Malachite

Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2. This opaque, green banded mineral crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, and most often forms botryoidal, fibrous, or stalagmitic masses, in fractures and spaces, deep underground, where the water table and hydrothermal fluids provide the means for chemical precipitation. Individual crystals are rare but do occur as slender to acicular prisms. Pseudomorphs after more tabular or blocky azurite crystals also occur.[4]

Malachite
Malachite, Zaire
General
CategoryCarbonate mineral
Formula
(repeating unit)
Cu2CO3(OH)2
Strunz classification5.BA.10
Crystal systemMonoclinic
Crystal classPrismatic (2/m)
(same H-M symbol)
Space groupP21/a
Identification
Formula mass221.1 g/mol
ColorBright green, dark green, blackish green, commonly banded in masses; green to yellowish green in transmitted light
Crystal habitMassive, botryoidal, stalactitic, crystals are acicular to tabular prismatic
TwinningCommon as contact or penetration twins on {100} and {201}. Polysynthetic twinning also present.
CleavagePerfect on {201} fair on {010}
FractureSubconchoidal to uneven
Mohs scale hardness3.5-4
LusterAdamantine to vitreous; silky if fibrous; dull to earthy if massive
Streaklight green
DiaphaneityTranslucent to opaque
Specific gravity3.6–4
Optical propertiesBiaxial (–)
Refractive indexnα = 1.655 nβ = 1.875 nγ = 1.909
Birefringenceδ = 0.254
References[1][2][3][4]

Etymology and history

Great Orme Copper Mine - geograph.org.uk - 819
The entrance to the Neolithic era malachite mine complex on the Great Orme

The stone's name derives (via Latin: molochītis, Middle French: melochite, and Middle English melochites) from Greek Μολοχίτης λίθος molochitis lithos, "mallow-green stone", from μολόχη molōchē, variant of μαλάχη malāchē, "mallow".[5] The mineral was given this name due to its resemblance to the leaves of the mallow plant.[6]

Malachite was extensively mined at the Great Orme mines in Britain 3,800 years ago using stone and bone tools. Archaeological evidence indicates that mining activity ended around 600 B.C.E with up to 1,760 tonnes of copper being produced from the mined Malachite.[7][8]

Archaeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted to obtain copper at Timna Valley in Israel for over 3,000 years.[9] Since then, malachite has been used as both an ornamental stone and as a gemstone.

In ancient Egypt the colour green (wadj) was associated with death and the power of resurrection as well as new life and fertility. Ancient Egyptians believed that the afterlife contained an eternal paradise which resembled their lives but with no pain or suffering, and referred to this place as the ‘Field of Malachite’.[10]

Use

Ajuar funerario de la Reina Roja - 8
The funerary mask of the Red Queen of Palenque is made from a mosaic of malachite.[11]

Malachite was used as a mineral pigment in green paints from antiquity until about 1800.[12] The pigment is moderately lightfast, very sensitive to acids, and varying in color. This natural form of green pigment has been replaced by its synthetic form, verditer, among other synthetic greens. Malachite is also used for decorative purposes, such as in the Malachite Room in the Hermitage Museum, which features a huge malachite vase, and the Malachite Room in Castillo de Chapultepec in Mexico City. "The Tazza", a large malachite vase, one of the largest pieces of malachite in North America and a gift from Tsar Nicholas II, stands as the focal point in the centre of the room of Linda Hall Library.

Malachite has also been used on the base of the FIFA World Cup Trophy.

Occurrence

Malachite often results from the weathering of copper ores, and is often found together with azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2), goethite, and calcite. Except for its vibrant green color, the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones, the source of the carbonate.

Large quantities of malachite have been mined in the Urals, Russia. Ural malachite is not being mined at present,[13] but G.N Vertushkova reports the possible discovery of new deposits of malachite in the Urals.[14] It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Gabon; Zambia; Tsumeb, Namibia; Mexico; Broken Hill, New South Wales; Lyon, France; Timna Valley, Israel; and the Southwestern United States, most notably in Arizona.[15]

Gallery

Malachite-41365

Slice through a double stalactite, from Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Size 5.9 × 3.9 × 0.7 cm.

Malachite Kolwezi Katanga Congo

A polished slab of malachite, from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Azurite-Malachite-163967

Malachite and azurite from Bisbee, Warren District, Mule Mts, Cochise County, Arizona, USA

Malachite-153552

Malachite stalactites (to 9 cm height), from Kasompi Mine, Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Size: 21.6×16.0×11.9 cm.

