Malankara Rite

The Malankara Rite is the form of the West Syriac liturgical rite practiced by several churches of the Saint Thomas Christian community in Kerala, India. West Syriac liturgy was brought to India by the Syriac Orthodox Bishop of Jerusalem, Gregorios Abdal Jaleel, in 1665; in the following decades the Malankara Rite emerged as the liturgy of the Malankara Church, one of the two churches that evolved from the split in the Saint Thomas Christian community in the 17th century. Today it is practiced by the various churches that descend from the Malankara Church, namely the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (Indian Orthodox Church), the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, the Malabar Independent Syrian Church, and the Mar Thoma Syrian Church.

Syro-Malankara Holy Mass 1
Malankara Rite liturgy of Syro-Malankara Catholic Church

History

Holy mass of the Syriac Orthodox Church
Malankara Rite liturgy in the Malankara Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church

The West Syriac Rite developed out of the ancient Antiochene Rite, emerging in the 5th and 6th century with the adoption of Syriac, rather than Greek, as the liturgical language of the non-Chalcedonian Patriarchate of Antioch.[1] The liturgy was further revised and expanded over the centuries as the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch emerged as a fully distinct church, reaching its "classical" form in the 12th century under Patriarch Michael the Syrian.[1]

West Syriac liturgy was first introduced to India by the mission of Gregorios Abdal Jaleel, the Syriac Orthodox Bishop of Jerusalem, who arrived in 1665.[2][3] Historically, the Indian church was part of the Church of the East, centred in Persia, and practiced a variant of the East Syriac Rite known as the Malabar Rite.[4][5] However, a decline in communications between the Patriarchate and India led the Saint Thomas Christians to attempt to establish relations with other churches. As early as 1491 the Archdeacon of Malabar sent envoys to the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch as part of an effort to receive a bishop for his bishopless province.[6] In the end nothing came of the request, and the Patriarch of the Church of the East eventually sent a new bishop.[6]

In 1653, a group of Saint Thomas Christians disaffected by Portuguese colonial rule joined Archdeacon Thomas in vowing not to submit to Portuguese authority. This avowal, known as the Coonan Cross Oath, led to the formation of an independent Malankara Church with Thomas as its head. To affirm his consecration as bishop, Thomas sent requests to several churches including the Syriac Orthodox Church proposing a union. Syriac Orthodox Patriarch Ignatius Simon I responded by sending Gregorios Abdal Jaleel to India in 1665, and the relationship between the Syriac Orthodox and Malankara Churches was born.[3]

Description

Adoption of West Syriac practice by the Malankara Church was gradual; in the early days of its independence the church was more interested in reversing the changes the Portuguese had imposed upon the Malabar Rite than in adopting a new liturgy.[7][8] Indeed, among its first steps were to restore the usage of leavened bread and the Julian calendar.[7] Under the influence of Gregorios, the church adopted West Syriac vestments, while twenty years later, West Syriac prelates introduced the West Syriac Liturgy of Saint James and the Antiochene rules concerning fasting, feast days, and prohibitions regarding the liturgy.[9] Still, there was no systematized adoption of West Syriac practice for nearly one hundred years; in the meantime the church practiced a combination of West Syriac and Malabar Rite.[10]

Formal steps towards adoption of the West Syriac Rite came in 1772, when bishops visiting from Antioch consecrated Mar Thoma VI as Mar Dionysius I and established a systematic church hierarchy.[7] Amid visits by a church prelate in 1846 and the Patriarch himself in 1875, the church fully adopted West Syriac practice.[7] Following the splits within the Malankara Church in the 19th century and its final breakup in the 20th century, the churches that developed from it have retained the Malankara Rite. Today the rite is essentially West Syriac in character with some local variations, which sometimes retain elements now archaic in the wider West Syriac tradition.[8] For example, the Malankara Rite includes the observance of the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts on weekdays during Great Lent and on the Friday of Passion Week.[8] Since the 20th century Syriac has largely been replaced as the liturgical language by Malayalam.[8]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Chupungco, p. 15.
  2. ^ "Christians of Saint Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
  3. ^ a b Wainwright, p. 159.
  4. ^ Baum, p. 53.
  5. ^ Chupungco, p. 17; 22–23
  6. ^ a b Baum, p. 105.
  7. ^ a b c d King, p. 323.
  8. ^ a b c d Chupungco, p. 17.
  9. ^ King, pp. 321–323.
  10. ^ King, p. 322.

