Makalu is the fifth highest mountain in the world at 8,485 metres (27,838 ft). It is located in the Mahalangur Himalayas 19 km (12 mi) southeast of Mount Everest, on the border between Nepal and Tibet Autonomous Region, China. One of the eight-thousanders, Makalu is an isolated peak whose shape is a four-sided pyramid.
Makalu has two notable subsidiary peaks. Kangchungtse, or Makalu II (7,678 m) lies about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) north-northwest of the main summit. Rising about 5 km (3.1 mi) north-northeast of the main summit across a broad plateau, and connected to Kangchungtse by a narrow, 7,200 m saddle, is Chomo Lonzo (7,804 m).
Makalu from the southwest
|Elevation||8,463 m (27,766 ft) |
|Prominence||2,386 m (7,828 ft)|
|Isolation||17 kilometres (11 mi)|
Location in Nepal and Tibet Autonomous Region
|Location||Province No. 1 (Khumbu), Nepal / Tibet Autonomous Region, China|
|Parent range||Mahalangur Himalaya|
|First ascent||May 15, 1955 by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy|
|Easiest route||snow/ice climb|
The first climb on Makalu was made by an American team led by Riley Keegan in the spring of 1954. The expedition was composed of Sierra Club members including Allen Steck, and was called the California Himalayan Expedition to Makalu. They attempted the southeast ridge but were turned back at 7,100 metres (23,300 ft) by a constant barrage of storms. A New Zealand team including Sir Edmund Hillary was also active in the spring, but did not get very high due to injury and illness. In the fall of 1954, a French reconnaissance expedition made the first ascents of the subsidiary summits Kangchungtse (October 22: Jean Franco, Lionel Terray, sirdar Gyalzen Norbu Sherpa and Pa Norbu) and Chomo Lonzo (October 30?: Jean Couzy and Terray).
Makalu was first summited on May 15, 1955 by Lionel Terray and Jean Couzy of a French expedition led by Jean Franco. Franco, Guido Magnone and Gyalzen Norbu Sherpa summitted the next day, followed by Jean Bouvier, Serge Coupé, Pierre Leroux and André Vialatte on the 17th. This was an amazing achievement at the time, to have the vast majority of expedition members summit, especially on such a difficult peak. Prior to this time, summits were reached by one to two expedition members at most, with the rest of teams providing logistical support before turning around and heading home. The French team climbed Makalu by the north face and northeast ridge, via the saddle between Makalu and Kangchungtse (the Makalu-La), establishing the standard route.
Makalu is one of the more difficult eight-thousanders, and is considered one of the most difficult mountains in the world to climb. The mountain is notorious for its steep pitches and knife-edged ridges that are completely open to the elements. The final ascent of the summit pyramid involves technical rock/ice climbing.
Barun Valley provides stunning contrasts, where high waterfalls cascade into deep gorges, craggy rocks rise from lush green forests, and colorful flowers bloom beneath white snow peaks. This unique landscape shelters some of the last pristine mountain ecosystems on Earth. Rare species of animals and plants flourish in diverse climates and habitats, relatively undisturbed by human kind.
Makalu Peak is referenced in the animated X-Men: Evolution series episode titled "Dark Horizon – Part 2". It is the burial place of the villain Apocalypse.
The 1996 Mount Everest disaster occurred on 10–11 May 1996, when eight people caught in a blizzard died on Mount Everest during attempts to descend from the summit. Over the entire season, 12 people died trying to reach the summit, making it the deadliest season on Mount Everest at the time and the third deadliest behind the 16 fatalities of the 2014 Mount Everest avalanche and the 22 deaths resulting from avalanches caused by the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. The 1996 disaster gained wide publicity and raised questions about the commercialization of Everest.Numerous climbers were high in altitude on Everest during the storm, including the Adventure Consultants team led by Rob Hall and the Mountain Madness team led by Scott Fischer. While climbers died on both the North Face and South Col approaches, the events on the South Face were more widely reported. Four members of the Adventure Consultants expedition perished in the disaster, including Hall, while Fischer was the one casualty of the Mountain Madness expedition. Three officers in the Indo-Tibetan Border Police also died in the storm.
Following the disaster, several memoirs were written by survivors. Journalist Jon Krakauer, on assignment from Outside magazine and in the Adventure Consultants team, published the bestseller Into Thin Air (1997), about his experience. Anatoli Boukreev, a guide in the Mountain Madness team, felt impugned by Krakauer's book and co-authored a rebuttal book called The Climb: Tragic Ambitions on Everest (1997). Beck Weathers, of Hall's expedition, and Lene Gammelgaard, of Fischer's expedition, wrote about their experiences of the disaster in their respective books, Left For Dead: My Journey Home from Everest (2000) and Climbing High: A Woman's Account of Surviving the Everest Tragedy (2000). In 2014, Lou Kasischke, also of Hall's expedition, published his own account of the tragedy in After the Wind: 1996 Everest Tragedy, One Survivor's Story (2014).
