Majority minority

A majority-minority area or minority-majority area is a term used in the United States to refer to a jurisdiction in which one or more racial and/or ethnic minorities (relative to the whole country's population) make up a majority of the local population. The term is often used in voting rights law to designate voting districts which are altered under the Voting Rights Act to enable ethnic or language minorities "the opportunity to elect their candidate of choice."[1] In that context, the term is first used by the Supreme Court in 1977.[2] The Court had previously used the term in employment discrimination and labor relations cases.[3]

United States

USMajorityMinorityStates
U.S. states and districts in which non-Hispanic whites:
  Currently are a minority or plurality
  Currently are less than 60% of the population (without Louisiana[4][5])
  Formerly were a minority or plurality

In the United States of America, majority-minority area or minority-majority area is a term describing a United States state or jurisdiction whose population is composed of less than 50% non-Hispanic whites. Racial data is derived from self-identification questions on the U.S. Census and on U.S. Census Bureau estimates. (See Race and ethnicity in the United States Census).

  • Five states are majority-minority as of 2016: Hawaii (which is the only state that has never had a white majority), New Mexico, California, Texas and Nevada.[6][7]
  • The District of Columbia reached a majority Black status during the latter stages of the Great Migration. Although the district is still majority-minority, Blacks only make up only 47.1% of the population today.[8] Increases have been among minorities who identify as Asians and Hispanics. Whites have also moved into the district in increasing numbers since the turn of the 21st century.[9]
  • The percentage of non-Hispanic white residents has fallen below 60% in Maryland, Georgia, Florida, Arizona, New York, New Jersey, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Maryland, at 51.5% non-Hispanic White American as of 2016, is on the verge of becoming majority minority.[10]
  • All populated United States territories (Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa) are majority-minority areas. They never had a non-Hispanic white majority.
  • As of 2012, 50 metropolitan areas in the U.S. are majority-minority.[11]
  • As of 2015, 12% of U.S. counties are majority-minority.[12]
  • The whole United States of America is projected to become majority-minority by 2043 if current trends continue.[13] With alternate immigration scenarios, the whole United States is projected to become majority-minority sometime between 2041 and 2046 (depending on the amount of net immigration into the U.S. over the preceding years).[14][15]
  • Ethnic minority children will be the majority in the entire United States by 2019.[16]
  • Minority children are the majority among children in the following ten states: California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Mississippi, and Maryland.[17]

States

From colonial times to the early-twentieth century, much of the Lower South had a Black majority. Three Southern states had populations that were majority Black: Louisiana (until about 1890[18]), South Carolina (until the 1920s[19]) and Mississippi (from the 1830s to the 1930s[20]). In the same period, Georgia,[21] Alabama,[22] and Florida,[23] had populations that were nearly 50% Black, while Maryland,[24] North Carolina,[25] and Virginia[26] had Black populations approaching or exceeding 40%. Texas' Black population reached 30%.[27]

The demographics of these states changed markedly from the 1890s through the 1950s, as two waves of the Great Migration led more than 6,500,000 African-Americans to abandon the economically depressed, segregated Deep South in search of better employment opportunities and living conditions, first in Northern and Midwestern industrial cities, and later west to California. One-fifth of Florida's Black population had left the state by 1940, for instance.[28] During the last thirty years of the twentieth century into the twenty-first century, scholars have documented a reverse New Great Migration of Blacks back to southern states, but typically to destinations in the New South, which have the best jobs and developing economies.[29]

The District of Columbia, one of the magnets for Great Migration Blacks, was long the sole majority-minority federal jurisdiction in the continental U.S. The Black proportion has declined since the 1990s due to gentrification and expanding opportunities, with many Blacks moving to suburban Maryland and others migrating to jobs in states of the New South in a reverse of the Great Migration.[29] In 2016, the Black population represented only 48.3% of the population—a considerable decline from 75% in the late-1970s. At the same time, Asian and Hispanic populations have increased in the District, keeping it a majority-minority area.

