Malay language

Malay (/məˈleɪ/;[5] Malay: Bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو‎) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as well as parts of Thailand. A language of the Malays, it is spoken by 290 million people[6] across the Strait of Malacca, including the coasts of the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia and the eastern coast of Sumatra in Indonesia and has been established as a native language of part of western coastal Sarawak and West Kalimantan in Borneo. It is also used as a trading language in the southern Philippines, including the southern parts of the Zamboanga Peninsula, the Sulu Archipelago and the southern predominantly Muslim-inhabited municipalities of Bataraza and Balabac in Palawan.

As the Bahasa Kebangsaan or Bahasa Nasional ("national language") of several states, Standard Malay has various official names. In Malaysia, it is designated as either Bahasa Malaysia ("Malaysian language") or Bahasa Melayu ("Malay language"). In Singapore and Brunei, it is called Bahasa Melayu ("Malay language") and in Indonesia, an autonomous normative variety called Bahasa Indonesia ("Indonesian language") is designated the Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu ("unifying language"/lingua franca). However, in areas of central to southern Sumatra where vernacular varieties of Malay are indigenous, Indonesians refer to it as Bahasa Melayu and consider it one of their regional languages.

Standard Malay, also called Court Malay, was the literary standard of the pre-colonial Malacca and Johor Sultanates, and so the language is sometimes called Malacca, Johor or Riau Malay (or various combinations of those names) to distinguish it from the various other Malayan languages. According to Ethnologue 16, several of the Malayan varieties they currently list as separate languages, including the Orang Asli varieties of Peninsular Malay, are so closely related to standard Malay that they may prove to be dialects. There are also several Malay trade and creole languages which are based on a lingua franca derived from Classical Malay as well as Macassar Malay, which appears to be a mixed language.

Malay
Bahasa Melayu / بهاس ملايو‎ / ꤷꥁꤼ ꤸꥍꤾꤿꥈ
Native toIndonesia, Malaysia, East Timor, Brunei, Singapore, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
EthnicityMalays
Native speakers
77 million (2007)[1]
Total: 250–300 million (2009)[2]
Early forms
Standard forms
Latin (Malay alphabet)
Arabic script (Jawi alphabet)[3]

Thai alphabet (in Thailand)
Malay Braille

Historically Pallava alphabet, Kawi alphabet, Rencong alphabet
Manually Coded Malay
Sistem Isyarat Bahasa Indonesia
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
 Indonesia
(Local Malay enjoys the status of a regional language in Sumatra and Kalimantan (Borneo) apart from the national normative standard of Indonesian)
 Thailand (as Bahasa Jawi)
 Philippines (as a trade language with Malaysia and in Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and Balabac, Palawan)
Regulated byBadan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa;
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature);
Majlis Bahasa Brunei-Indonesia-Malaysia (Brunei–Indonesia–Malaysia Language Council – MABBIM) (a trilateral joint-venture)
Language codes
ISO 639-1ms
ISO 639-2may (B)
msa (T)
ISO 639-3msainclusive code
Individual codes:
zlm – Malay (individual language)
kxd – Brunei Malay
ind – Indonesian
zsm – Malaysian
jax – Jambi Malay
meo – Kedah Malay
kvr – Kerinci
xmm – Manado Malay
min – Minangkabau
mui – Musi
zmi – Negeri Sembilan
max – North Moluccan Malay
mfa – Pattani Malay
Glottologindo1326  partial match[4]
Linguasphere31-MFA-a
Malay language Spoken Area Map v1
  Indonesia
  Malaysia
  Singapore and Brunei, where Malay is an official language
  East Timor, where Indonesian is a working language
  Southern Thailand and the Cocos Isl., where other varieties of Malay are spoken

Origin

Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast.[7] A form known as Proto-Malay was spoken in Borneo at least by 1000 BCE and was, it has been argued, the ancestral language of all subsequent Malayan languages. Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language, began to break up by at least 2000 BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan.[8]

History

Lawah-Lawah Merah (1875).pdf
Lawah-Lawah Merah (1875), a Malay-language translation of L'araignée rouge by René de Pont-Jest has been identified as the first Malay-language novel. Prior to the era, the Malay literature & storytelling was predominantly written in the form of Hikayat.