References

  • "Christians of Saint Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 9, 2010.
  • Baum, Wilhelm; Winkler, Dietmar W. (2003). The Church of the East: A Concise History. London-New York: Routledge-Curzon.
  • Chupungco, Anscar J. (1997). Handbook for Liturgical Studies. Liturgical Press. ISBN 0-8146-6161-0. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  • King, Archdale (2007). The Rites of Eastern Christendom. 1. Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 1-59333-391-9.
  • Wainwright, Geoffrey; Karen Beth Westerfield Tucker (2006). The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513886-4. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
Catholic Bishops' Conference of India

The Catholic Bishops' Conference of India or CBCI is the permanent association of the Catholic bishops of India. It was established in September 1944, in Chennai. The CBCI Secretariat was located in Bangalore until 1962, when it was shifted to the national capital, New Delhi. The CBCI is a member of the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences.

Francis Acharya

Francis Acharya (born Jean Richard Mahieu; 17 January 1912 – 31 January 2002) was a Belgian Cistercian monk of Scourmont Abbey. Taking Indian citizenship, he founded the Syro-Malankara rite Kristiya Sanyasa Samaj, Kurisumala Ashram, later (in 1998) affiliated to the Trappist Order.

Holy Qurbana

The Holy Qurbana or Holy Qurbono (ܩܘܪܒܢܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ qurbānā qadišā in Eastern Syriac, pronounced qurbono qadisho in Western Syriac), the "Holy Offering" or "Holy Sacrifice", refers to the Eucharist as celebrated in Syriac Christianity. This includes various Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches, including the Syriac Orthodox Church based in Syria, the Coptic Orthodox Church based in Egypt, the Maronite Catholic Church based in Lebanon, the Syriac Catholic Church based in Lebanon, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church based in India, the Chaldean Catholic Church based in Iraq, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church based in Ethiopia, the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church based in India (an archbishopric of the Syriac Orthodox Church), and the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church based in India. The East Syriac Rite is used in the Assyrian Church of the East based in Iraq as well, however they are not in official communion with Oriental Orthodoxy, and they are not a part of the Eastern Catholic churches.

The main Anaphora of the East Syriac tradition is the Holy Qurbana of Saints Addai and Mari, while that of the West Syriac tradition is the Divine Liturgy of Saint James.

List of churches in Secunderabad and Hyderabad

The twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad in India have many churches of architectural value which were primarily built under British colonial rule, during the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. Although much smaller in size compared to Hyderabad, Secunderabad has far more churches than its twin, as a result of its being a British Cantonment under direct British rule, from its founding in 1806 to 1947. Most of the prominent churches in the twin cities are concentrated in and around the historic Clock Tower and Abids areas. New and local churches are being established in and around the Twin cities.

Under the discipline of Church history these Churches are classified as,

Roman Catholic Churches,

Orthodox Churches,

Protestant Churches,

New and Indigenous Churches

Malankara

Malankara is the endonym for historical region which forms present day Kerala in India.

The term Malankara may also refer to:

Malankara Church, a historic Christian church, formed ca. 1653, whose heritage is shared today mostly by:

the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, an autonomous Oriental Orthodox Church, an integral branch of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch

the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, an autocephalous (independent) Oriental Orthodox Church

the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church

the Mar Thoma Syrian Church, a Reformed Church, part of the anglican Communion

the Malabar Independent Syrian Church, an unaffiliated Church

Malankara Metropolitan, a title used by many denominations emanating from the Malankara Church

Malankara Rite, a version of the West Syriac liturgical rite shared by several South Indian churches

Malankara Church

The Malankara Church was a church of the Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala, India, with particular emphasis on the part of the community that joined Archdeacon Mar Thoma in swearing to resist the authority of the Portuguese Padroado in 1653. This faction soon entered into a relationship with the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch.As part of the Saint Thomas Christian community, the church traced its origins to the evangelical activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century. As an independent faction, it originated in the first major split within the Saint Thomas Christian community. Historically, the Thomas Christians had been united in leadership and liturgy, and were part of the Church of the East, based in Persia. However, the collapse of the Church of the East's hierarchy in Asia left the province of India effectively isolated, and through the 16th century, the Portuguese, recently established in Goa, forcefully drew the Thomas Christians into Latin Rite Catholicism. Resentment of these measures led the majority of the community to join the archdeacon, Thoma, in swearing never to submit to the Portuguese in the Coonan Cross Oath. Several months later Thoma was ordained as the first indigenous Metropolitan of Malankara.