Since 1965, foreign immigration has spurred increases in the number of majority-minority areas, most notably in California.[30] Its legal resident population was 89.5% 'non-Hispanic white' in the 1940s, but in 2018 was estimated at 36.8% 'non-Hispanic white'.[31]

Cities

Many cities in the United States became majority-minority by 2010.[32] Out of the top 15 cities by population, Jacksonville, Florida and Fort Worth, Texas are the only ones not classified as majority-minority.

Data collection

The first data for New Mexico was a 5% sample in 1940 which estimated non-Hispanic whites at 50.9%.[33] Hispanics do not constitute a race but an ethnic and cultural group: of respondents who listed Hispanic origin, some listed White race, roughly half gave responses tabulated under "Some other race" (e.g. giving a national origin such as "Mexican" or a designation such as "Mestizo" as race), and much smaller numbers listed Black, Native American, or Asian race.

In U.S. censuses since 1990, self-identification has been the primary way to identify race. Presumption of race based on countries or regions given in the ancestry question is used only when a respondent has answered the ancestry question but not the race question. The U.S. Census currently defines "White people" very broadly as "people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa,[34] i.e. Caucasoids. This definition has changed through the years.

Although the census attempts to enumerate both citizens and non-citizens, the undocumented immigrant population of the United States has proven hard to quantify; the census uses a 12 million base estimate nationally. However, current estimates based on national surveys, administrative data and other sources of information indicate that the current population may range as high as 20–30 million.[35]

Maps and graphs

Area White (all) Non-Hispanic White Asian American African American Hispanic or Latino American Native American Native Hawaiian Two or more races
California 57.6% 40.1% 13.0% 6.2% 37.6% 1.0% 0.4% 4.9%
Hawaii 24.7% 22.7% 38.6% 1.6% 8.9% 0.3% 10.0% 23.6%
New Mexico 68.4% 40.5% 1.4% 2.1% 46.3% 9.4% 0.1% 3.7%
Texas 70.4% 45.3% 3.8% 11.8% 37.6% 0.7% 0.1% 2.7%
District of Columbia 38.5% 34.8% 3.5% 50.7% 9.1% 0.3% 0.1% 2.9%
United States 72.4% 63.7% 4.8% 12.6% 16.3% 0.9% 0.2% 2.9%

SOURCE: U.S. Census Bureau, 2005 (for the year 2000)

New 2000 white percent
New 2000 hispanic percent
New 2000 black percent
New 2000 asian percent
New 2000 indian percent
New 2000 hawaiian percent

New 2000 white percent
New 2000 hispanic percent
New 2000 black percent
New 2000 asian percent
New 2000 indian percent
New 2000 hawaiian percent

Other uses

Normally, a state is considered to be majority-minority because of its ethnic/racial makeup, but other criteria is occasionally used, such as religion, disability, or age. For example, the majority of Utah residents are members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a Christian denomination that is a religious minority throughout the rest of the United States. In addition to Utah, Rhode Island and Louisiana, which have Roman Catholic majorities, are the only states in the U.S. where a single denomination constitutes a majority of the population. However, no U.S. state has a majority composed of any non-Christian group, except for Hawaii, where 51.1% of the population follow religions that would be non-mainstream in the rest of the United States. Hawaii is classified as religious majority of Unaffiliated, including agnostics, atheists, humanists, the irreligious, and Secularists (non-practicing).

Criticism

In January 2016, CUNY sociologist Richard Alba wrote an article in the American Prospect arguing that the way in which majority-minority calculations are made by the Census are misleading. Anyone with any Hispanic, Asian, or Black ancestry is seen as non-white, even if they also have white ancestry. Alba argues that the incomes, marriage patterns, and identities of people of who are mixed Hispanic-white and Asian-white are closer to those of white people than monoracial Hispanics or Asians. Thus, when the Census says that non-Hispanic whites are projected to be less than 50% of the population by the 2040s, people of mixed-race ancestry are improperly excluded from that category.[36]

International applications

While the concept exists in other nations, the exact term differs from place to place and language to language.

In many large, contiguous countries like China, there are many autonomous regions where a minority population is the majority. These regions are generally the result of historical population distributions, not because of recent immigration or recent differences in birth and fertility rates between various groups.

