Malachi

Malachi, Malachias, Malache or Mal'achi (/ˈmæləkaɪ/ (listen); Hebrew: מַלְאָכִי, Modern: Malakhi, Tiberian: Malʾāḵī, "Messenger", see malakh) was the writer of the Book of Malachi, the last book of the Neviim (prophets) section in the Hebrew Bible. No allusion is made to him by Ezra, however, and he does not directly mention the restoration of the temple. The editors of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia implied that he prophesied after Haggai and Zechariah (Malachi 1:10; 3:1, 3:10) and speculated that he delivered his prophecies about 420 BCE, after the second return of Nehemiah from Persia (Book of Nehemiah 13:6), or possibly before his return, comparing Malachi 2:8 with Nehemiah 13:15 (Malachi 2:10-16 with Nehemiah 13:23).

In the Septuagent or Greek Old Testament, the Prophetic Books are placed last, making Book of Malachi the last protocanonical book before the Deuterocanonical books or The New Testament. According to the 1897 Easton's Bible Dictionary, it is possible that Malachi is not a proper name, but simply means "messenger of YHWH".[1] The Greek Old Testament superscription is ἐν χειρὶ ἀγγέλου αὐτοῦ, (by the hand of his messenger).

Duccio di Buoninsegna 066
The Prophet Malachi , painting by Duccio di Buoninsegna, c. 1310-1311 (Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena Cathedral).

Name

Because Malachi's name does not occur elsewhere in the Bible, some scholars doubt whether "Malachi" is intended to be the personal name of the prophet. None of the other prophetic books of the Hebrew Bible or the Greek Old Testament are anonymous. The form mal'akhi, signifies "my messenger"; it occurs in Malachi 3:1 (compare to Malachi 2:7). But this form of itself would hardly be appropriate as a proper name without some additional syllable such as Yah, whence mal'akhiah, i.e. "messenger of Elohim." Haggai, in fact, is expressly designated "messenger of Elohim" (Haggai 1:13). Besides, the superscriptions prefixed to the book, in both the Septuagint and the Vulgate, warrant the supposition that Malachi's full name ended with the syllable -yah. At the same time the Greek Old Testament translates the last clause of Malachi 1:1, "by the hand of his messenger," and the Targum reads, "by the hand of my angel, whose name is called Ezra the scribe." [2]

Works

Tissot Malachi
Malachi (watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

The Jews of his day ascribed the Book of Malachi, the last book of prophecy, to Ezra but if Ezra's name was originally associated with the book, it would hardly have been dropped by the collectors of the prophetic canon who lived only a century or two subsequent to Ezra's time. Certain traditions ascribe the book to Zerubbabel and Nehemiah; others, still, to Malachi, whom they designate as a Levite and a member of the "Great Synagogue." Certain modern scholars, however, on the basis of the similarity of the title (compare Malachi 1:1 to Zechariah 9:1 and Zechariah 12:1), declare it to be anonymous. Professor G.G. Cameron, suggests that the termination of the word "Malachi" is adjectival, and equivalent to the Latin angelicus, signifying "one charged with a message or mission" (a missionary). The term would thus be an official title; and the thought would not be unsuitable to one whose message closed the prophetical canon of the Old Testament.[2]

Period

Opinions vary as to the prophet's exact date, but nearly all scholars agree that Malachi prophesied during the Persian period, and after the reconstruction and dedication of the second temple in 516 BCE (compare Malachi 1:10 ; Malachi 3:1, Malachi 3:10). The prophet speaks of the "people's governor" (Hebrew "pechah", Malachi 1:8), as do Haggai and Nehemiah (Haggai 1:1 ; Nehemiah 5:14 ; Nehemiah 12:26). The social conditions portrayed appear to be those of the period of the Restoration. More specifically, Malachi probably lived and labored during the times of Ezra and Nehemiah. The abuses which Malachi mentions in his writings correspond so exactly with those which Nehemiah found on his 2nd visit to Jerusalem in 432 BCE (Nehemiah 13:7) that it seems reasonably certain that he prophesied concurrently with Nehemiah or shortly after.[2]

According to Rabbi W. Gunther Plaut, "Malachi describes a priesthood that is forgetful of its duties, a Temple that is underfunded because the people have lost interest in it, and a society in which Jewish men divorce their Jewish wives to marry out of the faith."[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Malachi at the Easton's Bible Dictionary
  2. ^ a b c "www.Bibler.org - Dictionary - Malachi". 2012-08-07.
  3. ^ Plaut, W. Gunther. "Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi: Back in the Land", My Jewish Learning

External links

1904 Washington Senators season

The 1904 Washington Senators won 38 games, lost 113, and finished in eighth place in the American League. They were managed by Malachi Kittridge and Patsy Donovan and played home games at National Park.