The history of the Malay language can be divided into five periods: Old Malay, the Transitional Period, the Malacca Period (Classical Malay), Late Modern Malay and modern Malay. It is not clear that Old Malay was actually the ancestor of Classical Malay, but this is thought to be quite possible.[9]

Old Malay was influenced by the Sanskrit literary language of Classical India and a scriptural language of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit loanwords can be found in Old Malay vocabulary. The earliest known stone inscription in the Old Malay language was found in Sumatra, written in the Pallava variety of the Grantha alphabet[10] and dates back to 7th century. Known as the Kedukan Bukit inscription, it was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on November 29, 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the Tatang, a tributary of the Musi River. It is a small stone of 45 by 80 centimetres (18 by 31 in).

The earliest surviving manuscript in Malay is the Tanjung Tanah Law in post-Pallava letters.[11] This 14th-century pre-Islamic legal text produced in the Adityawarman era (1345–1377) of Dharmasraya, a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that arose after the end of Srivijayan rule in Sumatra. The laws were for the Minangkabau people, who today still live in the highlands of Sumatra.

The Malay language came into widespread use as the lingua franca of the Malacca Sultanate (1402–1511). During this period, the Malay language developed rapidly under the influence of Islamic literature. The development changed the nature of the language with massive infusion of Arabic, Tamil and Sanskrit vocabularies, called Classical Malay. Under the Sultanate of Malacca the language evolved into a form recognisable to speakers of modern Malay. When the court moved to establish the Johor Sultanate, it continued using the classical language; it has become so associated with Dutch Riau and British Johor that it is often assumed that the Malay of Riau is close to the classical language. However, there is no closer connection between Malaccan Malay as used on Riau and the Riau vernacular.[12]

One of the oldest surviving letters written in Malay is a letter from Sultan Abu Hayat of Ternate, Maluku Islands in present-day Indonesia, dated around 1521–1522. The letter is addressed to the king of Portugal, following contact with Portuguese explorer Francisco Serrão.[13] The letters show sign of non-native usage; the Ternateans used (and still use) the unrelated Ternate language, a West Papuan language, as their first language. Malay was used solely as a lingua franca for inter-ethnic communications.[13]

Classification and related languages

Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages from Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, with a smaller number in continental Asia. Malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, is also a member of this language family. Although these languages are not necessarily mutually intelligible to any extent, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common ancestor, Proto-Austronesian language. There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities.

Within Austronesian, Malay is part of a cluster of numerous closely related forms of speech known as the Malayan languages, which were spread across Malaya and the Indonesian archipelago by Malay traders from Sumatra. There is disagreement as to which varieties of speech popularly called "Malay" should be considered dialects of this language, and which should be classified as distinct Malay languages. The vernacular of Brunei—Brunei Malay—for example, is not readily intelligible with the standard language, and the same is true with some lects on the Malay Peninsula such as Kedah Malay. However, both Brunei and Kedah are quite close.[14]

The closest relatives of the Malay languages are those left behind on Sumatra, such as the Minangkabau language, with 5.5 million speakers on the west coast.

Writing system

Kerinci MSS detail
The Rencong alphabet, a native writing system found in Malay Peninsula, central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th line.
KedukanBukit001
Kedukan Bukit Inscription, using Pallava alphabet, is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language in South Sumatra, Indonesia.

Malay is now written using the Latin script (Rumi), although an Arabic script called Arab Melayu or Jawi also exists. Rumi is official in Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. Malay uses Hindu-Arabic numerals.

Rumi and Jawi are co-official in Brunei only. Names of institutions and organisations have to use Jawi and Rumi (Latin) scripts. Jawi is used fully in schools, especially the Religious School, Sekolah Agama, which is compulsory during the afternoon for Muslim students aged from around 6–7 up to 12–14.

Efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi in rural areas of Malaysia, and students taking Malay language examinations in Malaysia have the option of answering questions using Jawi.

The Latin script, however, is the most commonly used in Brunei and Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes.

Historically, Malay has been written using various scripts. Before the introduction of Arabic script in the Malay region, Malay was written using the Pallava, Kawi and Rencong scripts; these are still in use today, such as the Cham alphabet used by the Chams of Vietnam and Cambodia. Old Malay was written using Pallava and Kawi script, as evident from several inscription stones in the Malay region. Starting from the era of kingdom of Pasai and throughout the golden age of the Malacca Sultanate, Jawi gradually replaced these scripts as the most commonly used script in the Malay region. Starting from the 17th century, under Dutch and British influence, Jawi was gradually replaced by the Rumi script.[15]

Extent of use

Malaysia Traffic-signs Warning-and-regulatory-signs-02
A Malay traffic sign in Malaysia.
Sukarno hatta airport - Terminal - Jakarta - Indonesia
Malay road signs in Jakarta, Indonesia. "Lajur Khusus Menurunkan Penumpang" means "Lane for dropping passengers" in Indonesian

Malay is spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, East Timor, Singapore, parts of Thailand[16] and southern Philippines. Indonesia regulates its own normative variety of Malay, while Malaysia and Singapore use the same standard.[17] Brunei, in addition to Standard Malay, uses a distinct vernacular dialect called Brunei Malay. In East Timor, Indonesian is recognised by the constitution as one of the two working languages (the other being English), alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese.[18] The extent to which Malay is used in these countries varies depending on historical and cultural circumstances. Malay is the national language in Malaysia by Article 152 of the Constitution of Malaysia, and became the sole official language in Peninsular Malaysia in 1968 and in East Malaysia gradually from 1974. English continues, however, to be widely used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts. Other minority languages are also commonly used by the country's large ethnic minorities. The situation in Brunei is similar to that of Malaysia. In the Philippines, Malay is spoken by a minority of the Muslim population residing in Mindanao (specifically the Zamboanga Peninsula) and the Sulu Archipelago. However, they mostly speak it in a form of creole resembling Sabah Malay. Historically, it was the primary trading language of the archipelago prior to Spanish occupation. Indonesian is spoken by the overseas Indonesian community in Davao City, and functional phrases are taught to members of the Philippine Armed Forces and to students.

Phonology

Malay, like most Austronesian languages, is not a tonal language.

Consonants

The consonants of Malaysian[19] and also Indonesian[20] are shown below. Non-native consonants that only occur in borrowed words, principally from Arabic and English, are shown in brackets.

Malay consonant phonemes
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar/Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive/Affricate voiceless p t t͡ʃ k (ʔ)
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless (f) (θ) s (ʃ) (x) h
voiced (v) (ð) (z) (ɣ)
Approximant central j w
lateral l
Trill r

Orthographic note: The sounds are represented orthographically by their symbols as above, except:

  • /ð/ is 'z', the same as the /z/ sound (only occurs in Arabic loanwords originally containing the /ð/ sound, but the writing is not distinguished from Arabic loanwords with /z/ sound, and this sound must be learned separately by the speakers).
  • /ɲ/ is 'ny'
  • /ŋ/ is 'ng'
  • /θ/ is represented as 's', the same as the /s/ sound (only occurs in Arabic loanwords originally containing the /θ/ sound, but the writing is not distinguished from Arabic loanwords with /s/ sound, and this sound must be learned separately by the speakers). Previously (before 1972), this sound was written 'th' in Standard Malay (not Indonesian)
  • the glottal stop /ʔ/ is final 'k' or an apostrophe ' (although some words have this glottal stop in the middle, such as rakyat)
  • // is 'c'
  • // is 'j'
  • /ʃ/ is 'sy'
  • /x/ is 'kh'
  • /j/ is 'y'

Loans from Arabic:

