Makapili

The Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino (Patriotic Association of Filipinos), better known as the Makapili, was a militant group formed in the Philippines in 1944 during World War II to give military aid to the Imperial Japanese Army.[1] Organised by Benigno Ramos and Artemio Ricarte, they were born out of José P. Laurel's refusal to conscript Filipinos for Japan.[2]

The Japanese decreed that the group should be founded in November 1944 when they brought together many of the supporters of the defunct Ganap Party.[3] Like Ganap its main area of support was Metro Manila, although Makapili established chapters across the islands, attracting some support.[4] In all it attracted 4 to 6,000 members, many of them poor or landless farmers who came to the group due to vague promises of land reform after the war.[5] Their main purpose was to counter the recognized guerrilla and the Philippine Commonwealth military activity by anti-Japanese forces in rural areas and to this end members of Makapili were given rudimentary military training.[5]

After the war ended in 1945, the group was disbanded and vilified for its involvement in some Japanese atrocities in the islands and individual members faced trials for treason as a result.[6]

A 1951 film of the same name was made starring Justina David.[7]

Makapili
Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino
Country Second Philippine Republic
FoundationNovember 1944
Dissolved1945
Preceded byGanap Party
MotivesSupport for Japanese occupiers in the Philippines
Size4,000–6,000

See also

References

  1. ^ "G.R. No. L-943". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  2. ^ Jovito Salonga, 'A tribute to Dr. Jose P. Laurel'
  3. ^ William J. Pomeroy, The Philippines: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Resistance, p. 114
  4. ^ "ASIAN JOURNAL a San Diego original. The 1st Asian Journal in Ca,USA. A Filipino American weekly. Online - Digital - Print Editions". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  5. ^ a b Stein Ugelvik Larsen, Fascism Outside Europe, Columbia University Press, 2001, p. 785
  6. ^ "G.R. No. L-885". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
  7. ^ "Makapili (1951)". IMDb. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
1946 in the Philippines

1946 in the Philippines details events of note that happened in the Philippines in 1946.

Artemio Ricarte

Artemio Ricarte y García (October 20, 1866 – July 31, 1945) was a Filipino general during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War. He is regarded as the Father of the Philippine Army, and the first Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (March 22, 1897- January 22, 1899) though the present Philippine Army grew out of the forces that fought in opposition to, and defeated the Philippine Revolutionary Army led by General Ricarte. Ricarte is also notable for never having taken an oath of allegiance to the United States government, which occupied the Philippines from 1898 to 1946.

Benigno Ramos

See Pugad Baboy for the Filipino comic character Igno who shares this name.Benigno "Ben Ruben" Ramos y Pantaleón (February 10, 1892 – disappeared 1946) was a Filipino author, writer, organization founder, politician and was an advocate for the independence of the Philippines from the United States who collaborated with Japan.

Educated in Bulacan, Ramos went to work there as a teacher. Later, whilst based in Manila, he entered the civil service and by 1928 had risen to a high position with the Senate Staff. He became a member of the Nacionalista Party and a close associate of Manuel L. Quezon but this came to an end in 1930 when he joined a wildcat strike by teachers in the capital, causing Quezon to demand his resignation. Ramos did so but became a figure of anti-Quezon agitation, setting up a Tagalog language newspaper Sakdal which gained a wide circulation in rural areas.Ramos reconstituted his followers as the Sakdalista movement. Gaining as many as 20,000 members the group launched an attempted uprising in May 1935 but this was quickly crushed and Ramos went into exile in Japan.Ramos returned to Manila on August 28, 1938 on board the German passenger ship Gneisenau. He became leader of the Ganap Party which contested the 1941 elections (although Ramos himself was imprisoned during the vote). During the Japanese occupation this group became part of the KALIBAPI governing coalition, whilst Ramos formed the Makapili, a militant youth movement that aimed to limit the power of José P. Laurel and to provide soldiers for Japan. The followers of Ramos and his ally Artemio Ricarte were eventually armed by the Japanese in December 1944 by which time the Americans had already landed.