Book of Malachi

Malachi (or Malachias; מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Mál'akhî) is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, canonically the last of the Twelve Minor Prophets. In the Christian ordering, the grouping of the Prophetic Books is the last section of the Old Testament, making Malachi the last book before The New Testament.

The book is commonly attributed to a prophet by the name of "Malachi," as its title has frequently been understood as a proper name, although its Hebrew meaning is simply "My Messenger " (the Septuagint reads "his messenger") and may not be the author's name at all. The name occurs in the superscription at 1:1 and in 3:1, although it is highly unlikely that the word refers to the same character in both of these references. Thus, there is substantial debate regarding the identity of the book's author. One of the Targums identifies Ezra (or Esdras) as the author of Malachi. Priest and Historian Jerome suggests that this may be because Ezra is seen as an intermediary between the prophets and the "great synagogue." There is, however, no historical evidence yet to support this claim.

Some scholars note affinities between Zechariah 9–14 and the Book of Malachi. Zechariah 9, Zechariah 12, and Malachi 1 are all introduced as The word of Elohim. Some scholars argue that this collection originally consisted of three independent and anonymous prophecies, two of which were subsequently appended to the Book of Zechariah as what they refer to as Deutero-Zechariah, with the third becoming the Book of Malachi. As a result, most scholars consider the Book of Malachi to be the work of a single author who may or may not have been identified by the title Malachi. The present division of the oracles results in a total of 12 books of minor prophets, a number parallelling the sons of Jacob who became the heads of the 12 Israelite tribes. The Catholic Encyclopedia asserts, "We are no doubt in presence of an abbreviation of the name Mál'akhîyah, that is Messenger of Elohim."

Dwight York

Dwight D. York (born June 26, 1945), also known as Malachi Z. York, Issa Al Haadi Al Mahdi, Dr. York, et alii, is an American criminal, musician, and writer who is known as the founding leader of various religious/political groups, including most notably the cult Nuwaubian movement. He is a convicted child molester.

He and his group were based in Brooklyn, New York. Around 1990 the community relocated to rural Putnam County, Georgia, where they built a large complex. York was convicted in 2004 of child molestation and violations of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act. He is serving a 135-year sentence.

York began his ministry in the late 1960s. In 1967 he was preaching to the "Ansaaru Allah" (viz. African Americans) in Brooklyn, New York, during the period of the Black Power movement. He founded numerous orders under various names during the 1970s and 1980s. These were at first based on pseudo-Islamic themes and Judaism (Nubian Islamic Hebrews). Later he developed a theme derived from "Ancient Egypt," mixing ideas taken from black nationalism, cryptozoological and UFO religions, and popular conspiracy theory. He last called his group the United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors, or Nuwabians.

York and the Nuwaubians came under scrutiny in the early 1990s, after they built Tama-Re, an Egyptian-themed "city" for about a hundred of his followers, in rural Putnam County, Georgia. Before York's trial, the community had been joined directly and in the area by hundreds of other followers from out of state, while alienating both black and white local residents. The community was intensively investigated after numerous reports that York had molested numerous children of his followers.

York was arrested in May 2002. In 2004 he was convicted on federal charges of transporting minors across state lines for the purposes of sexual molestation, as well as racketeering and financial reporting violations. York's case was reported as the largest prosecution for child molestation ever directed at a single person in the history of the United States, both in terms of number of victims and number of incidents.

Elijah

Elijah (; ih-LY-jə; Hebrew: אֵלִיָּהוּ, Eliyahu, meaning "My God is Yahweh/YHWH") or latinized form Elias ( ih-LY-əs) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC). In 1 Kings 18, Elijah defended the worship of the Hebrew God over that of the Canaanite deity Baal. God also performed many miracles through Elijah, including resurrection (raising the dead), bringing fire down from the sky, and entering Heaven alive "by fire". He is also portrayed as leading a school of prophets known as "the sons of the prophets". Following his ascension, Elisha, his disciple and most devoted assistant took over his role as leader of this school. The Book of Malachi prophesies Elijah's return "before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD", making him a harbinger of the Messiah and of the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. References to Elijah appear in Ecclesiasticus, the New Testament, the Mishnah and Talmud, the Quran, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and Bahá'í writings.

In Judaism, Elijah's name is invoked at the weekly Havdalah rite that marks the end of Shabbat, and Elijah is invoked in other Jewish customs, among them the Passover Seder and the brit milah (ritual circumcision). He appears in numerous stories and references in the Haggadah and rabbinic literature, including the Babylonian Talmud.

