Major general

Major general (abbreviated MG,[1] Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant.

In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal.

In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank.

Countries

Austria

In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor.[2] Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term.

Brazil

General de Brigada (Brigade General) is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier (officer rank in Latin America) for more information.

Canada

In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general (MGen) (major-général and Mgén in French) is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer. The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, and junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead.

The rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. It is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, and on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.

Major-generals are initially addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers; thereafter by subordinates as "sir" or "ma'am" as applicable in English or mon général in French. Major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars.

Estonia

In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor.

Finland, Denmark, and Sweden

The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish.

France

The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division.

In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces. The major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources, management, and discipline, and his role is roughly analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. The five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, and the Major General of the Air Force.

In the French Army, Major General (in full "Major General of the Army", Major général de l'armée de terre) is a position and the major general is normally of the rank of corps general.

Historically, the French army had some sergent-majors généraux, also called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle. These sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp (not the same as a field marshal, in the French Army from antiquity called a Maréchal de France), which was the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier; Major General of Napoléon's Grande armée. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade(brigade general) in 1793. The rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ.

Georgia

In Georgia, the rank major-general (გენერალ მაიორი) has one star as for security forces. The army, however, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia.

Germany

The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor (OF-7) until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant (OF-8) was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.

West Germany

With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U.S., with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, and the rank of Brigadegeneral (brigadier general, OF-6) added below them. The rank of Generaloberst (OF-9, colonel general) was no longer used.

GDR National People's Army

The Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor (OF-6), abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral (KAdm).

Hungary

In the Magyar Honvédség (Hungarian Defence Force), the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy.

Iran

In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are respectively sartip dovom (second brigadier general with no equivalent in other countries), sartip (brigadier general), sarlashkar (major general), sepahbod (lieutenant general), and arteshbod (general); nonetheless, major general is the highest available rank for current Iranian commanders.

Ireland

The Irish Defence Forces have two major generals. They are deputy chiefs of staff with separate responsibility for operations (DCOS Ops) and support (DCOS Sp).

India

Major general in the Indian Army is equivalent to rear admiral in the Indian Navy and air vice marshal in the Indian Air Force the rank is higher than a brigadier and lower than a lieutenant general.

Indonesia

In the Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps the rank "Major general" is known as Mayor general or Mayjen in short.

Israel

In the Israel Defense Forces, a major general is called an aluf and is the second-highest rank, subordinate to rav aluf (lieutenant general or general), the rank held by the chief of staff.

Italy

In Italy, the equivalent of major general is the army rank of generale di divisione. In the army, the generale di divisione is the commander of a division.

Japan

Because no brigadier-general rank is used in Japan, major-general is the rank of brigade commander. For this reason, the French are represented in the manner as général de brigade and some countries, such as Brazil and Chile, follow it also words of some countries of the Italian and Spanish, and the like. In the past, rikugun-shōshō(陸軍少将) in the Imperial Japanese Army was equivalent to major-general, in the current,rikushōho(陸将補) in the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force and kūshōho(空将補) in the Japan Air Self-Defense Force are equivalent to it.

Kazakhstan

In the Kazakh Army, major general is the lowest of the field officer rank and is the third-highest rank in the army. It is equivalent to the rear admiral in the Kazakh Navy.

Kenya

In Kenya, major general is the third-highest rank, subordinate to general and lieutenant general, and superior to brigadier and colonel. Current general is Gen. Mwathethe

North Korea

The rank of sojang is also used in North Korea, where it is the lowest general officer and flag officer rank, equivalent to a one-star general. The North Korean equivalent to a two-star general is jungjang, which roughly translates as lieutenant general.

South Korea

In South Korea, the rank of major general is known as sojang (Korean: 소장; Hanja: 少將). In the Republic of Korea Army, a sojang typically commands a division of size ~10,000 soldiers. In the Republic of Korea Navy, a sojang typically commands a fleet. They both can operate an independent field operation. In the Republic of Korea Air Force, a sojang is typically the head of a command headquarter and a junjang, one rank lower than sojang, takes charge of operations. A Republic of Korea Marine Corps sojang commands a division and the South Korean Marine Corps is organized under the Navy.