Malachite, da rep. dem. congo

Sample of malachite found at Kaluku Luku Mine, Lubumbashi, Shaba, Congo

Malachite polie (République démocratique du Congo)

Polished malachite from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Malachite-140509

A polished slab of malachite showing distinctive green banding.

Malachite-Opal-oldeuro-75a

Malachite with hyalite opal

Ermitáž (32)

Vase in malachite in the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg

Austrian - Gothic-Style Bracelet - Walters 571999

Gothic-style bracelet with malachite (circa 1870). The Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Malachite-47496

Botryoidal malachite specimen

Barite-Malachite-denv08-37a

Barite (included by malachite) on malachite

See also

References

  1. ^ Mineralienatlas
  2. ^ Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W.; Nichols, Monte C., eds. (2003). "Malachite". Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF). V (Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates). Chantilly, Virginia, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209740.
  3. ^ Malachite. Webmineral
  4. ^ a b Malachite. Mindat
  5. ^ Malachite, Dictionary.com
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "malachite". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  7. ^ Johnson, Ben, ed. (2014). "The Great Orme Mines". Retrieved 2017-06-06.
  8. ^ Ruggeri, Amanda (21 April 2016). "The Ancient Copper Mines Dug By Bronze Age Children". BBC. Retrieved 2017-06-06.
  9. ^ Parr, Peter J. (1974) Review of "Timma: Valley of the Biblical Copper Mines" by Beno Rothenberg Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 37, No. 1, In Memory of W. H. Whiteley, pp. 223–224
  10. ^ Hill, J (2010). "Meaning of green in ancient Egypt". Ancient Egypt Online. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  11. ^ "The Red Queen and Her Sisters: Women of Power in Golden Kingdoms". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  12. ^ Gettens, R.J. and Fitzhugh, E. W. (1993) "Malachite and Green Verditer", pp. 183–202 in Artists’ Pigments. A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, Vol. 2: A. Roy (Ed.) Oxford University Press. ISBN 0894682601
  13. ^ Куда делись символы России? Argumenty i Fakty (24 May 2006)
  14. ^ Somin, L. M. Тайны седого Урала. Малахит. oldrushistory.ru
  15. ^ Mindat map with over 8500 locations. mindat.org

Further reading

External links

  • The dictionary definition of malachite at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Malachite at Wikimedia Commons
Antimicrobials in aquaculture

Antimicrobials destroy bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, and other microbes. The cells of bacteria (prokaryotes), such as salmonella, differ from those of higher-level organisms (eukaryotes), such as fish. Antibiotics are chemicals designed to either kill or inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria while exploiting the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in order to make them relatively harmless in higher-level organisms. Antibiotics are constructed to act in one of three ways: by disrupting cell membranes of bacteria (rendering them unable to regulate themselves), by impeding DNA or protein synthesis, or by hampering the activity of certain enzymes unique to bacteria.Antibiotics are used in aquaculture to treat diseases caused by bacteria. Sometimes the antibiotics are used to treat diseases, but more commonly antibiotics are used to prevent diseases by treating the water or fish before disease occurs. While this prophylactic method of preventing disease is profitable because it prevents loss and allows fish to grow more quickly, there are several downsides.

The overuse of antibiotics can create antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can spontaneously arise when selective pressure to survive results in changes to the DNA sequence of a bacterium allowing that bacterium to survive antibiotic treatments. Because some of the same antibiotics are used to treat fish that are used to treat human disease, pathogenic bacteria causing human disease can also become resistant to antibiotics as a result of treatment of fish with antibiotics. For this reason, the overuse of antibiotics in treatment of fish aquaculture (among other agricultural uses) could create public health issues.

Azurite

Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. In the early 19th century, it was also known as chessylite after the type locality at Chessy-les-Mines near Lyon, France. The mineral, a carbonate with the chemical formula Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2, has been known since ancient times, and was mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Natural History under the Greek name kuanos (κυανός: "deep blue," root of English cyan) and the Latin name caeruleum. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear, and for that reason the mineral has tended to be associated since antiquity with the deep blue color of low-humidity desert and winter skies. The modern English name of the mineral reflects this association, since both azurite and azure are derived via Arabic from the Persian lazhward (لاژورد), an area known for its deposits of another deep blue stone, lapis lazuli ("stone of azure").

Botryoidal

A botryoidal texture or mineral habit is one in which the mineral has a globular external form resembling a bunch of grapes as derived from the Greek botruoeidēs. This is a common form for many minerals, particularly hematite, the classically recognized shape. It is also a common form of goethite, smithsonite, fluorite and malachite. This includes chrysocolla.