In addition to the members of the Adventure Consultants and Mountain Madness teams, Mike Trueman, who coordinated the rescue from Base Camp, added to the story with The Storms: Adventure and Tragedy on Everest (2015). Graham Ratcliffe, who climbed to the South Col of Everest on 10 May, has documented in A Day To Die For (2011) that weather reports delivered to expedition leaders, including Hall and Fischer before their planned summit attempts on 10 May, forecast a major storm developing after 8 May and peaking in intensity on 11 May. As Hall and Fischer planned their summits for 10 May, portions of their teams summitted Everest during an apparent break in this developing storm, only to descend into the full force of it late on 10 May.Arjun Vajpai
Arjun Vajpai (born 9 June 1993) was the youngest Indian and the youngest in the world to climb Mount Everest back in 2010. He achieved this feat at the age of 16 years, 11 months and 18 days. He broke the record set by Krushnaa Patil of Maharashtra who climbed the summit at the age of 19.
On 20 May 2011, he became the Youngest person ever to summit Lhotse, aged 17 years, 11 months and 16 days. Arjun also became the youngest to summit Manaslu on 4 October 2011. After 3 failed attempts on Makalu , he became the youngest Indian to summit it in his 4th attempt on 22 May 2016. He, after battling paralysis in his first attempt on Cho-oyu in 2012 became the youngest to summit it in a winter assent in 2016 on 4 October.
Arjun Vajpai is also the youngest person in the world to summit six of the fourteen 8000m above mountains. He summited his 6th and India's highest mountain Mt. Kanchanjunga on 20 May 2018.
Arjun Vajpai, Tshering Phinjo Sherpa and Nima Tshering Sherpa started from South Col (Camp IV 7950 m) at 10:24pm on 21 May and they reached the top of Mt. Everest at 06:33 am (Kathmandu time) on 22 May.
On 14 October 2015 Arjun Vajpai along with mountaineer Bhupesh Kumar created history by scaling an unexplored peak 6,180 metres (20,280 feet) high in Himachal's Spiti valley. They named it Mount Kalam in memory of late President of India A. P. J. Abdul Kalam.Arjun Vajpai scaled Mt. Makalu in his fourth attempt in 2016. Makalu is the fifth-highest mountain in the world and the sixth-most difficult to scale.Arjun Vajpai became the youngest Indian mountaineer to scale Mt. Cho Oyu accompanied by Pasang Norbu Sherpa and Lakpa Sherpa. It is the world's fifth-highest mountain in between the Tibet and China boundary at about 8,188 metres (26,864 ft).Arjun Vajpai is the son of Col. Sanjeev Vajpai and Priya Vajpai of Noida. He studied at Ryan International School, Noida. He has been fascinated by trekking and mountaineering since his childhood. He underwent two years of training at the Nehru Institute of Mountaineering.Arjun at his early stage, suffered from Asthama.
In one of his expeditions in 2012, he evaded death and was paralysed for 2 days in the open, at an altitude of 22,000 feet ! The Swiss adventurer Olivier Racine came to his rescue giving him appropriate medicine. Arjun was scaling Mt Cho Oyu, which is deep seated in Tibet. The winds were hostile and the temperature was -60 degrees! On the second day at Camp 2, Arjun woke up with his left side paralysed.Ashish Mane
Ashish Mane (Born 14 August 1990) is one of the prominent professional mountaineer from India. He has scaled Mt. Everest (2012)., Mt. Lhotse (2013), Mt. Makalu (2014), Mt Manaslu (2017) and Kanchenjunga (2019). Ashish is the only climber from Maharashtra as of now, to ascend five of the fourteen Eight-thousander|peaks over 8,000 metres means about 26,000 ft above sea level. In the year 2016, he attempted to scale Daulagiri, but due to technical reasons he had to quit the expeditionBarun River
The Barun River (Nepali: बरुण नदी) is a tributary of the Arun River and is part of the Kosi river system in Nepal.Barun Valley
Barun Valley (बरुण उपत्यका) is a Himalayan valley situated at the base of Mt. Makalu in the Sankhuwasabha district of Nepal. This valley lies entirely inside the Makalu Barun National Park.