  • Phonemes which occur only in Arabic loans may be pronounced distinctly by speakers who know Arabic. Otherwise they tend to be replaced with native sounds.
Table of borrowed Arabic consonants
Distinct Assimilated Example
/x/ /k/, /h/ khabar, kabar "news"
/ð/ /d/, /l/ redha, rela "good will"
/zˤ/ /l/, /z/ lohor, zuhur "noon (prayer)"
/ɣ/ /ɡ/, /r/ ghaib, raib "hidden"
/ʕ/ /ʔ/ saat, sa'at "second (time)"

Vowels

Malay originally had four vowels, but in many dialects today, including Standard Malay, it has six.[19] The vowels /e, o/ are much less common than the other four.

Table of vowel phonemes of Standard Malay
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e ə o
Open a

Orthographic note: both /e/ and /ə/ are written as 'e'. This means that there are some homographs, so perang can be either /pəraŋ/ ("war") or /peraŋ/ ("blond") (but in Indonesia perang with /e/ sound is also written as pirang).

Some analyses regard /ai, au, oi/ as diphthongs.[21][22] However, [ai] and [au] can only occur in open syllables, such as cukai ("tax") and pulau ("island"). Words with a phonetic diphthong in a closed syllable, such as baik ("good") and laut ("sea"), are actually two syllables. An alternative analysis therefore treats the phonetic diphthongs [ai], [au] and [oi] as a sequence of a monophthong plus an approximant: /aj/, /aw/ and /oj/ respectively.[23]

There is a rule of vowel harmony: the non-open vowels /i, e, u, o/ in bisyllabic words must agree in height, so hidung ("nose") is allowed but *hedung is not.[24]

Grammar

Malay is an agglutinative language, and new words are formed by three methods: attaching affixes onto a root word (affixation), formation of a compound word (composition), or repetition of words or portions of words (reduplication). Nouns and verbs may be basic roots, but frequently they are derived from other words by means of prefixes, suffixes and circumfixes.

Malay does not make use of grammatical gender, and there are only a few words that use natural gender; the same word is used for “he” and “she” which is dia or for “his” and “her” which is dia punya. There is no grammatical plural in Malay either; thus orang may mean either "person" or "people". Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as sudah "already" and belum "not yet". On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and to denote voice or intentional and accidental moods.

Malay does not have a grammatical subject in the sense that English does. In intransitive clauses, the noun comes before the verb. When there is both an agent and an object, these are separated by the verb (OVA or AVO), with the difference encoded in the voice of the verb. OVA, commonly but inaccurately called "passive", is the basic and most common word order.

Borrowed words

The Malay language has many words borrowed from Arabic (in particular religious terms), Sanskrit, Tamil, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, Sinitic languages (due to historical status of Malay Archipelago as a trading hub) and more recently, English (in particular many scientific and technological terms).

Examples

All Malay speakers should be able to understand either of the translations below, which differ mostly in their choice of wording. The words for 'article', pasal and perkara, and for 'declaration', pernyataan and perisytiharan, are specific to the Indonesian and Malaysian standards, respectively, but otherwise all the words are found in both (and even those words may be found with slightly different meanings).

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
English Indonesian Malaysian[25]
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Pernyataan Umum tentang Hak Asasi Manusia
(General Declaration about Human Rights)
Perisytiharan Hak Asasi Manusia sejagat
(Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
Article 1 Pasal 1 Perkara 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Semua orang dilahirkan merdeka dan mempunyai martabat dan hak-hak yang sama. Mereka dikaruniai akal dan hati nurani dan hendaknya bergaul satu sama lain dalam semangat persaudaraan.

(All people are born independent and have the same dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should get along with each other in a spirit of brotherhood.)

Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan sama rata dari segi maruah dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bergaul dengan semangat persaudaraan.

(All human beings are born free and are equal in dignity and rights. They have thoughts and feelings and should get along with a spirit of brotherhood.)

