series)

Manila American Cemetery and Memorial

Manila massacre

Manley Angell James

Mann (military rank)

Mannerheim Line

Mannert L. Abele

Mannlicher–Schönauer

Manolis Glezos

Manon Batiste

Manpower (1942 film)

Manrico Ducceschi

Manshūkoku Hikōki Seizo KK

Manshuk Mametova

Manson Benedict

Manstein Plan

Manton S. Eddy

Manuel Ávila Camacho

Manuel de Escandón y Barrón, Marquis of Villavieja

Manuel Gonzales

Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel Perez Jr.

Manuel Prado Ugarteche

Manuel Rosenthal

Manzanar

Mao Zedong

Maquis (World War II)

Maquis de Saffré

Maquis de Saint-Marcel

Maquis de Vabre

Maquis des Glières

Maquis du Limousin

Maquis du Mont Mouchet

Maquis du Vercors

Marama Vahirua

Maraîchers (Paris Métro)

Marburg speech

Marc Alexandre

Marc Bloch

Marc Boegner

Marc Detton

Marc Fumaroli

Marc Girardin

Marc Milner

Marc Mitscher

Marcadet - Poissonniers (Paris Métro)

Marcario Garcia

Marcel-Frédéric Lubin-Lebrère

Marcel-Maurice Carpentier

Marcel Achard

Marcel Albert

Marcel Arland

Marcel Astier

Marcel Berger

Marcel Bigeard

Marcel Bucard

Marcel Desailly

Marcel Domingo

Marcel Déat

Marcel J. E. Golay

Marcel Jacques Boulenger

Marcel L'Herbier

Marcel LeHardy

Marcel Louette

Marcel Marceau

Marcel Pagnol

Marcel Paul

Marcel Petiot

Marcel Pilet-Golaz

Marcel Proust

Marcel Prévost

Marcel Sembat (Paris Métro)

Marcel Tyberg

Marcel Van Crombrugge

Marceli Handelsman

Marcellin Berthelot

Marcellus as Hermes Logios

Marcelo Gallardo

March 10

March Air Reserve Base

March of the Living

March of Time: Inside Nazi Germany

Marché d'Intérêt National de Rungis

Marcinkonys Ghetto escape

Marco Polo Bridge Incident

Marco Simone

Marcos Venâncio de Albuquerque

Marcus Clarke (doctor)

Marcus Dinwiddie

Marcus Klingberg

Marcus Melchior

Marcus Ravenswaaij

Mardasson Memorial

Marder I

Marder II

Marder III

Mareşal tank destroyer

Marek Edelman

Marek Jan Chodakiewicz

Mareth Line

Marfa Army Airfield

Margaret Bourke-White

Margaret Ives Abbott

Margaret Ringenberg

Margaret Utinsky

Margarete Adler

Margarete Gallinat

Margarete Rabe

Margot Dreschel

Margot Frank

Margot Glockshuber

Marguerite Knight

Marguerite Yourcenar

Maria Baida

Maria Callas

Maria F. von Trapp

Maria Fedecka

Maria Francisca of Nemours

Maria Mandel

Maria Rasputin

Maria Restituta

Maria Schneider (actor)

Maria Terwiel

Maria Vierdag

Maria Vittoria del Pozzo della Cisterna

Maria von Trapp

Maria Wittek

Mariage Frères

Marian Damaschin

Marian Gieszczykiewicz

Marian Gołębiewski (soldier)

Marian P. Opala

Marian Pisarek

Marian Rejewski

Mariana and Palau Islands campaign

Marianna Municipal Airport

Marianne Grunberg-Manago

Marie-Anne Chabin

Marie-Christine Barrault

Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier

Marie-Félicité Brosset

Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier

Marie-Guillaume-Alphonse Devergie

Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles

Marie-Madeleine Fourcade

Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de la Fayette

Marie Angelique Arnauld

Marie Anne de Cupis de Camargo

Marie Bell

Marie Cavallier

Marie Champmeslé

Marie d'Agoult

Marie de' Medici cycle

Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de Sévigné

Marie Dissard

Marie Dubas

Marie François Xavier Bichat

Marie Henri d'Arbois de Jubainville

Marie Jeanne of Savoy-Nemours

Marie Juchacz

Marie Laurencin

Marie Ljalková

Marie Pierre Kœnig

Marie Teresa Rios

Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin

Marie Trintignant

Marie van Goethem

Marie Vassiltchikov

Marie Walewska

Mariechen Wehselau

Marielle de Sarnez

Marietta Alboni

Marietta Blau

Marija Bursać

Marin le Roy de Gomberville

Marina Raskova

Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton

Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point

Marine Corps Air Station Eagle Mountain Lake

Marine Corps Air Station El Toro

Marine Corps Air Station Ewa

Marine Corps Air Station Miramar

Marine Corps Air Station Tustin

Marinus van der Lubbe

Mario Armano

Mario Puzo

Mario Rigoni Stern

Mario Suárez (writer)