Accounts differ on what happened to Ramos after the fall of the Second Philippine Republic; some claim that he was killed in an airplane crash in Baguio along with the retreating Japanese.

As well as his political activism, Ramos was also noted as a writer of poetry with a collection Mga Agam-agam at Iba Pang Tula due for publication.

Cabuyao

Cabuyao, officially the City of Cabuyao, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Cabuyao), or known simply as Cabuyao City, is a 1st class city in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 308,745 people.It used to be known as the "richest municipality in the Philippines" because of the large populace of migrants working in the town's industrial estates. Nestlé Philippines, Asia Brewery, Inc., San Miguel Corporation, Tanduay Distillers, Inc., Wyeth Philippines, Inc., Procter & Gamble Philippines, Light Industry and Science Park of the Philippines and Malayan Colleges Laguna have established factories or are located in Cabuyao.

By virtue of Republic Act No. 10163, the municipality of Cabuyao was converted to a Component City, after the ratification of a plebiscite held on August 4, 2012.

Eddie del Mar

Eddie del Mar (born Eduardo Sangalang Magat) was a Filipino actor known for portraying the Philippine national figure José Rizal.

Ganap Party

The Ganap Party was a Filipino political party that grew from the Sakdalista movement. Benigno Ramos, who served as its leader, was also the founder of the Sakdalista movement. The party took its name from the Tagalog word ganap, which means "complete".

Gapan

Gapan, officially the City of Gapan, (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Gapan), is a 4th class city in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 110,303 people.Gapan is nicknamed the "Footwear Capital of the North", and it is an inseparable part of the Rice Granary of the Philippines.

Jalajala

Jalajala, (Tagalog pronunciation: [hälɐ̞ˈhalɐ]; also spelled Jala-jala), officially the Municipality of Jalajala, (Tagalog: Bayan ng Jalajala), is a 4th class municipality in the province of Rizal, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 32,254 people.

Join the Club (band)

Join The Club is a Filipino alternative rock band founded in 2001, known for their hits such as "Nobela" "Paano Sasabihin" and "Lunes". The band consists of Biboy Renia, Congie Lulu, Migs Mendoza and Mark Garchitorena. According to them, Join The Club is not just a band, but a revolution.

Justina David

Justina David, sometimes credited as Justiniana David, was a mid 20th century Filipino film actress, often appearing as a martyred wife, a peasant, or a hopeless mother. Her career began before World War II and extended to the late 1960s.

Born in 1912, she first appeared as a bit player in Sampaguita Pictures' Pasang Krus (Shouldered Cross), then progressed to various pre-war musical films at Sampaguita, including Magbalik ka, Hirang (Comeback, Darling), Gunita (Memory) with Corazon Noble, Carmen with Carmen Rosales, Balatkayo with Rudy Concepcion and Pagsuyo (Love).

After the war, in 1947, she made a comeback in the LVN Pictures films Backpay with Corazon Noble and Rogelio dela Rosa and Krus na Bituin (Crossed Star).

In 1954, she returned to Sampaguita and made dozens of movies, including Pilya where she played the mother of Gloria Romero.

In 1956, she moved to Larry Santiago Production for Mrs Jose Romulo with Jose Romulo himself.

KALIBAPI

The Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (Association for Service to the New Philippines), or KALIBAPI (Baybayin:ᜃᜎᜒᜊᜉᜒ), was a Fascist Filipino political party that served as the sole party of state during the Japanese occupation. It was intended to be a Filipino version of Japan's governing Imperial Rule Assistance Association.

Kalinga-Apayao

Kalinga-Apayao was a province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in the island of Luzon. It was divided into the two provinces of Kalinga and Apayao with the passage of Philippine Republic Act No. 7878 on February 14, 1995. This RA amended the earlier Republic Act No. 4695, passed on June 18, 1966, which formed the provinces of Kalinga-Apayao, Benguet, Ifugao, and Mountain Province, from the earlier Mountain Province.