New Zealand

In the New Zealand Army, major-general is the rank held by the chief of army (formerly the chief of general staff). The more senior rank of lieutenant-general is reserved for when an army officer holds the position of chief of defence force, who commands all New Zealand's armed forces. This position is subject to rotation between the heads of the air force, army, and navy.

Norway

In the Norwegian Army, the Air Force and the Home Guard, generalmajor is the lowest general officer rank, equivalent to kontreadmiral in the Navy.

Pakistan

Major general in the Pakistan Army is equivalent to rear admiral in the Navy and air vice marshal in the Air Force. It is the lowest of the general officer ranks, ranking between brigadier and lieutenant general. The Pakistan Army has four female major generals.

Poland

Generał brygady (Polish pronunciation: [ɡɛˈnɛraw brɨˈɡadɨ], literally "general of a brigade", abbreviated gen. bryg.) is the lowest rank for generals in the Polish Army (both in the land forces and in the Polish air force). Depending on the context, it is equivalent to either the modern rank of major general, or the rank of brigadier general (mostly in historical context).

Portugal

The rank of major-general was reintroduced in the Portuguese Army, Air Force and National Republican Guard in 1999, replacing the former rank of brigadier in the role of brigade commander. As a rank, it had previously been used in the Army only for a brief period (from 1862 to 1864). It is equivalent to the rank of contra-almirante (rear-admiral) in the Portuguese Navy. In 2015, the rank of major-general was moved up one level, with the role of brigade commander being assumed by the below rank of brigadier-general.

In most of the 19th and first half of the 20th century, major-general was not used as a rank in the Portuguese military, but as an appointment title conferred to the general officer that acted as the military head of a service branch. The roles of Major-General of the Navy (Major-General da Armada) and Major-General of the Army (Major-General do Exército) became extinct in 1950, with their roles being unified in the then created Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces.

Russia

In the Russian Army, the rank "Major general" is known as Генера́л-майо́р.

Somalia

In Somalia, major general is used within the Somali Armed Forces (SAF) for the highest-ranking military official.[3]

Sweden

In Sweden, the rank of generalmajor (Genmj) is used in the Army, the Amphibious Corps and the Air Force. It is the equivalent to konteramiral in the Swedish Navy. It is typically held by the heads of the three service branches, and the head of the Swedish Military Intelligence and Security Service.

Switzerland

In Switzerland, the rank of generalmajor is called Divisionär (German) or Divisionaire (French).

Thailand

In Thailand, the rank of major general is called pon-tree "พลตรี" for the Royal Thai Army, which is equivalent to rear admiral (Pon-reu-tree "พลเรือตรี") for the Navy, air vice marshal (Pon-akat-tree "พลอากาศตรี") for the Air Force , and police major general ("Pon-tamruad-tree" "พลตำรวจตรี") for the Royal Thai Police.

Turkey

The Turkish Army and Air Force refer to the rank as tümgeneral. The Turkish Navy equivalent is tümadmiral. The name is derived from tümen, the Turkish word for a military division (tümen itself is an older Turkish word meaning "10,000"). Thus, linguistically, it is similar to the French equivalent for a major general, général de division.

United Kingdom

In the British Army and Royal Marines, major-general ranks below lieutenant-general and above brigadier, and is thus the lowest of the general officer ranks. Divisions are usually commanded by major-generals, and they also hold a variety of staff positions. The professional head of the Royal Marines currently holds the rank of major-general.

From 1 April 1918 to 31 July 1919, the Royal Air Force maintained the rank of major-general. It was superseded by the rank of air vice-marshal on the following day.

Major-general is equivalent to rear admiral in the Royal Navy and air vice-marshal in the Royal Air Force.

United States

In the United States Army, a major general (MG) typically commands a division of 10,000–20,000 soldiers and is capable of fully independent field operations. They may also serve as deputy commanders in 3-star commands or as senior directors on Army and joint staffs. In the case of the Army National Guard, they may also serve as The Adjutant General (TAG) for their state, commonwealth or territory.

In the United States Marine Corps, major generals (MajGen) typically serve as commanding generals of Marine Expeditionary Forces, Marine Divisions, Marine Aircraft Wings, Joint Task Force Commanders, deputy commanders in 3-star commands or as senior directors on Marine Corps and joint staffs.