English-speaking countries

Australia

It is estimated that Europeans first outnumbered Indigenous Australians in Australia in the 1840s.[37][38] There are still a number of rural and regional towns and communities where Indigenous Australians outnumber Europeans. Anglo-Celtic Australians, who as of 2019, make up 74% of Australia's population, have become a minority in some of Sydney's western suburbs in the late-twentieth century. Fairfield and Cabramatta in Fairfield City Council, Lakemba and Bankstown in Canterbury-Bankstown Council, and Auburn in Cumberland Council, are one of the largest non-Anglo suburbs in Australia.[39] Here is a list of the suburbs in Sydney's metropolitan area where non-Anglo ethnic groups are the majority:

Canada

  • Unlike in the United States where there are five minority-majority states, none of the Canadian provinces are minority-majority. It must be noted that the definition of an ethnic minority differs between US and Canada, since, whereas in the US this term includes anyone who is either not White or who is Hispanic (Hispanic Whites are considered as minority), in Canada it is defined (by the Employment Equity Act, used by Statistics Canada) as "persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour." Thus, (a) Aboriginals are considered majority, (b) Hispanic whites are considered majority, but (c) non-white Arabs and West Asians are considered a minority, even if Caucasian in race. However, the numbers are not close, so this difference does not bear any practical significance except for the territory of Nunavut, which would be minority-majority if the US-style definition of racial minority were to be applied (24,875 of 29,325 residents are Inuit).
  • The province with the highest proportion of visible minorities (2016 Census) is British Columbia (30.3%), followed by Ontario (29.3%). This means that in no Canadian province has the percentage of the racial majority (Aboriginals + White Caucasians) yet fallen under 65%.
  • Toronto (CMA) is a minority-majority metropolitan area. Also, Vancouver (CMA) is on the tip of becoming such; in particular, according to the 2016 Census, the Toronto CMA has 51.4% of visible minorities, while the Vancouver CMA has 48.9% of visible minorities. These are the only metropolitan areas in Canada where the percentage of the racial majority has fallen under 60%. Taking into account the 20 largest census metropolitan areas, Calgary comes a distant third with 33.7%.
  • Racial or "visible minorities" (as they are known in Canada) are the majority in the cities of Vancouver, and Toronto.
  • The Toronto district of Scarborough has a population made up of 67.4% visible minorities; all but one of the ten Scarborough wards are visible-minority-majority, of which, in particular, Scarborough-Agincourt and Scarborough-Rouge River are Chinese-majority (53.4% and 57.3% respectively; 83.7% and 87.8% respectively for all visible minorities). Likewise, 19 of 25 Scarborough neighbourhoods (as designated by the City of Toronto) are visible-minority-majority. For purposes of contradistinction, in the "Old" (pre-amalgamation) City of Toronto, 68% of the population are white Caucasian (or Aboriginal) and the visible-minority-majority neighbourhoods are five in a total of 44 neighbourhoods (Regent Park, North St. James Town, Bay Street Corridor, Kensington-Chinatown, and Parkdale).
  • The Toronto suburbs of Markham (77.93%) and Brampton (73.31%) also have a minority-majority population, of primarily Chinese and East Indian ethnic origin respectively.
  • The Vancouver suburbs of Richmond (76.3%) and Burnaby (63.6%) also have a minority-majority population, of primarily Chinese ethnic origin in both cases.
  • The French linguistic minority is the majority in the province of Quebec (79.0% have French as their mother tongue, according to the 2006 Census), and has been since before Canadian Confederation.
  • The province of Saskatchewan may also have an Aboriginal majority by 2050, according to some research.[47]
  • Regarding religion (2001 Census data), Quebec and New Brunswick have a Roman Catholic majority, while Newfoundland and Labrador and Nunavut have a Protestant majority. In the other provinces and territories, no denomination exceeds the 50% mark; however, Protestants are the largest denomination first in all provinces and territories except only Prince Edward Island and Northwest Territories where Catholics are the largest denomination. No other Christian denomination, other religion, or lack of religious affiliation as first or second in any province or territory.