Each sphere (grape) in a botryoidal mineral is smaller than that of a reniform mineral, and much smaller than that of a mamillary mineral. Botryoidal minerals form when many nearby nuclei, specks of sand, dust, or other particles, are present. Acicular or fibrous crystals grow radially around the nuclei at the same rate, appearing as spheres. Eventually, these spheres abut or overlap with those that are nearby. These nearby spheres are then fused together to form the botryoidal cluster.

Chalcopyrite

Chalcopyrite ( KAL-ko-PY-ryt) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. It has the chemical formula CuFeS2. It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged black.

On exposure to air, chalcopyrite oxidises to a variety of oxides, hydroxides and sulfates. Associated copper minerals include the sulfides bornite (Cu5FeS4), chalcocite (Cu2S), covellite (CuS), digenite (Cu9S5); carbonates such as malachite and azurite, and rarely oxides such as cuprite (Cu2O). Chalcopyrite is rarely found in association with native copper.

Chlorolestes apricans

Chlorolestes apricans is a species of damselfly in the family Synlestidae.

Hallan Çemi Tepesi

Hallan Çemi Tepesi is a Protoneolithic site in south-eastern Anatolia which was discovered in 1989 and is believed to be more than 11,000 years old (founded c. 9500 BC). Tools were made from flint and obsidian. There is evidence of malachite, a copper ore, being imported and suggesting the existence of a trading network. Staples included lentils, almonds and pistachios. Whereas sheep and goat were usually the first animals to be kept as livestock by Near East communities, it appears that Hallan Çemi began with pigs.

List of shipwrecks in November 1914

The list of shipwrecks in November 1914 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during November 1914.

Malachite Room of the Winter Palace

The Malachite Room of the Winter Palace, St Petersburg, was designed in the late 1830s by the architect Alexander Briullov for use a formal reception room for the Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna, wife of Nicholas I. It replaced the Jasper Room, which was destroyed in the fire of 1837.The room obtains its name from the use of malachite for its columns and fireplace. This large salon contains a large malachite urn as well as furniture from the workshops of Peter Gambs (1802-1871), son of the famous furniture maker Heinrich Gambs, which were rescued from the 1837 fire.

During the Tsarist era, the Malachite Room, which links the state rooms to the private rooms, served as not only a state drawing room of the Tsaritsa, but also as a gathering place for the Imperial family before and during official functions. It was here that Romanov brides were traditionally dressed by the Tsarina before proceeding from the adjoining Arabian Hall to their weddings in the Grand Church.From June to October 1917 this room was the seat of the Russian Provisional Government. When the palace was stormed during the night of 7 November 1917, the members of the Government were arrested in the adjoining private dining room.Today, as part of the State Hermitage Museum, this room retains its original decoration.

Malachite green

Malachite green is an organic compound that is used as a dyestuff and controversially as an antimicrobial in aquaculture. Malachite green is traditionally used as a dye for materials such as silk, leather, and paper. Despite its name the dye is not prepared from the mineral malachite, and the name just comes from the similarity of color.

Malachite kingfisher

The malachite kingfisher (Corythornis cristatus) is a river kingfisher which is widely distributed in Africa south of the Sahara. It is largely resident except for seasonal climate-related movements.

Malachite sunbird

The malachite sunbird (Nectarinia famosa) is a small nectarivorous bird found from the highlands of Ethiopia southwards to South Africa. They pollinate many flowering plants, particularly those with long corolla tubes, in the Fynbos.

Malakhit Marine Engineering Bureau

Malakhit Marine Engineering Bureau (Russian: морское бюро машиностроения «Малахит») is a company based in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It is part of United Shipbuilding Corporation.

Malakhit Marine Engineering Bureau has designed nuclear-powered attack submarines including the November, Victor-class, Alfa, and Akula. Malakhit also designs torpedo tubes and submarine missile armament complexes. In addition it designs small submersibles for intelligence collection, deep-diving oceanographic research and rescue, and commercial applications.

Moab Man

The Moab Man (also called "Malachite man") is a find of several human skeletons found after bulldozing in a mine whose rock dated to the Early Cretaceous period, about 140 million years ago. The original discovery of two individuals was made in 1971 by Lin Ottinger in the Keystone Azurite Mine near Moab, Utah and has been used by creationists as an argument for humans coexisting with dinosaurs. John Marwitt, an archaeologist and the field director for the Utah Archaeological Survey, examined the fossils and concluded that the fossils were probably only hundreds of years old, the result of burials of Native Americans.