The Barun Valley provides stunning contrasts, where high waterfalls cascade into deep gorges, craggy rocks rise from lush green forests, and colorful flowers bloom beneath white snow peaks. This unique landscape shelters some of the last pristine mountain ecosystems on earth. Rare species of animals and plants flourish in diverse climates and habitats, relatively undisturbed by human kind.Gau Ming-ho
Gau Ming-Ho (Chinese: 高銘和; pinyin: Gāo Mínghé; born 1949), also known as Makalu Gau after the 5th highest peak in the world, is a Taiwanese mountaineer. He was a leader of a Taiwanese expedition to Mount Everest during the 1996 Mount Everest disaster.Jean-Christophe Lafaille
Jean-Christophe Lafaille (31 March 1965 – 27 January 2006 [presumed]) was a French mountaineer noted for a number of difficult ascents in the Alps and Himalaya, and for what has been described as "perhaps the finest self-rescue ever performed in the Himalaya", when he was forced to descend the mile-high south face of Annapurna alone with a broken arm, after his climbing partner had been killed in a fall. He climbed eleven of the fourteen eight-thousand-metre peaks, many of them alone or by previously unclimbed routes, but disappeared during a solo attempt to make the first winter ascent of Makalu, the world's fifth highest mountain.Khandbari
Khandbari is the district headquarters of Sankhuwasabha District in Kosi Zone of north-eastern Nepal. The 2011 Nepal census counted 26,301 population.A road connects Khandbari directly south to Biratnagar and the Terai. Khandbari's schools include Surya Higher Secondary Boarding School, Bagishwari Secondary School, Makalu English Boarding School and Sunshine English Secondary Boarding School. Arun III Hydropower project is located nearby. About 3 km north from Khandbari lies another small bazaar known as Manebhanjyang which is an emerging business centre peak in the world. A road has already been constructed that connects khandbari directly to Biratnagar. Its border districts are Bhojpur, Solukhumbu, Taplejung, Terhathum and Dhankuta. The change in the political situation in the country
has given much hope for the residents of the district for its rapid development. Arun III Hydropower project is one of the major subjects that really matters to the residents.
The hospital in Khandbari is described as "comparatively well-equipped", and has received patients from surrounding areas arriving on foot and by chartered helicopters.Khandbari is the main departure point for trekking to Mount Makalu, 5th highest peak in the world.List of deaths on eight-thousanders
The eight-thousanders are the 14 mountains that rise more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) above sea level; they are all in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges.
This is a list of mountaineers who have died on these mountains.Mahalangur Himal
Mahālangūr Himāl (Nepali: महालङ्गूर हिमाल, Mahālaṅgūra himāla) is a section of the Himalayas in northeast Nepal and south-central Tibet of China extending east from the pass Nangpa La between Rolwaling Himal and Cho Oyu, to the Arun River. It includes Mount Everest, Lhotse, Makalu, and Cho Oyu — four of Earth's six highest peaks. On the Tibetan side it is drained by the Rongbuk and Kangshung Glaciers and on the Nepali side by Barun, Ngojumba and Khumbu Glaciers and others. All are tributaries to the Koshi River via Arun River on the north and east or Dudh Kosi on the south.
Mahalangur Himal can be divided into three subsections:
Makālu (Nepali: मकालु) nearest the Arun River and along the Nepal-China border including Makalu 8463m, Chomo Lonzo 7790m south of the Kama valley in Tibet, Kangchungtse or Makalu II 7678m, Peak 7199 and some ten others over 6000 metres.
Barun (Nepali: बरुण, Baruṇa) inside Nepal and south of the Makālu section. It includes Chamlang 7319m and Chamlang East 7235m, Peak 7316, Baruntse 7129m, Ama Dablam 6812m and about 17 others over 6000 metres.
Khumbu (Nepali: खुम्बु) along the international border west of the Makalu section, Including the Everest massif: Everest 8848m, Lhotse 8516m, Nuptse 7855m and Changtse 7580m. West of Everest are Pumori 7161m and Cho Oyu 8201m plus some 20 others over 7000 metres and 36 over 6000 metres.The Khumbu region of Nepal is the best known populated part of the Mahalangurs since it is on the access trail to the normal (South Col) route up Everest.Makalu, Sankhuwasabha
Makalu (Nepali: मकालु गाउँपालिका) is a rural municipality (gaunpalika) out of five rural municipality located in Sankhuwasabha District of Province No. 1 of Nepal. There are a total of 10 municipalities in Sankhuwasabha in which 5 are urban and 5 are rural.
