Makonde language

Makonde, or Kimakonde, is the language spoken by the Makonde, an ethnic group in southeast Tanzania and northern Mozambique. Makonde is a central Bantu language closely related to Yao. The Matembwe and Mabiha (Maviha) dialects are divergent, and may not be Makonde (Nurse 2003).

'Chikungunya', the name of a mosquito-borne viral fever, is derived from the Makonde root verb kungunyala (meaning "that which bends up", "to become contorted," or "to walk bent over") after the disease was first identified on the Makonde Plateau.[6] The derivation of the term is generally falsely attributed to Swahili.[7]

Native toTanzania, Malawi, Kenya
EthnicityMakonde, Ndonde Hamba
Native speakers
1.4 million (2006)[2]
  • Matembwe–Machinga
  • Mabiha
  • Ndonde Hamba (Mawanda)
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
kde – Makonde, Mabiha
mvw – Machinga
njd – Ndonde Hamba[1]
Glottologmako1251  Makonde[3]
mach1265  Machinga[4]


  1. ^ Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
  2. ^ Makonde, Mabiha at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Machinga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Ndonde Hamba[1] at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Makonde". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Machinga". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  6. ^ Morens DM and Fauci AS (2014). "Chikungunya at the Door — Déjà Vu All Over Again?". New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (10): 885–887. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1408509. PMID 25029435.
  7. ^ Singh, SS; Manimunda, SP; Sugunan, AP; Sahina, Vijayachari P (2008). "Four cases of acute flaccid paralysis associated with chikungunya virus infection". Epidemiol Infect. 136 (9): 1277–80. doi:10.1017/S0950268807009739. PMC 2870928. PMID 18634716.

Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Symptoms include fever and joint pain. These typically occur two to twelve days after exposure. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, and a rash. Symptoms usually improve within a week; however, occasionally the joint pain may last for months or years. The risk of death is around 1 in 1,000. The very young, old, and those with other health problems are at risk of more severe disease.The virus is spread between people by two types of mosquitos: Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. They mainly bite during the day. The virus may circulate within a number of animals including birds and rodents. Diagnosis is by either testing the blood for the virus's RNA or antibodies to the virus. The symptoms can be mistaken for those of dengue fever and Zika fever. After a single infection it is believed most people become immune.The best means of prevention is overall mosquito control and the avoidance of bites in areas where the disease is common. This may be partly achieved by decreasing mosquitoes' access to water and with the use of insect repellent and mosquito nets. There is no vaccine and no specific treatment as of 2016. Recommendations include rest, fluids, and medications to help with fever and joint pain.While the disease typically occurs in Africa and Asia, outbreaks have been reported in Europe and the Americas since the 2000s. In 2014 more than a million suspected cases occurred. In 2014 it was occurring in Florida in the continental United States but as of 2016 there were no further locally acquired cases. The disease was first identified in 1952 in Tanzania. The term is from the Kimakonde language and means "to become contorted".

KDE (disambiguation)

KDE may refer to:

KDE, an international free software community

KDE Projects

KDE Software Compilation

KDE e.V., the German foundation behind KDE

KDE Plasma 5, a graphical desktop environment

Kentucky Department of Education

4Kids Entertainment, NYSE stock ticker symbol

Kernel density estimation

Makonde language (ISO 639-3: kde)


Makonde may refer to:

Makonde people, an ethnic group from East Africa

Makonde art, the art of the Makonde people

Makonde language, the language spoken by the Makonde people

Makonde (District), a district of the Mashonaland West province of Zimbabwe

Makonde Plateau, a plateau in the Mtwara Region of Tanzania. The adjacent Mueda Plateau in Mozambique is also referred to as the Makonde or Maconde plateau.


NOTE: This article is about wild yams as used in Southern areas of Tanzania, for other information see yam.


(pronunciation ) are the roots which are used as food in Southern areas of Tanzania especially Mtwara and sometimes Lindi.

They are eaten after being cooked.

Ming'oko are found from climbing trees as roots in the forests which are not disturbed by human activities including agriculture. Ming'oko are wild edible yams and are in Dioscorea hirtiflora species. According to some villagers in Mtwara rural areas, who are familiar with them, there are different wild tubers similar to Ming'oko but they are not edible according to those areas and people should not be confused while harvesting otherwise they could eat wild yam which are not real Ming'oko. The one of common wild yams which are not edible but they are very identical to Ming'oko are traditionally called Malondolo or lilondolo when mentioned in singular forms, note that, these traditional terms are originally based on Makonde language but they are now very common used even in Kiswahili when discussing issues about Ming'oko in Mtwara areas or Southern east of Tanzania in general.Malondolo (hear ) are thicker than Ming'oko

PreparationAfter ming'oko being dug as needed, they are rinsed to remove soil residues and then cooked.

Salt is added while cooking to add better flavour.

They can be eaten singly or pounded in traditional mortar to form new stiff food known as chikandanga (hear ), a Makonde word which is related to the process of pounding ming'oko for chikandanga.

Sometimes, chikandanga can be eaten with ugali if it is pounded with manioc flour and other traditional additives found from seeds, in this time it's called nnabuhulile (hear ).


Ming'oko are found on plants called mitipu (hear ) which they grow naturally in the forest under no control of human being, as they are not given fertilizer instead they grow where there is fertile soil. However they have been, in research, being planted but there is still no specific plantation on which they can be harvested.

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