Pavel Bazhov

Pavel Petrovich Bazhov (Russian: Па́вел Петро́вич Бажо́в; 27 January 1879 – 3 December 1950) was a Russian writer.

Bazhov is best known for his collection of fairy tales The Malachite Box, based on Ural folklore and published in the Soviet Union in 1939. In 1944, the translation of the collection into English was published in New York City and London. Later Sergei Prokofiev created the ballet The Tale of the Stone Flower based on one of the tales. Bazhov was also the author of several books on the Russian Revolution and the Civil War. Yegor Gaidar, who served as Prime Minister of Russia, was his grandson.

Shades of green

Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation or intensity) or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Siproeta stelenes

Siproeta stelenes (malachite) is a neotropical brush-footed butterfly (family Nymphalidae). The malachite has large wings that are black and brilliant green or yellow-green on the upperside and light brown and olive green on the underside. It is named for the mineral malachite, which is similar in color to the bright green on the butterfly's wings. Typically, the wingspread is between 8.5 and 10 cm (3.3 and 3.9 in). The malachite is found throughout Central and northern South America, where it is one of the most common butterfly species. Its distribution extends as far north as southern Texas and the tip of Florida, to Cuba as subspecies S. s. insularis (Holland, 1916), and S. s. biplagiata, and south to Brazil.

Adults feed on flower nectar, rotting fruit, dead animals, and bat dung. Females lay eggs on the new leaves of plants in the family Acanthaceae, especially ruellia. The larvae are horned, spiny, black caterpillars with red markings.

Malachites often are confused with Philaethria dido. They have similar coloration, but their wing shapes are different.

Super Watermelon Island

"Super Watermelon Island" is the first episode of the third season of American animated television series Steven Universe, which premiered on May 12, 2016 on Cartoon Network. It was written and storyboarded by Joe Johnston and Jeff Liu. The episode was viewed by 1.693 million viewers.

The episode resolves the threat of Malachite, established at the end of the first season. After astral projecting into one of the Watermelon Stevens and learning that they have founded a civilization on Mask Island, Steven finds Malachite on the island as well; he tells the Gems, who warp there and fuse into Alexandrite to defeat Malachite and break her fusion.

The Mistress of the Copper Mountain

The Mistress of the Copper Mountain (Russian: Хозяйка медной горы, tr. Hozjajka mednoj gory), also known as The Malachite Maid, is a legendary creature from Slavic mythology and a Russian fairy tale character, the mountain spirit from the legends of the Ural miners and the Mistress of the Ural Mountains of Russia. In the national folktales and legends, she is depicted as an extremely beautiful green-eyed young woman in a malachite gown or as a lizard with a crown. She has been viewed as the patroness of miners, the protector and owner of hidden underground riches, the one who can either permit or prevent the mining of stones and metals in certain places.

"The Copper Mountain" is the Gumyoshevsky mine, the oldest mine of the Ural Mountains, which was called "The Copper Mountain" or simply "The Mountain" by the populace. It is now located in the town of Polevskoy, Sverdlovsk Oblast. In some regions of the Ural Mountains, the image of the Mistress is connected with another female creature from the local folktales, the Azov Girl (Russian: Азовка, tr. Azovka), the enchanted girl or princess who lives inside Mount Azov.The Mistress of the Copper Mountain became a well known character from her appearance in Pavel Bazhov's collection of the Ural Mountains folktales (also known as skaz) called The Malachite Box. The Mistress appears in the third skaz, "The Mistress of the Copper Mountain" and in 9 other stories from the collection, including "The Stone Flower", "The Manager's Boot-Soles", "Sochen and His Stones".

Waterfalls of the West Fork Foss River Valley

The valley of the West Fork Foss River contains a fair amount of waterfalls. The river heads in a series of large lakes: Big Heart Lake, Angeline Lake, and Otter Lake- which form spectacular waterfalls as they plunge down to Delta Lake. On the valley walls downstream of Delta Lake, are found even more waterfalls.

There are a series of waterfalls occurring on the cliff where Malachite Lake and Copper Lake's outlet streams plunge down to meet the West Fork Foss River, in King County, Washington. This cliff drops thousands of feet into the basin of the West Fork, forming two sets of five waterfalls total. Two other waterfalls also drop down the cliff further downstream along the drainage. There are also some waterfalls on the West Fork itself.

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