Mario Yepes

Marion's Triumph

Marion Alice Orr

Marion Case Cheek

Marion Cotillard

Marion Dönhoff

Marion Eugene Carl

Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano

Marion Freisler

Marion Jessup

Marion Yorck von Wartenburg

Marisol Escobar

Marius Fiil

Mariveles Naval Section Base

Mariya Dolina

Marjatta Kajosmaa

Mark 13 torpedo

Mark 14 torpedo

Mark 15 torpedo

Mark 18 Torpedo

Mark 24 FIDO Torpedo

Mark Aitchison Young

Mark Arnold-Forster

Mark Edward Bradley

Mark Evelyn Heath

Mark Fredriksen

Mark Hanna Crouter

Mark Hatfield

Mark Matthews

Mark Norman

Mark Oliphant

Mark Roseman

Mark Tennyson, 5th Baron Tennyson

Mark Twain Riverboat

Mark Wayne Clark

Mark XIV bomb sight

Markiyan Dimidov

Marko Mesić

Marko Orešković

Marlag und Milag Nord

Marlborough: His Life and Times

Marlene Dietrich

Marmaduke Hussey, Baron Hussey of North Bradley

Marmaduke Pattle

Marmon-Herrington Armoured Car

Marmon-Herrington CTLS

Marne la Vallée-Chessy railway station

Marocchinate

Maroubra Force

Marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Sade

Marshal (Japan)

Marshall Carter

Marshall Paul Jones

Marshall Plan

Martha Desrumeaux

Martha Gellhorn

Martha Norelius

Martha Sharp

Martial law in Trondheim in 1942

Martial Robin

Martial van Schelle

Martin-Baker MB 3

Martin-Baker MB 5

Martin-Michel-Charles Gaudin

Martin Adolf Bormann

Martin Balsam

Martin Baltimore

Martin Bartesch

Martin Bormann

Martin Broszat

Martin Charteris, Baron Charteris of Amisfield

Martin Denny

Martin Deutsch

Martin Drewes

Martin Dunbar-Nasmith

Martin Špegelj

Martin F. Loughlin

Martin Fiebig

Martin Field (Washington)

Martin Flannery

Martin Gauger

Martin Gerken

Martin Gibbs

Martin Gilbert

Martin Gottfried Weiss

Martin Gray (Holocaust survivor)

Martin H. Ray, Jr.

Martin Harlinghausen

Martin Heidegger

Martin James Monti

Martin K. Weiche

Martin Linge

Martin Luther (diplomat)

Martin Manulis

Martin McLaren

Martin Mutschmann

Martin Nielsen (politician)

Martin Niemöller

Martin Norberg

Martin Noth

Martin O. May

Martin Redmayne, Baron Redmayne

Martin Sandberger

Martin Tietze

Martin Weiss

Martin Wiesner

Martti Liuttula

Marty Karow

Marty Robbins

Martín Cardetti

Marvin Griffin

Marvin Lee Ramsden

Marvin Opler

Marvin Zindler

Marx-Lenin-Luxemburg Front

Marx Dormoy (Paris Métro)

Mary Colvin

Mary Coulshed

Mary Hallaren

Mary Herring

Mary Jayne Gold

Mary Katherine Herbert

Mary Previte

Mary Soames, Baroness Soames

Mary Tyrwhitt

Mary Welsh

Mary Yamashiro Otani

Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood

Maryan Wisnieski

Marye Anne Fox

Maryland Drydock Company

Maryse Bastié

Marzabotto massacre

Maréchal, nous voilà !

MAS-36 rifle

MAS-38

Masada Action and Defense Movement

Masafumi Arima

Masaharu Homma

Masahiko Amakasu

Masahiko Takeshita

Masaichi Niimi

Masakazu Kawabe

Masaki Kashiwara

Masakichi Inoue

Masanobu Tsuji

Masao Maruyama (Japanese Army officer)

Masao Maruyama (scholar)

Masao Nakamura

Masao Watanabe

Masaomi Yasuoka

Masashi Oguro

Masataka Ida

Masatane Kanda

Masatomi Kimura

Masazumi Inada

Maschinengewehr 08

Masha Bruskina

Mason Welch Gross

Mass racial violence in the United States

Massacre in Ciepielów

Massacre in Rome

Massacre in Trhová Kamenice

Massacre of Brzostowica Mala

Massacre of Kalavryta

Massacre of Lvov professors

Massacres of Poles in Volhynia

Massey Lopes, 2nd Baron Roborough

Massy-Verrières

Massy – Palaiseau (Paris RER)