Following the Oath, in 1661 Pope Alexander VII established a new East Syriac Rite hierarchy in communion with Rome for the Saint Thomas Christians; by the next year 84 of the 116 communities had joined, forming what is now the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. The remaining 32 communities stayed independent, and formed a relationship with the Syriac Orthodox Church. Over the next centuries this relationship strengthened, and the Malankara Church adopted a variant of the West Syriac Rite known as the Malankara Rite (as opposed to the previous East Syriac usage) and entered into full communion with the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch. However, through this time the church experienced a series of splits, resulting in large numbers of followers breaking away.

In 1772 a Syriac Orthodox bishop consecrated Kattumangatt Kurien (Mar Cyril) as his successor against the wishes of the Metropolitan, Mar Dionysius I; Cyril led a faction that eventually became the Malabar Independent Syrian Church. In the 19th century, a reform movement inspired by British missionaries led to the formation of the independent Mar Thoma Syrian Church, while the rest of the church, resistant to British influence, came under the direct jurisdiction of the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch in 1876. In 1912, a dispute over authority between supporters of the Metropolitan and supporters of the Patriarch finally divided the Malankara Church, with the former group becoming the essentially independent Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church under the Catholicos of the East and the latter maintaining ties with the Patriarch as the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church. Motions by the church leaders and two Supreme Court decisions in the 20th century failed to heal the rift. In 1930, a reunion group split away and entered into communion with the Catholic Church as the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church with its own liturgy.

Mundakayam

Mundakayam, is a town in Kanjirappally Taluk in the Kottayam District of Kerala. It is the doorway to the high ranges of southern Kerala, and is at the border of Kottayam and Idukki districts. The next nearest town, Kanjirappally, is 14 km (8.7 mi) from Mundakayam. Mundakayam has rubber plantations, and greenery. The Manimala River runs through Mundakayam. It is located 48 km east of the district headquarters at Kottayam and 148 km from the state capital, Thiruvananthapuram. The name Mundakayam is said to be derived from the Mundi cranes that used to be seen along the Manimala River banks.

St. Mary's Church, Marady

St. Mary's Jacobite Syrian Church is a church situated in Kurukkunnapuram, East Marady, Muvattupuzha, Kerala, India.

St Antony's Syro-Malabar Forane Church, Kurumpanadam

Kurumpanadam Forane Church in Kerala, India is on a hillock about 6 km east of Changanacherry and 800 metres north of Perumpanachy Junction. This area was a part of Changanacherry Parish in ancient days and later from 1835 to 1837 under the jurisdiction of Thuruthi Parish. The Mooppachanmar (Senior Fathers) who had visited Kurumbanadu to select aspirants for priesthood selected Chorikkavungal Zackarias and Mukkattukunnel Thomas from this area. They requested the Catholics of this area to erect a church. Following their request, 93 Catholic families who had inhabited Kurumbanadu erected the first Catholic Church here on 13 June 1837. It had stood on the north of the present church. As the church was not spacious enough, the construction of a new church was started in 1844. Fr. Philipose Chalackal, a parishioner of Thuruthi, was the vicar of Kurumpanadu. The main role in the construction of the new church was played by Fathers Thomas Mukkattukunnel and Zackarias Chorickavunkal.

Syro-Malankara Catholic Archeparchy of Tiruvalla

The Syro-Malankara Catholic Archeparchy of Tiruvalla is an archeparchy of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church in Tiruvalla, in Kerala, India. Metropolitan Archbishop Aboon Mor Thomas Koorilos currently presides. The seat of the eparchy is at St. John's Syro-Malankara Catholic Cathedral in

Tiruvalla, a circular edifice designed by a British architect.

Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of Gurgaon

The Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of Gurgaon was established by Pope Francis on 26 March 2015. This diocese has a huge territory in north India, including 22 of the 29 states of India. At the southern boundary of the diocese are the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa. The bishop's residence and chancery is at the Mar Ivanios Bhavan in Neb Sarai.

Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of Marthandom

The Eparchy of Marthandom (also called Marthandam) is a Syro-Malankara Catholic diocese in Tamil Nadu. It was created by Pope John Paul II on 16 December 1996. It was the fourth diocese of the Syro-Malankara church. It consists of three civil districts: Kaliakkavilai, Marthandam, Nagercoil.

Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of Parassala

The Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of Parassala was established by Pope Francis on 5 August 2017. It is for the Syro-Malankara Catholics of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Its first bishop is Thomas Mar Eusebius.

Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of Pathanamthitta

The Eparchy of Pathanamthitta constitutes the Malankara Syrian Catholic community in the Vicinity of Pathanamthitta in the Indian State of Kerala. The Diocese came into existence with the consent of Pope Benedict XVI, on 25 January 2010. Yoohanon Mar Chrysostom became the first bishop of this Eparchy. St. Peter’s Malankara Catholic Church, Pathanamthitta serves as the Cathedral Church for this Eparchy.

Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of Puthur

The Syro-Malankara Catholic Eparchy of Puthur (or - Puttur) (also called Puthur of the Syro-Malankars), the first Syro-Malankara Catholic diocese in India's southern Karnataka, is a suffragan in the ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Syro-Malankara Catholic Archeparchy of Tiruvalla, which depends on the Major Archbishop of Trivandrum, the head of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church (Antiochian Rite Eastern Catholic particular church in Syriac and Malayalam languages), and with it on the Roman Congregation for the Oriental Churches.

Its episcopal see is the St. Mary’s Pro-Cathedral at Noojibalthila, in Kerala's Puttur taluk. Its headquarters are Catholic Bishop's House, Parladka, P.O. Puttur, 574203, Karnataka .

Syro-Malankara Catholic Exarchate of Khadki

The Syro-Malankara Catholic Apostolic Exarchate of Khadki or Apostolic Exarchate of Saint Ephrem of Khadki was established by Pope Francis on 26 March 2015. It is for the Syro-Malankara Catholics of Maharashtra, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It has its pro-cathedral see in the town of Khadki, near Pune, in western India's Maharashtra state.

The apostolic exarchate, an exempt diocese (i.e. immediately subject to the Holy See, not part of either province of the particular church) extends throughout the southern part of India that had formerly not been under dioceses of the Syro-Malankara Church. The mission of the Syro-Malankara church began in 1955 with the founding of Bethany Ashram in Pune for the pastoral care of migrants.

West Syriac Rite

The West Syriac Rite or West Aramean Rite, also called Syro-Antiochian Rite, is an Eastern Christian liturgical rite that uses the Divine Liturgy of Saint James in the West Syriac dialect. It is one of two main liturgical rites of Syriac Christianity. It is chiefly practiced in the Syriac Orthodox Church and churches related to or descended from it. It is part of the liturgical family known as the Antiochian Rite, which originated in the ancient Patriarchate of Antioch. It has more anaphoras than any other rite.

The rite is practised in the Syriac Orthodox Church, an Oriental Orthodox body; the Syriac Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See; to a great extent in the Maronite Catholic Church, another Eastern Catholic body. A regional variant, the Malankara Rite, developed in the Malankara Church of India, and is still practised in its descendant churches.

West Syriac liturgical rites

West Syriac liturgical rites, also known as West Syrian, Jacobite, or Antiochene liturgical rites, are the liturgical rites practiced by churches following the West Syriac tradition of Syriac Christianity. These rites developed out of the ancient Antiochene Rite of the Patriarchate of Antioch, adapting the old Greek liturgy into Syriac, the language of the Syrian countryside.West Syriac liturgies represent one of the major strains in Syriac Christianity, the other being the East Syriac Rite, the liturgy of the Church of the East and its descendants. Distinct West Syriac liturgies developed following the Council of Chalcedon (451), which largely divided the Christian community in Antioch into Melkites, who supported the Emperor and the Council and adopted the Byzantine Rite, and the non-Chalcedonians, who rejected the council and developed an independent liturgy – the West Syriac Rite. An independent West Syriac community that grew around the monastery of Saint Maron eventually developed into the Maronite Church, which uses its own Maronite Rite. A variant of the West Syriac Rite, the Malankara Rite, developed in the Malankara Church of India and is still used in its descendant churches.

Yoohanon Mar Chrysostom

Yoohanon Mar Chrysostom (born 19 May 1944) is the Metropolitan Bishop of the Eparchy of Pathanamthitta of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. He was the third son of Abraham and Achiyamma of the Kalloor family at Kadammanitta, in Pathanamthitta District.

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