According to Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Developme Makalu has an area of 519.45 square kilometres (200.56 sq mi) and the total population of the municipality is 13204 as of Census of Nepal 2011. Makalu, part of Yamphu, Num, part of Pawakhola and Pathibhara which previously were all separate Village development committee merged to form this new local level body. Fulfilling the requirement of the new Constitution of Nepal 2015, Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development replaced all old VDCs and Municipalities into 753 new local level body (Municipality).The rural municipality is divided into total 6 wards and the headquarter of this newly formed rural municipality is situated in Num.Makalu Air
Makalu Air Pvt. Ltd is an airline based in Nepalgunj, Nepal. The company was established in 2009 and issued an Air Operators Certificate by the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal. Makalu Air provides chartered passenger and cargo services.Makalu Barun National Park
Makalu Barun National Park is a national park in the Himalayas of Nepal that was established in 1992 as eastern extension of Sagarmatha National Park. It is the world's only protected area with an elevation gain of more than 8,000 m (26,000 ft) enclosing tropical forest as well as snow-capped peaks. It covers an area of 1,500 km2 (580 sq mi) in the Solukhumbu and Sankhuwasabha Districts, and is surrounded by a bufferzone to the south and southeast with an area of 830 km2 (320 sq mi).The rugged summits of Makalu, with 8,463 m (27,766 ft) the fifth highest mountain of the world, Chamalang (7,319 m (24,012 ft)), Baruntse (7,129 m (23,389 ft)) and Mera (6,654 m (21,831 ft)) are included in the national park. The protected area extends to about 66 km (41 mi) from west to east and to about 44 km (27 mi) from north to south. From the Arun river valley in the southeast, located at altitudes of 344–377 m (1,129–1,237 ft), elevation gains about 8,025 m (26,329 ft) to the peak of Makalu. The national park shares the international border with the Qomolangma National Nature Preserve of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the north.The protected area is part of the Sacred Himalayan Landscape.Michael Groom (climber)
Michael Groom (born 1959) is an Australian mountain climber. In 1995, Groom became the fourth person ever to summit the four highest mountains in the world (Lhotse, Kangchenjunga, K2 and Everest) without the aid of bottled oxygen. He proceeded to climb the fifth-highest, Makalu, in 1999. In 1987 he lost the front third of his feet to frostbite descending from his successful summit of Kangchenjunga. Despite this, he later managed to summit Mount Everest in 1993 and again in 1996. He acted as a guide for Adventure Consultants during the 1996 Mount Everest disaster, which he survived and subsequently described in his 1997 autobiography. In the 2015 film Everest, Groom was portrayed by actor Tom Wright.MountainsMap
Mountains is an image analysis and surface metrology software platform published by the company Digital Surf. Its core is micro-topography, the science of studying surface texture and form in 3D at the microscopic scale. The software is dedicated to profilometers, 3D light microscopes ("MountainsMap"), scanning electron microscopes ("MountainsSEM") and scanning probe microscopes ("MountainsSPIP").Reinhold Messner
Reinhold Andreas Messner (German pronunciation: [ˈʁaɪ̯nhɔlt ˈmɛsnɐ]; born 17 September 1944) is an Italian mountaineer, adventurer, explorer, and author from the trilingual Italian province of South Tyrol.
He made the first solo ascent of Mount Everest, the first ascent of Everest without supplemental oxygen, along with Peter Habeler, and was the first climber to ascend all fourteen peaks over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) above sea level. He was also the first person to cross Antarctica and Greenland with neither snowmobiles nor dog sleds. Furthermore, he crossed the Gobi Desert alone. Messner also published more than 80 books about his experiences as a climber and explorer. In 2018 he received jointly with Krzysztof Wielicki the Princess of Asturias Award in the category of Sports.Solar eclipse of November 23, 1965
An annular solar eclipse occurred on November 23, 1965. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide. Annularity was visible from the Soviet Union (today's eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and southwestern Tajikistan), Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, China, Nepal (including the capital city Kathmandu), southwestern Sikkim (now merged with India), Burma, southwestern tip of Sainyabuli Province in Laos, Cambodia, South Vietnam (now belonging to Vietnam), Spratly Islands, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Territory of Papua New Guinea (today's Papua New Guinea), and Gilbert and Ellice Islands (the part now belonging to Kiribati). 8 of the 14 eight-thousanders—Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, Manaslu, Shishapangma, Cho Oyu, Everest, Lhotse and Makalu, as well as the highest peak of Oceania, Puncak Jaya, lie in the path of annularity.Tingri County
Tingri County or Dhringgri County (Tibetan: དིང་རི་རྫོང་།, Wylie: ding ri rdzong, ZYPY: Tingri Zong; Chinese: 定日县; pinyin: Dìngrì Xiàn), is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Xigazê in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.
The county comprises the upper valley of the Bum-chu or Arun River, with the valleys of its tributaries plus the valleys of the Rongshar Tsangpo and the Lapchi Gang Tsanpo which flow south into Nepal. It is bordered on the south by the main range of the Himalayas including Mt. Everest (Tib. Chomolungma), Makalu and Cho Oyu. The present county administration is located at Shelkar, about 87 km (54 mi) east of Tingri (town).It is one of the four counties that comprise the Qomolangma National Nature Preserve (Tingri, Dinjie, Nyalam, and Kyirong).UP Makalu
The UP Makalu is a German single-place paraglider that was designed and produced by UP Europe of Kochel am See. Introduced in 2001, production of the final version ended in 2016.