Visible minority majorities in different Canadian municipalities: British Columbia

Ontario

England

New Zealand

South Africa

South Africa 2011 White population proportion map
Whites as a percentage of the population in various parts of South Africa in 2011.

Brazil

Brancos no Brasil
Brazilian states according to the percentage of Whites in 2009.

Brazil has become a majority "non-White" country as of the 2010 census,[51] together with the federative units of Espírito Santo, the Federal District, Goiás, and Minas Gerais.

Those identifying as White declined to 47.7% (about 91 million people) in the 2010 census from 52.9% (about 93 million people) in 2000 in the entire country.[51] However, in Brazil, this is not simply a matter of origin and birthrate, but identity changes as well. The Black minority did not enlarge its representation in the population to more than 1.5% in the period, while it was mostly the growth in the number of pardo people (~38% in 2000, 42.4% in 2010) that caused the demographic plurality of Brazil.

Bulgaria

Ethnic composition of Bulgaria, 2011
The green areas have an ethnic Turkish majority or plurality, while the pink and light red areas have an ethnic Bulgarian plurality but not a majority.

Colombia

Afro-Colombians make up roughly about 10–12% of country's overall population, but make up a majority in many areas in the Colombia's Pacific region,[53] especially in Chocó Department, where they make up 80–90% of the population.[54]

East Timor

  • The vast majority (around 96%) of East Timor's population practice Catholicism, owing to Portuguese influence,[55] but on the island of Atauro, Protestants make up the majority due to Dutch influence.

Fiji

  • Fiji did not have any racial or ethnic group comprise a majority from the 1930s to the 1990s, with the exception of the 1960s and possibly early-1970s.[56]
Muslim in India
The Muslim population in various parts of India in 2011.

India

Indonesia

  • Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim country, with Islam being practiced by around 88% of the population, or over 200 million people.[59] Despite this there are several areas of Indonesia where Muslims are the minority:
  • Several neighborhoods and communities in major Indonesian cities such as Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Medan and Yogyakarta are pf predominantly of Chinese origin, although people of Chinese descent do not form more than 10% in any of these cities overall population and only form about 1-2% of Indonesia's overall population.[61]

Israel

  • Arabs are a majority of the population in Israel's Northern District and in several other smaller parts of Israel.[62]
  • Non-Haredi Jews are projected to become a minority of Israel's total population by 2059.[63][64]
Arab population israel 2000 en
Map of Arab population, 2000

Italy

Language distribution in South Tyrol, Italy 2011, en
South Tyrol languages distribution

Mongolia

Romania

Romania harta etnica 2011
The non-purple areas have a plurality or majority of an ethnic group besides Romanians.

Slovakia

Sri Lanka

Thailand

Souththailandmap
Malay Muslims form the majority in several of Thailand's southern provinces.

Former Soviet Union

Abkhazia (Georgia)

  • No ethnic group composed a majority of the population in Abkhazia from at least 2003 until around 2011.[71][72]

Azerbaijan

  • Azeris are a minority in several parts/areas of Azerbaijan.[73]

Belarus

Estonia

Georgia

Kazakhstan

  • The Kazakh SSR did not have any ethnic group/nationality comprise a majority between 1933 and 1997.[78][79] Based on the 2009 census and annual estimates thereafter, some regions of Kazakhstan still did not have a Kazakh majority as of 2018.[80][81]

Kyrgyzstan

  • The Kirgiz SSR did not have any ethnic group/nationality comprise a majority between 1941 and 1985.[78]

Latvia

  • The Latvian SSR almost became minority-majority (the ethnic Latvian population there decreased from 62% to 52% between 1959 and 1989), but the collapse of the USSR prevented this from happening.[78][82][83][84] While the whole Latvian SSR never became majority-minority, its eight largest cities did become majority-minority by 1989.[85]

Russia

Russians in Russian regions 2010
Ethnic Russians as a percentage of the population by region in 2010.
  • Based on the 2010 census, 8 of the 22 republics of Russia had a non-Russian majority, while 9 of the 22 had a Russian majority.[86]

The Soviet Union as a whole

  • There were concerns that the whole Soviet Union would lose its ethnic Russian majority due to the high birth rates in the Caucasus and Central Asia as early as 1970.[87] The percentage of Russians among the whole Soviet population was consistently declining, from 55% in 1959 to 51% in 1989.[78] However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 occurred before the Soviet Union could have lost its ethnic Russian majority.