Master Man (Marvel Comics)

Master race

Masuji Ibuse

Mata Gabin

Matagorda Island AFB

Matanikau Offensive

Mateen Ahmed Ansari

Matej Bor

Matheus Coradini Vivian

Mathias Kouo-Doumbe

Mathieu Bastareaud

Mathieu Berson

Mathieu Blin

Mathieu de Montmorency

Mathieu Kassovitz

Mathieu Tillet

Mathilda May

Mathilde Bonaparte

Mathilde Carré

Mathurin Henrio

Mathurin Jacques Brisson

Matilda Mk I

Matilda tank

Mato Dukovac

Matome Ugaki

Matouqin Nocturne

Matsu-class destroyer

Matsudaira Morio

Matsudaira Taro

Matsuhiro Watanabe

Matsuji Ijuin

Matt Batts

Matt McGrath

Matt Urban

Matthew McKeon

Matthew Meselson

Matthew Ridgway

Matthias Kleinheisterkamp

Matthäus Hetzenauer

Matvei Vainrub

Maubert-Mutualité (Paris Métro)

MAUD Committee

Maurice Abravanel

Maurice Albert Windham Rogers

Maurice Anderson

Maurice Arthur Pope

Maurice Austin

Maurice Bardèche

Maurice Barrès

Maurice Bavaud

Maurice Blitz

Maurice Monney-Bouton

Maurice Britt

Maurice Buckmaster

Maurice Challe

Maurice Delarue

Maurice Druon

Maurice Durquetty

Maurice E. Curts

Maurice Evans (actor)

Maurice F. Weisner

Maurice Faure

Maurice G. Dantec

Maurice Gamelin

Maurice Joseph Manuel

Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont

Maurice Lafont

Maurice Laing

Maurice Larrouy

Maurice Lecoq

Maurice Macmillan

Maurice Martenot

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Maurice Norland

Maurice Paléologue

Maurice Papon

Maurice Peeters

Maurice Petherick

Maurice Raichenbach

Maurice Risch

Maurice Rose

Maurice Roy

Maurice Salomez

Maurice Schlesinger

Maurice Schumann

Maurice Taieb

Maurice Taylor (bishop)

Maurice Thorez

Maurice Tourneur

Maurice Turnbull

Maurice Verdonck

Maurice Villaret

Maurice Wilkins

Maurice Wood

Maurice, 6th duc de Broglie

Mauricio Pochettino

Mauritz Eriksson

Mauritz Johansson

Mauro Bergamasco

Mauro Cetto

Maury Maverick, Jr.

Maus

Mauser C96

Mauser HSc

Mauthausen-Gusen camp trials

Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp

Mašín

Maverick County Memorial International Airport

Mavis (DC Comics)

Mavis Gallant

Max-Günther Schrank

Max-Hellmuth Ostermann

Max Abegglen

Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook

Max Amann

Max Ammermann

Max Born

Max Clifford Stormes

Max Coyne

Max Domarus

Max Décugis

Max Ehrlich

Max Elitcher

Max Ernst

Max Guazzini

Max Hainle

Max Herrmann (theatrologist)

Max Ibel

Max Immelmann

Max Jacob

Max Jaffa

Max Josef Metzger

Max Kögel

Max Kennedy Horton

Max Manus

Max Marcuse

Max Matern

Max Ophüls

Max Page

Max Patkin

Max Sachsenheimer

Max Schöne

Max Schmeling

Max Sievers

Max Silverstein

Max Stotz

Max Thompson (Medal of Honor)

Max Valentiner

Max Varnel

Max Ward (bush pilot)

Max Wielen

Max Winkler

Max Wünsche

Max Wolff (soldier)

Maxence Flachez

Maxie Long

Maxim's Paris

Maxim Kontsevich

Maxim M/32-33

Maxime Bossis

Maxime Du Camp

Maxime Weygand

Maximilian de Angelis

Maximilian Grabner

Maximilian Kolbe

Maximilian Volke

Maximilian von Edelsheim

Maximilian von Herff

Maximilian von Weichs

Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg

Maximiliano Hernández Martínez

Maxwell D. Taylor

Maxwell Kogon

Maxwell Meighen

May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis

May Craig (journalist)

Mayfield Workman

Maynard A. Joslyn

Maynard Harrison Smith

Mazas Prison

Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade

Maîtrise Notre Dame de Paris

McCawley-class attack transport

McClellan Airfield

McClelland Barclay

McCollum memo

McCook Army Airfield

McCoy Reynolds

McDowell Grove Forest Preserve

McHale's Navy

McNary Field

Me 262 Project

Me and the Colonel

Mechanised Transport Corps

Mechelen Incident

Mechelen transit camp

Medal "For the Defence of Kiev"

Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad"

Medal "For the Defence of Moscow"

Medal "For the Defence of Odessa"

Medal "For the Defence of Sevastopol"

Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad"

Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus"

Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic"

Medal For the Victory Over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945

Medal "For the Victory over Japan"

Medal of Honor (video game series)

Medal of Honor (video game)

Medal of Honor: Airborne (soundtrack)

Medal of Honor: Airborne

Medal of Honor: Allied Assault

Medal of Honor: European Assault

Medal of Honor: Frontline

Medal of Honor: Heroes 2

Medal of Honor: Heroes

Medal of Honor: Infiltrator

Medal of Honor: Pacific Assault

Medal of Honor: Rising Sun

Medal of Honor: Underground

Medal of Honor: Vanguard

Medal of Honor

Medallions (book)

Medgar Evers

Medhi Bouzzine

Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre

Medium Extended Air Defense System

Medzhybizh

Mefküre

Mefo bills

MEFO

Mehdi Huseynzade

Mehdi Leroy

Mehdi Taouil

Meillerwagen

Mein Kampf

Meinoud Rost van Tonningen

Meinrad von Lauchert

Meir Balaban

Meir Dizengoff

Mel Allen

Mel and George "Do" World War II

Mel Brooks

Mel Hoderlein

Mel Mermelstein

Melchior de Polignac

Melchior de Vogüé

Melchior Wańkowicz

Melford Stevenson

Meliton Kantaria

Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg

Melville W. Beardsley

Melvin A. Casberg

Melvin Alvah Traylor Jr.

Melvin E. Biddle

Melvin Mayfield

Melvin R. Laird

Melvin Zais

Melvyn Douglas

Members of Hitler's cabinet

Memel Medal

Memoir '44

Mémorial de la Déportation

Memorial to gay and lesbian victims of National Socialism

Memorial to the German Resistance

Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

Memphis Belle (B-17)

Memphis Belle (film)

Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress

Men Behind the Sun

Men Bingyue

Men of Timor

Men of War

Men of War

Menachem Birnbaum

Menachem Ziemba

Mengjiang

Menglianggu Campaign

Merauke Force

Mercedes-Benz L3000

Mercer Simpson

Meredith Colket

Merian C. Cooper

Meridian Ridge Campaign

Merlin Minshall

Merril Sandoval

Merrill's Marauders (film)

Merrill's Marauders

Merrill B. Twining

Merrit Cecil Walton

Merritt A. Edson

Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence

Merton Beckwith-Smith

Merville Gun Battery

Mervyn S. Bennion

Merwin Graham

Mesha Stele

Messerschmitt Bf 108

Messerschmitt Bf 109 Survivors

Messerschmitt Bf 109

Messerschmitt Bf 110

Messerschmitt Bf 162

Messerschmitt Me 109TL

Messerschmitt Me 163

Messerschmitt Me 209-II

Messerschmitt Me 210

Messerschmitt Me 261

Messerschmitt Me 262

Messerschmitt Me 263

Messerschmitt Me 264

Messerschmitt Me 265

Messerschmitt Me 309

Messerschmitt Me 310

Messerschmitt Me 321

Messerschmitt Me 323

Messerschmitt Me 328

Messerschmitt Me 329

Messerschmitt Me 409

Messerschmitt Me 410

Messerschmitt Me 509

Messerschmitt Me 609

Messerschmitt Me P.1101

Messerschmitt Me P.1106

Metallurgical Laboratory

Metaxas Line

Metel

Metgethen massacre

Metox

Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh

Mettawee-class gasoline tanker

MF 2000

MF 67

MF 77

MF 88

MG-13

MG 15 machine gun

MG 17 machine gun

MG 81 machine gun

MG30

MG34

MG42

MHDOIF

Miła 18

Międzyrzec Podlaski Ghetto

Międzyrzec Podlaski

Międzyrzecz Fortified Region

MI10

MI11

MI8

MI9

Miami International Airport

Mian Ghulam Jilani

Miao dao

Miao Peinan

Michał Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski

Michał Klepfisz

Michał Rola-Żymierski

Michał Vituška

Michael A. Hoffman II

Michael Aldridge

Michael Alexander

Michael Allmand

Michael Atiyah

Michael Barker (British Army officer)

Michael Beetham

Michael Berenbaum

Michael Carver, Baron Carver

Michael Collins (American author)

Michael Corleone

Michael Donald

Michael F. Feldkamp

Michael Faraday

Michael Flanders

Michael Floud Blaney

Michael Freund (writer)