List of fascist movements by country N–T

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Philippine Army

The Philippine Army (PA; Filipino: Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas) is the main, oldest and largest branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) responsible for ground warfare. The Commanding General of the Philippine Army, its professional and overall head, is Lieutenant General Macairog S. Alberto, who took office on October 15, 2018. Its main headquarters is located at Fort Bonifacio, Metro Manila.

Philippine Falange

The Philippine Falange, the informal name for the Spanish National Assemblies of the Philippines (Juntas Nacional Española) was a Philippine falangist political party that was a branch of the Spanish Falange. It was founded in 1936. The party was initially led from the late 1930s by Spanish citizen and businessman Andrés Soriano. A leadership struggle occurred between Martín Pou and Enrique Zóbel de Ayala.The party was effectively dissolved when Soriano applied for, and was quietly granted by the government, Filipino citizenship, in large measure because of a desire not to have a major political formation within the Philippines which was at least tacitly supportive of the Axis Powers, as Franco's Falange and subsequent Spanish Government were; others followed suit, preventing the threat of their properties being seized by the Allied powers. Other members collaborated with the Japanese during the occupation, excluding Soriano who joined with Manuel Quezon and the government of the Philippine Commonwealth in exile, in the United States, as well as the Spanish Filipinos who formed Commonwealth military and guerrilla forces in Negros in the Philippines.

Philippine resistance against Japan

During the Japanese occupation of the islands in World War II, there was an extensive Philippine resistance movement (Filipino: Kilusan ng Paglaban sa Pilipinas), which opposed the Japanese and their collaborators with active underground and guerrilla activity that increased over the years. Fighting the guerrillas – apart from the Japanese regular forces – were a Japanese-formed Bureau of Constabulary (later taking the name of the old Philippine Constabulary during the Second Republic), the Kenpeitai (the Japanese military police), and the Makapili (Filipinos fighting for the Japanese). Postwar studies estimate that around 260,000 persons were organized under guerrilla groups and that members of anti-Japanese underground organizations were more numerous. Such was their effectiveness that by the end of World War II, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces.

Select units of the resistance would go on to be reorganized and equipped as units of the Philippine Army and Constabulary. The United States Government officially granted payments and benefits to various ethnicites who have fought with the Allies by the war's end. However, only the Filipinos were excluded from such benefits, and since then these veterans have made efforts in finally being acknowledged by the United States. Some 277 separate guerrilla units made up of 260,715 individuals were officially recognized as having fought in the resistance movement.

Pililla, Rizal

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Pililla has preserved some religious and non-religious tradition such as the Santa Cruzan or Flores de Mayo, wherein men and women walk all over town with their gowns. Town Fiesta during the month of July is being visited by people from the city to experience the celebrations especially the amateur shows at night. Like other towns, Pililla holds basketball league competitions for youth during summer. Pililla is also a destination for road cyclists because of its asphalted road, specifically in Sitio Bugarin in Barangay Halayhayin.

Raid on Los Baños

The Raid on Los Baños (Filipino: Pagsalakay ng Los Baños) in the Philippines, early Friday morning on 23 February 1945, was executed by a combined U.S. Army Airborne and Filipino guerrilla task force, resulting in the liberation of 2,147 Allied civilian and military internees from an agricultural school campus turned Japanese internment camp. The 250 Japanese in the garrison were killed. It has been celebrated as one of the most successful rescue operations in modern military history. It was the second precisely-executed raid by combined U.S.-Filipino forces within a month, following on the heels of the Raid at Cabanatuan at Luzon on 30 January, in which 522 Allied military POWs had been rescued. The air/sea/land raid was the subject of a 2015 nonfiction book, Rescue at Los Baños: The Most Daring Prison Camp Raid of World War II, by New York Times bestselling author Bruce Henderson.

San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija

San Leonardo, officially the Municipality of San Leonardo, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 65,299 people.San Leonardo is located between Gapan City and Santa Rosa. It is 103 kilometres (64 mi) from Manila. The area has a farming economy. San Leonardo has vast rice fields and land for growing vegetables and poultry products.

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