Transnistria (Moldova)

  • Transnistria did not have any ethnic group compromise a majority of its population in 2004.[88]

Ukraine

Former Yugoslavia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina did not have any ethnic group comprise a majority of its population at the time of the last census in 1991 (which took place before the Bosnian War).[90] A census was conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina in October 2013, and these results also showed that no majority population exists in the country, with the largest ethnic group being Bosniaks, who constitute 48.4% of the population (just short of a majority).
Ethnic Composition of BiH in 1991
Ethnic composition of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991.

Kosovo

  • North Kosovo has a Serb majority, while Kosovo overall has an Albanian majority.[91] This division has led to controversial negotiations for land swapping southern Albanian-majority areas of Serbia for northern Serb-majority areas of Kosovo.[92][93]

Montenegro

  • Montenegro does not have any ethnic group compromise a majority of its population.[94]

North Macedonia

Serbia

Census 2002 Serbia, ethnic map (by municipalities)
The municipalities with a color other than light blue have a plurality or majority composed of an ethnic group other than Serbs.

See also

References

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External links

Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe

The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), also known as the U.S. Helsinki Commission, is an independent U.S. government agency created by Congress in 1975 to monitor and encourage compliance with the Helsinki Final Act and other Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) commitments. It was initiated by House representative Millicent Fenwick and established in 1975 pursuant to Public Law No. 94-304 and is based at the Ford House Office Building.

The Commission consists of nine members from the U.S. House of Representatives, nine members from the United States Senate, and one member each from the Departments of State, Defense, and Commerce. The positions of Chairman and Co-Chairman are shared by the House and Senate and rotate every two years, when a new Congress convenes. A professional staff assists the Commissioners in their work.

The Commission contributes to the formulation of U.S. policy toward the OSCE and the participating states and takes part in its execution, including through Member and staff participation on official U.S. delegations to OSCE meetings and in certain OSCE bodies. Members of the Commission have regular contact with parliamentarians, government officials, NGOs, and private individuals from other OSCE participating states.

The Commission convenes public hearings and briefings with expert witnesses on OSCE-related issues; issues public reports concerning implementation of OSCE commitments in participating States; publishes a periodic Digest with up-to-date information on OSCE developments and Commission activities; and organizes official delegations to participating States and OSCE meetings to address and assess democratic, economic, and human rights developments firsthand.

In February 2018, the CSCE convened in Washington, DC to address the issue of Russian doping in international sport. Central to the discussion was an exploration of the need to protect whistle-blowers. The meeting included testimony from Jim Walden, attorney for Dr. Grigory Rodchenkov, the former head of Russia's anti-doping laboratory.

Congressional-Executive Commission on China

The Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC) is an independent agency of the U.S. government which monitors human rights and rule of law developments in the People's Republic of China. It was created in October 2001 under Title III of H.R. 4444, which authorizes normal trade relations with the PRC, and establishes a framework for relations between the two countries. The commission was given the mandate by the U.S. Congress to monitor and report on human rights issues with a particular focus on compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Its reporting covers developments in freedom of expression, the right to peaceful assembly, religious freedom, freedom of movement, freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention, or torture, and the right to a fair trial, among others. The commission publishes an annual report to the President of the United States and Congress, typically in the fall of each year. It also maintains a database of prisoners of conscience, holds regular roundtables and hearings, and issues letters to other institutions concerning human rights matters.The commission comprises a staff of researchers and analysts, and is overseen by as many as nine members each from the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives, as well as senior executive branch officials. Chairmanship of the commission rotates between the majority parties from the House and Senate. The commission is currently chaired by Jim McGovern (D-MA).