Michael Gibson (GC)

Michael Goodliffe

Michael Hamburger

Michael Howard (historian)

Michael Hughes-Young, 1st Baron St Helens

Michael I of Romania

Michael J. Daly

Michael J. Novosel

Michael L. Chyet

Michael Leshing

Michael Lippert

Michael Lucas, 2nd Baron Lucas of Chilworth

Michael Marrus

Michael McCorkell

Michael Melford

Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin

Michael Musmanno

Michael O'Leary (VC)

Michael O'Moore Creagh

Michael Ochiltree

Michael P. W. Stone

Michael Pössinger

Michael Palliser

Michael Phayer

Michael Pollock

Michael R. Anastasio

Michael S. Davison

Michael Seifert (SS guard)

Michael Sinclair (British Army officer)

Michael Stewart, Baron Stewart of Fulham

Michael Strank

Michael Torrens-Spence

Michael Whitney Straight

Michael Willoughby, 11th Baron Middleton

Michael Wilson (writer)

Michael Wittmann

Michael Woodruff

Michael Young (bobsleigh)

Michalis Papazoglou

Michaël Llodra

Michel-Ange - Auteuil (Paris Métro)

Michel-Ange - Molitor (Paris Métro)

Michel-Jean Sedaine

Michel-Louis-Étienne Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély

Michel Arnaud

Michel Bensoussan

Michel Bibard

Michel Champoudry

Michel Corneille the Elder

Michel Corneille the Younger

Michel Debré

Michel Delacroix (painter)

Michel Der Zakarian

Michel Drach

Michel Dupuy

Michel Déon

Michel Foucault

Michel Hollard

Michel Jouvet

Michel Laclotte

Michel le Tellier

Michel Leiris

Michel Lotito

Michel Mayor

Michel Mohrt

Michel Ney

Michel Pastoureau

Michel Petrucciani

Michel Raynaud

Michel Richard Delalande

Michel Serres

Michel Simon

Michel Talagrand

Michel Thomas

Michel Théato

Michel Vermeulin

Michele Carafa

Micheline Presle

Michiel Daniel Overbeek

Michihiko Hachiya

Michinori Shiraishi

Michitarō Komatsubara

Michitaro Totsuka

Mickael Poté

Mickaël Dogbé

Mickaël Landreau

Mickaël Madar

Mickaël Tavares

Mickey Conroy

Mickey Spillane

Micky Burn

Mid-Atlantic gap

Mid-Ocean Escort Force

Middle East Command

Midway (1964 game)

Midway (1991 game)

Midway (1976 film)

Midway Atoll

Midway order of battle

Mieczysław Batsch

Mieczysław Fogg

Mieczysław Kawalec

Mieczysław Niedziałkowski

Mieczysław Smorawiński

Mieczysław Zygfryd Słowikowski

Miep Gies

Mies Boissevain - van Lennep

Mietje Baron

Miguel Ángel Asturias

Miguel García Vivancos

Miguel Serrano

Mihai Antonescu

Mihail Lascăr

Mihail Manoilescu

Mihail Sadoveanu

Mihailo Olćan

Mihajlo Lukić

Mihiel Gilormini

Mike Blyzka

Mike Calvert

Mike Colalillo

Mike Hoare

Mike Holovak

Mike Honda

Mike James (rugby)

Mike Judge (fictional character)

Mike Lithgow

Mike Masaoka

Mike Sandlock

Mike Staner

Mike Wallace

Mikel Arteta

Mikhail Devyatayev

Mikhail Gromov

Mikhail Kalinin

Mikhail Katukov

Mikhail Kirponos

Mikhail Loginov

Mikhail Minin

Mikhail Surkov

Mikhail Vodopianov

Mikio Hasemoto

Mikio Oda

Miklós Bánffy

Miklós Horthy

Miklós Kállay

Miklós Nyiszli

Miklós Radnóti

Miklós Steinmetz

Miklós Vig

Miklos Kanitz

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-1

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3

Mikura-class escort ship

Milan (camp)

Milan Nedić

Milan Neralić

Milch Trial

Mildred Gillars

Mildred H. McAfee

Mildred Harnack

Mile Budak

Milena Jesenská

Milentije Popović

Miles Aircraft

Miles Browning

Miles Dempsey

Miles Lerman

Miles M.20

Miles M.35 Libellula

Miles M.39B Libellula

Miles Magister

Miles Martinet

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Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk

Miles Whitney Straight

Milford Zornes

Milice

Militarism-Socialism in Showa Japan

Military Administration (Nazi Germany)