See also

References

  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ Uli, Kozok (10 March 2012). "How many people speak Indonesian". University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved 20 October 2012. James T. Collins (Bahasa Sanskerta dan Bahasa Melayu, Jakarta: KPG 2009) gives a conservative estimate of approximately 200 million, and a maximum estimate of 250 million speakers of Malay (Collins 2009, p. 17).
  3. ^ "Kedah MB defends use of Jawi on signboards". The Star. 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indonesian Archipelago Malay". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Bauer, Laurie (2007). The Linguistic Student's Handbook. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  6. ^ 10 million in Malaysia, 5 million in Indonesia as "Malay" plus 250 million as "Indonesian", etc.
  7. ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander (2004). "Where does Malay come from? Twenty years of discussions about homeland, migrations and classifications". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 160 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1163/22134379-90003733.
  8. ^ Andaya, Leonard Y. (2001). "The Search for the 'Origins' of Melayu" (PDF). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 32 (3): 315–330. doi:10.1017/S0022463401000169.
  9. ^ Wurm, Stephen; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tryon, Darrell T. (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas: Vol I: Maps. Vol II: Texts. Walter de Gruyter. p. 677. ISBN 978-3-11-081972-4.
  10. ^ "Bahasa Melayu Kuno". Bahasa-malaysia-simple-fun.com. 15 September 2007. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  11. ^ Surakhman, M. Ali (23 October 2017). "Undang-Undang Tanjung Tanah: Naskah Melayu Tertua di Dunia". kemdikbud.go.id (in Indonesian).
  12. ^ Sneddon, James N. (2003). The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society. UNSW Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-86840-598-8.
  13. ^ a b Sneddon, James N. (2003). The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society. UNSW Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-86840-598-8.
  14. ^ Ethnologue 16 classifies them as distinct languages, ISO3 kxd and meo, but states that they "are so closely related that they may one day be included as dialects of Malay".
  15. ^ "Malay (Bahasa Melayu)". Omniglot. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
  16. ^ "Malay Can Be 'Language Of Asean'". Brudirect.com. 24 October 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  17. ^ Salleh, Haji (2008). An introduction to modern Malaysian literature. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia Berhad. pp. xvi. ISBN 978-983-068-307-2.
  18. ^ "East Timor Languages". www.easttimorgovernment.com.
  19. ^ a b Clynes, Adrian; Deterding, David (12 July 2011). "Standard Malay (Brunei)". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 41 (02): 259–268. doi:10.1017/S002510031100017X. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2014..
  20. ^ Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008). "Indonesian". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 38 (2): 209–213. doi:10.1017/S0025100308003320. ISSN 1475-3502.
  21. ^ Asmah Haji, Omar (1985). Susur galur bahasa Melayu. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
  22. ^ Ahmad, Zaharani (1993). Fonologi generatif: teori dan penerapan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
  23. ^ Clynes, Adrian (1997). "On the Proto-Austronesian "Diphthongs"". Oceanic Linguistics. 36 (2): 347–361. doi:10.2307/3622989. JSTOR 3622989.
  24. ^ Adelaar, K. A. (1992). Proto Malayic: the reconstruction of its phonology and parts of its lexicon and morphology (PDF). Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. doi:10.15144/pl-c119. ISBN 0858834081. OCLC 26845189.
  25. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Bahasa Melayu (Malay))". United Nations Human Rights.

Further reading

External links

Banjar language

Banjar (Banjar: Bahasa/Basa Banjar, Indonesian: Bahasa Banjar, Jawi: بهاس بنجر) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Banjar people of South Kalimantan province of Indonesia. Since the Banjarese were historically nomadic merchants, Banjarese has been spoken throughout modern Indonesia and the Malay world.

Berau Malay language

Berau Malay, also known as Berau , is a variety of Malay which is spoken by Berau Malays in Berau Regency, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. It is one three native varieties of Malay in southern Borneo along with Banjar and Kutai Malay, of which it forms a dialect continuum.

According to the 2007 Ethnologue there are 11,200 speakers of Berau .