Cultural dissonance

Cultural dissonance (education, sociology, anthropology and cultural studies) is an uncomfortable sense of discord, disharmony, confusion, or conflict experienced by people in the midst of change in their cultural environment. The changes are often unexpected, unexplained or not understandable due to various types of cultural dynamics.Studies into cultural dissonance take on a wide socio-cultural scope of analysis that inquire into economics, politics, values, learning styles, cultural factors, such as language, tradition, ethnicity, cultural heritage, cultural history, educational formats, classroom design, and even socio-cultural issues such as ethnocentricism, racism and their respective historical legacies in the cultures.

Cultural diversity

Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay. The phrase cultural diversity can also refer to having different cultures respect each other's differences. The phrase "cultural diversity" is also sometimes used to mean the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. Globalization is often said to have a negative effect on the world's cultural diversity.

Cultural pluralism

Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider dominant culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society. As a sociological term, the definition and description of cultural pluralism has evolved over time. It has been described as not only a fact but a societal goal.In a pluralist culture, groups not only co-exist side by side, but also consider qualities of other groups as traits worth having in the dominant culture. Pluralistic societies place strong expectations of integration on members, rather than expectations of assimilation. The existence of such institutions and practices is possible if the cultural communities are accepted by the larger society in a pluralist culture and sometimes require the protection of the law. Often the acceptance of a culture may require that the new or minority culture remove some aspects of their culture which is incompatible with the laws or values of the dominant culture.

Cultural pluralism is distinct from (though often confused with) multiculturalism. Multiculturalism lacks the requirement of a dominant culture. If the dominant culture is weakened, societies can easily pass from cultural pluralism into multiculturalism without any intentional steps being taken by that society. If communities function separately from each other, or compete with one another, they are not considered culturally pluralistic.In 1971, the Canadian government referred to cultural pluralism, as opposed to multiculturalism, as the "very essence" of their nation's identity. Cultural pluralism can be practiced at varying degrees by a group or an individual. A prominent example of pluralism is 20th Century United States, in which a dominant culture with strong elements of nationalism, a sporting culture, and an artistic culture contained also smaller groups with their own ethnic, religious, and cultural norms.

The idea of cultural pluralism in the United States has its roots in the transcendentalist movement and was developed by pragmatist philosophers such as Horace Kallen, William James and John Dewey, and later thinkers such as Randolph Bourne. One of the most famous articulations of cultural pluralism can be found in Bourne's 1916 essay "Trans-National America". Philosopher Horace Kallen is widely credited as being the originator of the concept of cultural pluralism. Kallen's 1915 essay in The Nation, Democracy versus the Melting Pot, was written as an argument against the concept of the "Americanization" of European immigrants. He later coined the term cultural pluralism in 1924 when he published Culture and Democracy in the United States. In 1976, the concept was further explored in Crawford Young's book The Politics of Cultural Pluralism. Young's work, in African studies, emphasizes the flexibility of the definition of cultural pluralism within a society. More recent advocates include moral and cultural anthropologist Richard Shweder. In 1976, an article in the Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare offered a redefinition of cultural pluralism in which it is described as a social condition in which communities of different cultures live together and function in an open system.

Dominant minority

A dominant minority, also called elite dominance is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural dominance in a country, despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority). Dominant minorities are also known as alien elites if they are recent immigrants.

The term is most commonly used to refer to an ethnic group which is defined along racial, national, religious, cultural or tribal lines and that holds a disproportionate amount of power. A notable example is South Africa during the apartheid regime, where White South Africans, or Afrikaners more specifically, wielded predominant control of the country, despite never composing more than 22 per cent of the population. African American-descended nationals in Liberia, Sunni Arabs in Ba'athist Iraq, the Alawite minority in Syria (since 1970 under the rule of the Alawite Assad family), and the Tutsi in Rwanda since the 1990s have also been cited as current or recent examples.

Empowerment

The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority. It is the process of becoming stronger and more confident, especially in controlling one's life and claiming one's rights. Empowerment as action refers both to the process of self-empowerment and to professional support of people, which enables them to overcome their sense of powerlessness and lack of influence, and to recognize and use their resources. To do work with power.