Military awards of World War II

Military decorations of the Third Reich

Military description of the Warsaw Uprising

Military engagements of the Second Sino-Japanese War

Military equipment of Axis Power forces in Balkans and Russian Front

Military Geology Unit

Military history of Albania during World War II

Military history of Australia during World War II

Military history of Belarus during World War II

Military history of Bulgaria during World War II

Military history of Canada during the Second World War

Military history of Canada during World War I

Military history of Carpathian Ruthenia during World War II

Military history of Croatia

Military history of Egypt during World War II

Military history of Finland during World War II

Military history of France during World War II

Military history of Gibraltar during World War II

Military history of Greece during World War II

Military history of Italy during World War II

Military history of Latvia during World War II

Military history of Leningrad Oblast during World War II

Military history of New Zealand during World War II

Military history of South Africa during World War II

Military history of the Netherlands during World War II

Military history of the Philippines during World War II

Military history of the United Kingdom during World War II

Military history of the United States during World War II

Military Intelligence Service (United States)

Military Operations in Scandinavia, and Iceland during WW2

Military Order of the Iron Trefoil

Military Organization Lizard Union

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Military Service Act 1939

Milivoj Ašner

Millard Harmon

Millennium (Hellsing)

Millions Like Us

Millis Jefferis

Mills bomb

Milorad Nedeljković

Milorg

Miloslav Rechcigl, Sr.

Milosz Magin

Miloš Dimitrijević

Miloš Milutinović

Miloš Minić

Milovan Đilas

Milt Schmidt

Milton Ernest Ricketts

Milton Orville Thompson

Milton Reckord

Milton S. Eisenhower

Milton Shapp

Milton Wolff

Mimis Pierrakos

Mimoyecques

Mina Rosner

Minatec

Mineichi Koga

Minekaze-class destroyer

Mineo Ōsumi

Mineral Wells Airport

Mines of Paris

Minesweepers of the Royal New Zealand Navy

Minidoka National Historic Site

Ministries Trial

Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

Ministry of Culture and Enlightenment (Norway)

Ministry of Production

Ministry of the Navy of Japan

Ministry of War of Japan

Minnie Spotted-Wolf

Minnie Vautrin

Minor Butler Poole

Minor sabotage

Minoru Genda

Minoru Ota

Minoru Sasaki

Minoru Yasui

Minsk Offensive Operation

Minás Dimákis

Mirabeau (Paris Métro)

Miracle at Midnight

Miracle at St. Anna

Mircea Eliade

Mirco Bergamasco

Miriam Davenport

Miriam Winter

Mirko Grmek

Miromesnil (Paris Métro)

Miron Constantinescu

Mirosław Żuławski

Mirosław Ferić

Mirosław Vitali

Miroslav Filipović

Miroslav Radman

Mirwais Ahmadzaï

Mirza Mešić

Miscegenation

Mischling

Misha: A Mémoire of the Holocaust Years

Miss Kittin

Missak Manouchian

Mission Accomplished (film)

Mission Albany

Mission Boston

Mission Chicago

Mission Detroit

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Mission to Moscow

Mistel

Mister Roberts (1955 film)

Mister Roberts (1984 film)

Mister Roberts (novel)

Mister Roberts (play)

Mister Roberts (TV series)

Mister Sinister

Mit brennender Sorge

Mitchell Jenkins

Mitchell Paige

Mitchell Recreation Area

Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr.

Mitiţă Constantinescu

Mitry – Claye (SNCF)

Mitsubishi A7M

Mitsubishi B5M

Mitsubishi F1M

Mitsubishi G3M

Mitsubishi G4M

Mitsubishi J2M

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Mitsubishi Ki-202

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Mitsumasa Yonai

Mitsumi Shimizu

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Mitsuru Yoshida

Mittelbau-Dora

Mittelwerk

Miura Gorō

Mius-Front

Mizuno Shinryu

Mk 2 grenade

Mk III Turtle helmet

Mladen Delić

Mühldorf subcamp

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Mo Johnston

Mo Udall

Moana-Nui-a-Kiwa Ngarimu

Mobile Downtown Airport

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Model 24 grenade

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Modernization of the People's Liberation Army

Modeste M'bami

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Moffett Federal Airfield

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Mogilev Offensive Operation

Mohammad-Ali Ramin

Mohammad Amin al-Husayni

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Mohammed Mahdi Akef

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Mohammed V of Morocco

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Mohan Singh Deb

Moirang

Moisis Michail Bourlas

Mojżesz Presburger

Molch

Molière

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

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Momčilo Đujić

Moments of Reprieve

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Momo-class destroyer

Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors

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Mongolia Garrison Army

Mongolian People's Army tanks and armour of WWII

Monica Sone

Monica tail warning radar

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Monnet Plan

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Montreal Holocaust Memorial Centre

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Mordechaï Podchlebnik

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Motives of the Second Sino-Japanese War

Moton Field Municipal Airport

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Mr. and Mrs. America

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Mr. Winkle Goes to War

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MS Asama Maru

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Mário Silva (football player)

Mário Silva (footballer)

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Ménilmontant

Männer gegen Panzer

Japanese migration to Malaysia

The history of Japanese migration in Malaysia goes back to the late 19th century, when the country was part of the British Empire as British Malaya.