The Christian New Testament notes that some people thought that Jesus was, in some sense, Elijah. But Jesus makes it clear that John the Baptist is "the Elijah" who was promised to come in Malachi 3:1 in the Septuagint (Malachi 4:5). Christian doctrine says that Elijah appeared with Moses during the Transfiguration of Jesus.

In Islam, Elijah appears in the Quran as a prophet and messenger of God, where his biblical narrative of preaching against the worshipers of Baal is recounted in a concise form. Due to his importance to Muslims, Catholics and Orthodox Christians, Elijah has been venerated as the patron saint of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 1752.

Fred Durst

William Frederick Durst (born August 20, 1970) is an American musician and film director. Durst is best known as the vocalist of the American rap rock band Limp Bizkit, formed in 1994, with whom he has released six studio albums. He spent his formative years playing in a number of local bands in Jacksonville, Florida while mowing lawns and working as a tattoo artist.

Since 2006, Durst has also become known for his work in independent films. He costarred in the film Population 436, and made his directorial debut in 2007, with the film The Education of Charlie Banks. Durst directed a second film, The Longshots, in 2008. Durst has been ranked in the Top 100 Heavy Metal Vocalists by Hit Parader (number 71).

Hex (TV series)

Hex is a British television programme developed by Shine Limited and aired on the Sky One satellite channel. The story is set in a remote English boarding school with a mysterious past. Series one explores the supernatural relationship between a Fallen Angel named Azazeal and a student called Cassie who is also a witch. In the second series the story centres on 500-year-old anointed one Ella Dee, and Azazeal's son Malachi. Both series of the show are available on Region 2 DVD, with the first series released on Region 1 DVD in June 2007.

The show was cancelled in April 2006 after the end of the second series.

Kiryat Malakhi

Kiryat Malakhi (Hebrew: קִרְיַת מַלְאָכִי, also Qiryat Malakhi or Kiryat Malachi) is a city in the Southern District of Israel, 17 kilometres (11 mi) from Ashkelon. In 2017 it had a population of 22,337. Its jurisdiction is 4,632 dunams (~4.6 km²).

Malachi 4

Malachi 4 is the fourth chapter of the Book of Malachi in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies spoken by the prophet Malachi, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets.

Malachi Favors

Malachi Favors (August 22, 1927, Lexington, Mississippi – January 30, 2004, Chicago, Illinois) was an American jazz bassist who played with the Art Ensemble of Chicago.

Malachi Kirby

Malachi Kirby (born 20 September 1989) is an English actor known for his roles in Roots and Black Mirror.Kirby starred as Kunta Kinte in the 2016 version of Roots, portraying the lead character, Kunta Kinte. His performance was well received by critics.Kirby was shortlisted for the 'Outstanding Newcomer' award at the 2011 Evening Standard Theatre Awards.In October 2016, Kirby starred in an episode of the anthology series Black Mirror entitled "Men Against Fire", directed by Jakob Verbruggen.

Malachi Kittridge

Malachi Jeddidiah Kittridge [or Kittredge] (October 12, 1869, Clinton, Massachusetts – June 23, 1928, Gary, Indiana) was a catcher in Major League Baseball who played for the Chicago Colts (1890–97), Louisville Colonels (1898–99), Washington Senators (NL) (1899), Boston Beaneaters (1901–03), Washington Senators (AL) (1903–06) and Cleveland Naps (1906). Kittridge batted and threw right-handed.

Kittridge was not a good hitter, but in his career, he was regarded as having one of the best throwing arms. In 1904 he was hired as player-manager of the American League Washington Senators, but he started off horrendously, going 1–16 (.059) before being replaced by Patsy Donovan. The Senators would finish 38–113 that season. He was traded to Cleveland in the middle of the 1906 season, but he would only have five more at-bats for the Naps before retiring from baseball.

Kittridge died in Gary, Indiana at age 58.

Malachi Martin

or Malachi Martin (politician), who was a state legislator and prison warden in Florida

Malachi Brendan Martin (Irish: Maolsheachlainn Breandán Ó Máirtín; 23 July 1921–27 July 1999), occasionally writing under the pseudonym Michael Serafian, was an Irish Catholic priest and writer on the Catholic Church. Originally ordained as a Jesuit priest, he became Professor of Palaeography at the Vatican's Pontifical Biblical Institute. From 1958, he served as secretary to Cardinal Augustin Bea during preparations for the Second Vatican Council.

Disillusioned by Vatican II, he asked to be released from certain aspects of his Jesuit vows in 1964 and moved to New York City, where he later became an American citizen.

His 17 novels and non-fiction books were frequently critical of the Vatican hierarchy, whom he believed had failed to act on the third prophecy revealed by the Virgin Mary at Fátima. Among his most significant works were The Scribal Character of The Dead Sea Scrolls (1958) and Hostage To The Devil (1976) which dealt with Satanism, demonic possession, and exorcism. The Final Conclave (1978) was a warning against Soviet espionage in the Holy See|Soviet spies in the Vatican.