The term empowerment originates from American community psychology and is associated with the social scientist Julian Rappaport (1981). However, the roots of empowerment theory extend further into history and are linked to Marxist sociological theory. These sociological ideas have continued to be developed and refined through Neo-Marxist Theory (also known as Critical Theory).In social work, empowerment forms a practical approach of resource-oriented intervention. In the field of citizenship education and democratic education, empowerment is seen as a tool to increase the responsibility of the citizen. Empowerment is a key concept in the discourse on promoting civic engagement. Empowerment as a concept, which is characterized by a move away from a deficit-oriented towards a more strength-oriented perception, can increasingly be found in management concepts, as well as in the areas of continuing education and self-help.

Ethnic penalty

Ethnic penalty in sociology is defined as the economic and non-economic disadvantages that ethnic minorities experience in the labour market compared to other ethnic groups. As an area of study among behavioral economists, psychologists, and sociologists, it ranges beyond discrimination to take non-cognitive factors into consideration for explaining unwarranted differences between individuals of similar abilities but differing ethnicities.

List of majority-minority United States congressional districts

A majority-minority district is an electoral district, such as a United States congressional district, in which the majority of the constituents in the district are nonwhite or racial or ethnic minorities (as opposed to white non-Hispanics). Whether a district is majority-minority is usually ascertained using United States Census data.

Majority-minority districts may be created to avoid or remedy violations of the Voting Rights Act of 1965's prohibitions on drawing redistricting plans that diminish the ability of a racial or language minority to elect its candidates of choice. In some instances, majority-minority districts may result from affirmative racial gerrymandering. The value of drawing district lines to create majority-minority districts is a matter of dispute both within and outside of minority communities. Some view majority-minority districts as a way to dilute the voting power of minorities and analogous to racial segregation; others favor majority-minority districts as ways to effectively ensure the election of minorities to legislative bodies, including the House of Representatives. Majority-minority districts have been the subject of legal cases examining the constitutionality of such districts, including Shaw v. Reno (1993), Miller v. Johnson (1995), and Bush v. Vera (1996).

Minority group

In sociology, a minority group refers to a category of people who experience relative disadvantage as compared to members of a dominant social group. Minority group membership is typically based on differences in observable characteristics or practices, such as: ethnicity (ethnic minority), race (racial minority), religion (religious minority), sexual orientation (sexual minority), disability, or gender identity. Utilizing the framework of intersectionality, it is important to recognize that an individual may simultaneously hold membership in multiple minority groups (e.g. both a racial and religious minority). Likewise, individuals may also be part of a minority group in regard to some characteristics, but part of a dominant group in regard to others.The term "minority group" often occurs within the discourse of civil rights and collective rights, as members of minority groups are prone to differential treatment in the countries and societies in which they live. Minority group members often face discrimination in multiple areas of social life, including housing, employment, healthcare, and education, among others. While discrimination may be committed by individuals, it may also occur through structural inequalities, in which rights and opportunities are not equally accessible to all. The language of minority rights is often used to discuss laws designed to protect minority groups from discrimination and afford them equal social status to the dominant group.

Political class

Political class, or political elite is a concept in comparative political science originally developed by Italian political theorist theory of Gaetano Mosca (1858–1941). It refers to the relatively small group of activists that is highly aware and active in politics, and from whom the national leadership is largely drawn. As Max Weber noted, they not only live "for politics"—like the old notables used to—but make their careers "off politics" as policy specialists and experts on specific fields of public administration. Mosca approached the study of the political class by examining the mechanisms of reproduction and renewal of the ruling class; the characteristics of politicians; and the different forms of organisation developed in their wielding of power.

Elected legislatures may become dominated by subject-matter specialists, aided by permanent staffs, who become a political class.