Japan–Malaysia relations

Japan–Malaysia relations (Japanese: 日本とマレーシアの関係 Nihon to marēshia no kankei; Malay: Hubungan Jepun–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن جيڤون–مليسيا) refers to bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Japan and Malaysia. The earliest recorded historical relation between the two nations are the trade relations between the Malacca Sultanate and the Ryūkyū Kingdom in the 15th century. This continued well into the 20th century with the rise of the Empire of Japan and its subsequent invasion and occupation of British Malaya and Borneo during World War II.

Japan maintains an embassy in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur, a consulate-general office in George Town, Penang and a consular office in Kota Kinabalu. Malaysia has an embassy in Shibuya, Tokyo. The current Japanese Ambassador to Malaysia is Makio Miyagawa, and the current Malaysian Ambassador to Japan is Datuk Ahmad Izlan Idris.

Kenneth Harrison (POW)

Lance Sergeant Kenneth I Harrison (1918-1982) of Melbourne was an Australian anti-tank non-commissioned officer who fought in the Malayan Campaign. He was eventually captured by the Japanese, becoming a prisoner of war held initially at Changi in Singapore. When the war ended he was among the first foreigners to enter Hiroshima. After the war he became an author, writing about his experiences.

Kesatuan Melayu Muda

Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM) (Jawi: كساتوان ملايو مودا ; roughly Young Malays Union in Malay) was the first leftist and national political establishment in British Malaya. Founded by Ibrahim Yaacob and Ishak Haji Muhammad, KMM grew into a prominent pre-war nationalist movement, notable for its leftist political stance and willingness to use violence, a sharp break with their contemporaries in the Malay nationalist movement.

The KMM, however, commanded very little mass support. By 1945, it only enjoyed a membership of 60 and limited to a few cities. In addition, their radical anti-colonialism was anathema to British authorities which had Ibrahim and other KMM leaders arrested in 1942. After World War II, KMM members later founded Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya, a predecessor to Parti Sosialis Rakyat Malaya, Parti Rakyat Malaysia and later, Parti Keadilan Rakyat.

Lau Yew

Lau Yew (simplified Chinese: 刘友; traditional Chinese: 劉友; pinyin: Liú Yǒu) was a prominent member of the Malayan Communist Party. He was a high-ranking commander in its military arm during World War II, the Malayan Peoples Anti-Japanese Army.

After the war he led the Malayan Peoples Anti British Army until his death in 1948. Lau Yew is believed to have favoured a seizure of power from the British in 1945 before they had fully re-established themselves in Malaya, but was opposed in this by the MCP's leader Lai Teck.

Malaysian Chinese

The Malaysian Chinese or also called as Chinese Malaysians are ethnic Chinese (Han Chinese) who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia. The great majority of this group descend from southern Chinese immigrants who arrived between the early 19th century and the mid-20th century, and now form the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world, after Thai Chinese. Within Malaysia, they represent the second largest ethnic group after the Malay majority. They are usually referred to simply as "Chinese" in Malaysia, "Orang Cina" in Malay, "Sina" or "Kina" among Borneo indigenous, "Sinar" (pronounced Chee-ner) in Tamil, and "Huaren" (Chinese people) or Huaqiao (Overseas Chinese) by Chinese themselves.

Malaysian Chinese are traditionally dominant in the business sector of the Malaysian economy. Most of the Chinese in Malaysia are of Min (e.g. Hokkien), Yue (Cantonese), Hakka and Teochew ancestry, and different towns and cities in Malaysia are dominated by different Chinese dialects among Chinese speakers; for example Cantonese in Kuala Lumpur, Hokkien in George Town and Kuching, Hakka in Kota Kinabalu, Teochew in Johor Bahru, Foochow in Sibu while Hainanese in Kuala Terengganu; although Mandarin is now widely used as a working language among the different Chinese ethnicities. Culturally, most Malaysian Chinese have maintained their Chinese heritage, including their various dialects, although the descendants of the earliest Chinese migrants who arrived from the 13th to 17th centuries have assimilated aspects of the Malay or indigenous cultures, where they form a distinct sub-ethnic group known as the Peranakans in Kelantan and Terengganu, Baba-Nyonya in Malacca and Penang as well the Sino-Natives in Sabah.