Bernama

The Malaysian National News Agency (Malay: Pertubuhan Berita Nasional Malaysia), abbreviated BERNAMA, is a news agency of the government of Malaysia. It is an autonomous body placed under the Ministry of Communication and Multimedia. Bernama is an abbreviation of Berita Nasional Malaysia. Bernama also means named or titled in the Malay language. It was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1967 and started work on 20 May 1968. Being the Malaysian government's official news agency, Bernama's content and views are decidedly right-leaning and pro-government of the day.

Budu (sauce)

Budu (Jawi: بودو; Thai: บูดู, RTGS: budu, pronounced [būːdūː]) is an anchovies sauce and one of the best known fermented seafood products in Kelantan, Terengganu in Malaysia and southern Thailand as well. It is mentioned in A Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay language, With a Preliminary Dissertation, Volume 2, By John Crawfurd, published in 1852.

Cocos Malay

Cocos Malay is a post-creolized variety of Malay, spoken by the Cocos Malays of Home Island, Christmas Island, and those originally from the Cocos Islands currently living in Sabah.Cocos Malay derives from the Malay trade languages of the 19th century, specifically the Betawi language, with a strong additional Javanese influence. Malay is offered as a second language in schools, and Malaysian has prestige status; both are influencing the language, bringing it more in line with standard Malay. There is also a growing influence of English, considering the Islands having been an Australian territory and globalization drifting modern terms into the daily parlance.

It has the following characteristics:

Javanese influence: cucut "shark", kates "papaya", walikat "shoulderblade" etc.

First-person and second-person singular "gua" "lu", from Hokkien.

Causative verb "kasi".

"Ada" not only means "there is ...", but also is the progressive particle.

Possessive marker "punya".

Third person indefinite "ong", from orang "person"

Jambi Malay

Jambi Malay (Jambi Malay: Baso Jambi, Indonesian: Bahasa Jambi or Bahasa Melayu Jambi) is a Malayan language spoken in Jambi province, Indonesia. It is closely related to Palembang Malay in neighbouring South Sumatra and Bengkulu Malay in Bengkulu Province.

Kedah Malay

Kedah Malay or Kedahan (Also known as Pelat Utara or Loghat Utara 'Northern Dialect') also referred in Thailand as "Syburi Malay" (ภาษามลายูไทรบุรี) is a variety of the Malayan languages mainly spoken in the northwestern northern Malaysian states of Perlis, Kedah, Penang, and northern Perak and in the southern Thai provinces of Trang, Satun and parts of Yala, the usage of Kedahan Malay was historically prevalent in southwestern Thailand before being superseded by the Thai language. Enclaves of Kedahan Malay language can be found in Kawthaung District in Myanmar, Jaring Halus, Langkat in Indonesia and Bangkok, Thailand, mostly by the descendants of historical settles from Kedah.

Kedah Malay can be divided into several dialects, namely Kedah Persisiran (standard), Baling or Kedah Hulu, Kedah Utara, Perlis-Langkawi, Penang and some others outside Malaysia. See Malayan languages for a comparison of Kedah Persisiran, Penang and Baling dialects.

The main characteristic of Kedah Malay is the -a final vocal is pronounced as /ɑ/ such as /a/ in "dark", which is varied from standard Malay -a that pronounced as /a/. Other characteristics of the dialect are final consonant -r is pronounced as -q and final consonant -s is pronounced as -ih (e.g.:Lapar = Lapaq (Hungry), Lepas = Lepaih (release, after) ) while initial and middle r are guttural. Speakers in Trang are most heavily influenced by Thai language.

Kelantan-Pattani Malay

Kelantan-Pattani Malay, often referred to in Thailand as Yawi (in Thai) or Jawi (in Patani Malay), and in Kelantan as Baso Kelaté, is an Austronesian language of the Malayic subfamily spoken in the Malaysian state of Kelantan and the neighbouring southernmost provinces of Thailand. It is the primary spoken language of Thai Malays, but is also used as a lingua franca by ethnic Southern Thais in rural areas, Muslim and non-Muslim, and the samsam, a mostly Thai-speaking population of mixed Malay and Thai ancestry.