Progressive stack

The progressive stack is a technique used to give marginalized groups a greater chance to speak. It is sometimes an introduction to, or stepping stone to, consensus decision-making in which simple majorities have less power. The technique works by allowing people to speak on the basis of race, sex, and other group membership, with preference given to members of groups that are considered the most marginalized. As Stephanie McKellop, a graduate teaching assistant in history at the University of Pennsylvania, explains, "I will always call on my Black women students first. Other [people of color] get second tier priority. [White women] come next. And, if I have to, white men."The progressive stack technique attempts to counter what its proponents believe is a flaw in traditional representative democracy, where the majority is heard while the minority or non-dominant groups are silenced or ignored. In practice, "majority culture" is interpreted by progressive stack practitioners to mean White people, men and young adults, while non-dominant groups include women, people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender, people of color, and very young or older people.The "stack" in the Occupy movement is the list of speakers who are commenting on proposals or asking questions in public meetings. Anyone can request to be added to the stack. In meetings that don't use the progressive stack, people speak in the order they were added to the queue. In meetings that use the progressive stack, people from non-dominant groups are allowed to speak before people from dominant groups, by facilitators, or stack-keepers, urging speakers to "step forward, or step back" based on which racial, age, or gender group they belong to.A. Barton Hinkle, a columnist for the Richmond Times-Dispatch, has expressed the opinion that "lining up speakers by race and gender might not seem fair on an individual level", and suggests that proponents of the progressive stack care more about class struggle than individual concerns.Among those opposed to the concept of "progressive stack", conservative journalist and author Jim Goad commented satirically on the concept in these terms: "The concept of intersectionality is also related to the "progressive stack," which assumes that white males at all times bear noxious degrees of unearned power, which is why they have to get to the back of the line and let all the legless black lesbians speak first."

Sociology of race and ethnic relations

The sociology of race and ethnic relations is the study of social, political, and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of systemic racism, like residential segregation and other complex social processes between different racial and ethnic groups.

The sociological analysis of race and ethnicity frequently interacts with postcolonial theory and other areas of sociology such as stratification and social psychology. At the level of political policy, ethnic relations is discussed in terms of either assimilationism or multiculturalism. Anti-racism forms another style of policy, particularly popular in the 1960s and 1970s. At the level of academic inquiry, ethnic relations is discussed either by the experiences of individual racial-ethnic groups or else by overarching theoretical issues.

Trans-cultural diffusion

Cultural diffusion is the process of spreading cultural traits from one region to anotherIn cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another. It is distinct from the diffusion of innovations within a specific culture. Examples of diffusion include the spread of the war chariot and iron smelting in ancient times, and the use of automobiles and Western business suits in the 20th century.

Uncle Tom syndrome

Uncle Tom syndrome is a theory in psychology. It refers to a coping skill where individuals use passivity and submissiveness when confronted with a threat, leading to subservient behaviour and appeasement, while concealing their true thoughts and feelings. The term "Uncle Tom" comes from the title character of Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, where the African American slave Tom is beaten to death by a cruel white master for refusing to betray the whereabouts of two other slaves.

In the American racial context, "Uncle Tom" is a pejorative term for African-Americans that give up or hide their ethnic or gender outlooks, traits, and practices, in order to be accepted into the mainstream. Conservative African-Americans are often considered "Uncle Toms".

In race minority literature Uncle Tom syndrome refers to African Americans that, as a necessary survival technique, opt to appear docile, non-assertive, and happy-go-lucky. Especially during slavery, African Americans used passivity and servility for the avoidance of retaliation and for self-preservation.In a broader context, the term may refer to a minority's strategy of coping with oppression from socially, culturally or economically dominant groups involving suppression of aggressive feelings and even identification with the oppressor, leading to forced assimilation/acculturation of the cultural minority.

United States House Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces

House Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces is a subcommittee of the House Armed Services Committee in the United States House of Representatives.

United States Senate Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces

The Senate Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces is one of seven subcommittees within the Senate Armed Services Committee.

United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs

The United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs deals with oversight of United States veterans issues.

White guilt

White guilt is the individual or collective guilt felt by some white people for harm resulting from racist treatment of ethnic minorities by other white people both historically and currently in the United States and to a lesser extent in Canada, South Africa, France and the United Kingdom. White guilt has been described as one of the psychosocial costs of racism for white individuals along with empathy (sadness and anger) for victims of racism and fear of non-whites.

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