Even with absolute population numbers incrasing with each censuses, the proportion of ethnic Chinese among the country's total population has been consistently declining, partially due to a lower birth rate as well as a high level of emigration in recent decades. According to a report by the World Bank, the Malaysian diaspora around the world in 2010 numbered at around a million, most of them ethnic Chinese. The main reasons for emigrating are the better economic and career prospects abroad and a sense of social injustice within Malaysia. The large number of emigrants, many of whom are young and highly educated, constitute a significant "brain drain" from the country. Despite the growing brain drain problem among Chinese Malaysians youth, there has been an increasing wave of newer Chinese migration from Mandarin-speaking areas of northeastern China (North China and East China) and another from new mixture with the Vietnamese following increasing numbers of Malaysian Chinese men marrying foreign spouses from Mainland China and Vietnam.

Operation Jurist

Operation Jurist referred to the British recapture of Penang following Japan's surrender in 1945. Jurist was launched as part of Operation Zipper, the overall British plan to liberate Malaya, including Singapore.

While a larger Allied fleet sailed on to Singapore through the Malacca Strait under Operation Tiderace, a detachment of Royal Navy warships, led by Vice Admiral Harold Walker, moved towards Penang Island, arriving off the island on 28 August 1945. The Japanese garrison in Penang surrendered on 2 September and a party of Royal Marine commandos landed on Penang Island the following day, thus returning Penang to British rule.

Consequently, Penang became the first state in Malaya to be liberated by the British; Singapore would only be formally surrendered to the British on 12 September, while the rest of Malaya was subsequently liberated in the following weeks.

R. G. Balan

R. G. Balan was of the Malayan Peoples' Anti-Japanese Army. He worked underground in Tapah-Kampar area as a Communist Party of Malaya's Tamil publicist during the Japanese occupation of Malaya. He was a close friend with Abdullah CD and Suriani Abdullah, whom both of them were also active members of Communist Party of Malaya.

SAF Volunteer Corps

The SAF Volunteer Corps (SAFVC) is a uniformed volunteer auxiliary of the Singapore Armed Forces. The SAFVC was established in October 2014 to encourage Singaporean women, first generation Permanent Residents and new immigrant/naturalised-citizens to do their part and contribute towards Singapore's defence by strengthening support for national service and understanding the burden with the national servicemen.

It is distinct from the SAF Volunteers or the Rovers (Reservist On Voluntary Extended Reserve Service) schemes that consist of former NSmen or regulars who continue to serve beyond the statutory age.One of Singapore’s founders, the late Mr. Lee Kuan Yew had in fact, wanted women to serve NS, when he once said, “I was keen to have our women do national service as... women did, because that would reinforce the people’s will to defend themselves. But Goh Keng Swee did not want his then new ministry to carry this extra burden. As the other ministers in Defco (Defence Council) were also not anxious to draft our women, I did not press my point.”

Southern Rhodesian military involvement in the Malayan Emergency

Southern Rhodesia, then a self-governing colony of the United Kingdom, sent two military units to fight with the Commonwealth armed forces in the Malayan Emergency of 1948–60, which pitted the Commonwealth against the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the military arm of the Malayan Communist Party. For two years, starting in March 1951, white Southern Rhodesian volunteers made up "C" Squadron of the Special Air Service (SAS). The Rhodesian African Rifles, in which black rank-and-filers and warrant officers were led by white officers, then served in Malaya from 1956 to 1958.

Of the hundreds of Southern Rhodesians who served in Malaya, eight were killed. "C" Squadron, which was formed especially to serve in Malaya, was the first SAS unit from a British colony or dominion. Several veterans of the conflict, Peter Walls and Ron Reid-Daly among them, subsequently held key positions in the Rhodesian Security Forces during the Bush War of the 1970s.

Tunku Abdul Rahman

Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah, (Jawi: تونكو عبدالرحمن ڤوترا الحاج ابن المرحوم سلطان عبدالحميد حاليم شه) ; (8 February 1903 – 6 December 1990) was a Malaysian politician who served as the first Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955 to 1957, before becoming Malaya's first Prime Minister after independence in 1957. He remained Prime Minister following the formation of Malaysia in 1963, when Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore merged with Malaya, until his resignation in 1970.

Commonly known simply as "Tunku" (a Malay royal title), Tunku Abdul Rahman is widely regarded, even by his critics, as Malaysia's "founding father", the architect of Malayan independence and the formation of Malaysia. As such, he is often referred to as Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia).

Communism in Malaysia and Singapore
Wars and incidents
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Key people
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