Malachi Richardson

Malachi Richardson (born January 5, 1996) is an American professional basketball player who plays for Canton Charge of the NBA G League. He played one season of college basketball for Syracuse before being selected by the Charlotte Hornets with the 22nd overall pick in the 2016 NBA draft.

Malachi Throne

Malachi Throne (December 1, 1928 – March 13, 2013) was an American stage and television actor, noted for his guest-starring roles on Star Trek, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, Lost in Space, Batman, Land of the Giants, The Time Tunnel, Mission: Impossible, and The Six Million Dollar Man, and best known as Noah Bain on It Takes a Thief.

Monster (Michael Jackson song)

"Monster" is a song credited to American recording artist Michael Jackson, featuring 50 Cent, released on Jackson's first posthumous album, Michael. The song was allegedly written by Michael Jackson, Eddie Cascio, James Porte, and its rap part was written by Curtis Jackson. Along with "Breaking News" and "Keep Your Head Up", the song was allegedly recorded in the Porte/Cascios' basement in 2007. These tracks have been controversial since their release, with Jackson's fans and family members doubting their authenticity since release. "Monster" had minor chart success and entered the UK Singles chart two weeks after the album's release. Due to the controversy, the scheduled single was cancelled.

Saint Malachy

Saint Malachy (Middle Irish: Máel Máedóc Ua Morgair; Modern Irish: Maelmhaedhoc Ó Morgair; Latin: Malachias) (1094 – 2 November 1148) was an Irish saint and Archbishop of Armagh, to whom were attributed several miracles and an alleged vision of 112 Popes later attributed to the apocryphal (i.e. of doubtful authenticity) Prophecy of the Popes. It is now believed by scholars that this document was a forgery created by Cardinal Girolamo Simoncelli.

Saint Malachy was the first native born Irish saint to be canonised. His brother was Gilla Críst Ua Morgair who later became Bishop Christian of Clogher from 1126 to 1138.

Stuck in the Middle (TV series)

Stuck in the Middle is an American comedy television series developed by Alison Brown and Linda Videtti Figueiredo and created by Alison Brown that aired on Disney Channel from February 14, 2016 to July 23, 2018. The series stars Jenna Ortega, Ronni Hawk, Isaak Presley, Ariana Greenblatt, Kayla Maisonet, Nicolas Bechtel, Malachi Barton, Cerina Vincent, and Joe Nieves. In addition to the series' regular episodes, the series also aired six shorts on December 16, 2016.

Twelve Minor Prophets

The Minor Prophets or Twelve Prophets (Aramaic: תרי עשר‎, Trei Asar, "Twelve"), occasionally Book of the Twelve, is the last book of the Nevi'im, the second main division of the Jewish Tanakh. The collection is broken up to form twelve individual books in the Christian Old Testament, one for each of the prophets. The terms "minor prophets" and "twelve prophets" can also refer to the twelve traditional authors of these works.

The term "Minor" relates to the length of each book (ranging from a single chapter to fourteen); even the longest is short compared to the three major prophets, Isaiah, Ezekiel and Jeremiah. It is not known when these short works were collected and transferred to a single scroll, but the first extra-biblical evidence we have for the Twelve as a collection is c. 190 BCE in the writings of Jesus ben Sirach, and evidence from the Dead Sea Scrolls suggests that the modern order was established by 150 BCE. It is believed that initially the first six were collected, and later the second six were added; the two groups seem to complement each other, with Hosea through Micah raising the question of iniquity, and Nahum through Malachi proposing resolutions.

Walter Scott

Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of both English-language literature and of Scottish literature. Famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, Waverley, The Heart of Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor.

Although primarily remembered for his extensive literary works and his political engagement, Scott was an advocate, judge and legal administrator by profession, and throughout his career combined his writing and editing work with his daily occupation as Clerk of Session and Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire.

A prominent member of the Tory establishment in Edinburgh, Scott was an active member of the Highland Society, served a long term as President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (1820–32) and was a Vice President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (1827-1829).As Encyclopædia Britannica argues: "Scott gathered the disparate strands of contemporary novel-writing techniques into his own hands and harnessed them to his deep interest in Scottish history and his knowledge of antiquarian lore. The technique of the omniscient narrator and the use of regional speech, localized settings, sophisticated character delineation, and romantic themes treated in a realistic manner were all combined by him into virtually a new literary form, the historical novel. His influence on other European and American novelists was immediate and profound, and though interest in some of his books declined somewhat in the 20th century, his reputation remains secure."

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