Kelantan–Pattani Malay is a highly divergent from other Malay varieties because of its geographical isolation from the rest of the Malay world by high mountains, deep rainforest and the Gulf of Thailand. In Thailand, it is also influenced by Thai.

Kelantanese–Pattani Malay is distinct enough that radio broadcasts in Standard Malay cannot be understood easily by native speakers of Kelantanese–Pattani Malay who are not taught the standard language, for example, those in Thailand. Unlike Malaysia where Standard Malay is compulsory in the school curriculum, no one is required to learn Standard Malay in Thailand, and so there is potentially less language influence from standard Malay but potentially more from Thai. It is different also from Kedah Malay, Pahang Malay and Terengganuan Malay, but those languages have close similarities with the Kelantanese-Pattani Malay language especially Terengganuan just differ in pronunciation and some words.

Kutainese language

Kutai or Kutai Malay is a Malayan language spoken by 300,000 to 500,000 people. It is the native language of Kutai people (Indonesian: Suku Kutai, Kutai Malay: Urang Kutai), the indigenous ethnic group which lives along the Mahakam River in Borneo, especially in North Kalimantan, Indonesia. They are the principal population in the regencies of West Kutai, Kutai Kartanegara, and East Kutai within North Kalimantan province.

Kutai Malay is part of the local Bornean Malay languages and is closely related but distinct to Banjar language in South Kalimantan, Berau Malay, also spoken in North Kalimantan and to some extent Brunei-Kedayan Malay as well. Kutai Malay forms a dialect continuum between the two varieties and all three shares similar phonology and vocabulary with each other.

List of Sultans of Brunei

The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei. He is also head of government in his capacity as Prime Minister. Since independence from the British in 1984, only one Sultan has reigned, though the royal institution dates back to the 14th century.The Sultan of Brunei can be thought of as synonymous with the ruling House of Bolkiah, with generations being traced from the first sultan, temporarily interrupted by the 13th Sultan, Abdul Hakkul Mubin, who in turn was deposed by a member of the House of Bolkiah. The Sultan's full title is: His Majesty The Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam.

Malay trade and creole languages

In addition to its classical and literary form, Malay had various regional dialects established before the rise of the Malaccan Sultanate. Also, Malay spread through interethnic contact and trade across the Malay archipelago as far as the Philippines. That contact resulted in a lingua franca that was called Bazaar Malay or low Malay and in Malay Melayu Pasar. It is generally believed that Bazaar Malay was a pidgin, influenced by contact among Malay, Chinese, Portuguese, and Dutch traders.

Besides the general simplification that occurs with pidgins, the Malay lingua franca had several distinctive characteristics. One was that possessives were formed with punya 'its owner'; another was that plural pronouns were formed with orang 'person'. The only Malayic affixes that remained productive were tər- and bər-.

Other features:

Ada became a progressive particle.

Reduced forms of ini 'this' and itu 'that' before a noun became determiners.

The verb pərgi 'go' was reduced, and became a preposition 'towards'.

Causative constructions were formed with kasi or bəri 'to give' or bikin or buat 'to make'.

A single preposition, often sama, was used for multiple functions, including direct and indirect object.For example,

Rumah-ku 'my house' becomes Saya punya rumah

Saya pukul dia 'I hit him' becomes Saya kasi pukul dia

Megat dipukul Robert 'Megat is hit by Robert' becomes Megat dipukul dek RobertBazaar Malay is used in a limited extent in Singapore and Malaysia, mostly among the older generation or people with no working knowledge of English. The most important reason that contributed to the decline of Bazaar Malay is that pidgin Malay has creolised and created several new languages. Another reason is due to language shift in both formal and informal contexts, Bazaar Malay is gradually being replaced by English, with English being the lingua franca among the younger generations.

Malaysia FA Cup

The Malaysia FA Cup (Malay: Piala FA), known as Shopee Piala FA for sponsorship reasons, is an annual national knock–out football tournament in Malaysia. The cup was first held in 1990. The competition was previously managed by Football Association of Malaysia (FAM) before it was transferred to Football Malaysia LLP (MFL) (now known as Malaysian Football League (MFL)) in the 2016 season.

The cup is contested among the clubs from the Malaysia Super League, Malaysia Premier League, Malaysia M3 League and Malaysia M4 League. The preliminary and first rounds are played between the clubs that qualified from the M3 and M4 League. The winners advance to the second round and join the rest of the clubs.

The winners of the competition are awarded with a slot to compete in the AFC Cup alongside the champions of the Malaysia Super League. The current title holders are Pahang, which won their third title in the 2018 edition.

Malaysian language

The Malaysian language (Malay: bahasa Malaysia; Jawi: بهاس مليسيا‎) or Malaysian Malay (Malay: bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia (as opposed to the lect used in Indonesia, which is referred to as the Indonesian language). Constitutionally, however, the official language of Malaysia is Malay, but the government from time to time refers to it as Malaysian. Standard Malaysian is a normative register of the Johore-Riau dialect of Malay. It is spoken by much of the Malaysian population, although most learn a vernacular form of Malay or other native language first. Malay is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary schools.

Manado Malay

Manado Malay, or simply the Manado language, is a creole language spoken in Manado, the capital of North Sulawesi province in Indonesia, and the surrounding area. The local name of the language is Bahasa Manado, and the name Minahasa Malay is also used, after the main ethnic group speaking the language. Since Manado Malay is used only for spoken communication, there is no standard orthography.

Manado Malay is a creole of the Malay language. It differs from Malay in having a large number of Portuguese and Dutch loan words as a result of colonisation and having traits such as its use of "kita" as a first person singular pronoun, while "kita" is a first person inclusive plural pronoun in Malay. Simple Manado Malay sentences can be understood by speakers of standard Malay, albeit with varying degrees of difficulty.

Manually Coded Malay

Kod Tangan Bahasa Malaysia (KTBM), or Manually Coded Malay, is the only form of sign language recognized by the government in Malaysia as the language of communication for the Deaf. It is not itself a language, but a manually coded language, a signed form of oral Malay. It is adapted from American Sign Language (or perhaps Manually Coded English), with the addition of some local signs, and grammatical signs representing affixation of nouns and verbs as used in Malay. It is used in Deaf schools for the purpose of teaching the Malay language.

Minangkabau language

Minangkabau (Minangkabau: Baso Minang(kabau); Indonesian: Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau. The language is also a lingua franca along the western coastal region of the province of North Sumatra, and is even used in parts of Aceh, where the language is called Aneuk Jamee. It is also spoken in some parts of Malaysia, especially Negeri Sembilan.

Due to the huge proximity between the Minangkabau language and Malay, there is some controversy regarding the relationship between the two. Some see Minangkabau as a nonstandardized dialect of Malay, while others think of Minangkabau as a distinct (Malay) language.

Putrajaya

Putrajaya, officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya (Malay: Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned city and the federal administrative centre of Malaysia. The seat of government was shifted in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya because of overcrowding and congestion in the former. Kuala Lumpur remains Malaysia's national capital and is the seat of the King, the Parliament, and all the foreign embassies, and the country's commercial and financial centre. Putrajaya was the idea of Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. It became Malaysia's third Federal Territory, after Kuala Lumpur and Labuan, in 2001.

Named after the first Malaysian Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, the territory is entirely enclaved within the Sepang District of the state of Selangor. Putrajaya is also a part of MSC Malaysia, a special economic zone that covers Klang Valley. In Sanskrit, "putra"(पुत्र) means "prince" or "male child", and "jaya"(जया) means "success" or "victory". The development of Putrajaya started in the early 1990s; today, major landmarks have been completed and the population is expected to grow in the near future.

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kota Kinabalu

The Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Malay: Hospital Queen Elizabeth) in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah is the main hospital for the city and the whole Sabah. It is named after the Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

Subdistrict

A subdistrict is a low-level administrative division of a district.

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