In the United States Air Force, major generals (Maj Gen) typically serve as Numbered Air Force commanders, vice commanders of 3-star commands, joint task force commanders, warfare center, training center, weapons center, or logistics center commanders, or senior directors on Air Force and joint staffs. In the case of the Air National Guard, they may also serve as The Adjutant General (TAG) for their state, commonwealth or territory.

Vietnam

In Vietnam, the rank of major general is known as thiếu tướng. It is used in the army and the air force. It is the equivalent to chuẩn Đô đốc in the Navy.

The rank of thiếu tướng is the lowest general officer and flag officer rank, equivalent to a one-star general and admiral. In the Vietnamese People's Army, a major general commands a corps of 30,000–40,000 soldiers and is capable of fully independent field operation.

Insignia

Army

Afghan National Army
Turan Jenral
Genmjr aut rockkragen
Austrian Armed Forces
Generalmajor
Bangladesh Army
Major general
Czech Army
generálmajor
Estonian Army
kindralmajor
Georgia-Army-OF-7
Georgian Armed Forces
გენერალ მაიორი
GDR Border Troops OF6 Generalmajor
Nationale Volksarmee of the GDR
generalmajor
Greek Army
Ypostratigos Υποστράτηγος
Guyana Defence Force
major general
Indian Army
major general
Iranian Army
sarlashkar-سرلشکر
IE-Army-OF7
Irish Army
major general
General major-arm
Army of the Republic of Macedonia
Генерал мајор (general major)
OF-7 Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
major general
PHIL ARMY MGEN WOODLAND
Philippine Army
Magat Heneral
20 - Major-general
Portuguese Army
major-general
Royal Thai Army
Phon Tri
Turkey-army-OF-7
Turkish Land Forces
Tümgeneral
US Army O8 shoulderboard rotated
U.S. Army
major general (September 1959 to October 2014)

Air force

Canada-Air force-OF-7-collected
Royal Canadian Air Force
(French: Major-général)
Czech Air Force
(Generálmajor)
RDAF Maj Gen
Royal Danish Air Force
(Generalmajor)
Luftwaffe-321-Generalmajor
Luftwaffe
(Generalmajor)
Hellenic Air Force OF-7
Greece
(Υποπτέραρχος)
Ireland-AirForce-OF-7
Irish Air Corps
(Maor-ghinearál)
Malaysia-Air Force-OF-7
Royal Malaysian Air Force
(Mejar Jeneral)
RNAF Maj Gen
Royal Netherlands Air Force
(Generaal-majoor)
PHIL ARMY MGEN WOODLAND
Philippines
Rank insignia of generał dywizji of the Air Force of Poland
Poland
RO-Airforce-OF-7s
Romanian Air Force
(General-maior)
Serbian Air Force
(Генерал-мајор)
OF-7 Generalmajor FV hylsa
Swedish Air Force
(Generalmajor)
Turkey-air-force-OF-7
Turkish Air Force
Tümgeneral
US Air Force O8 shoulderboard
US Air Force
Major general

Naval infantry

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ MILITÄRISCHES STUDIENGLOSAR ENGLISCH Teil I, L – Z, Bundessprachenamt (Stand Januar 2001), page 742, definition: major general [MG].
  2. ^ Bowden & Tarbox, p 24. The authors write that FML (field-marshal-lieutenant) is the same as lieutenant-general and General-feldwachtmeister the same as major-general, but they list no equivalent rank to brigadier-general. Nevertheless, the page cited is an excellent source of Austro-Hungarian ranks.
  3. ^ Somalia: A Country Study – Army Ranks and Insignia Archived 2012-10-04 at the Wayback Machine, www.marines.mil

Sources

  • Boatner, Mark M., III. The Civil War Dictionary. New York: David McKay, 1959. ISBN 0-679-50013-8.
  • Bowden, Scotty & Tarbox, Charlie. Armies on the Danube 1809. Arlington, TX: Empire Games Press, 1980. OCLC 6649795.
  • Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol. 2. New York: Random House, 1986. ISBN 0-394-74621-X.

External links

3rd Division (United Kingdom)

The 3rd (United Kingdom) Division is a regular army division of the British Army. It was created in 1809 by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, as part of the Anglo-Portuguese Army, for service in the Peninsular War, and was known as the Fighting 3rd under Sir Thomas Picton during the Napoleonic Wars. The division fought at the Battle of Waterloo, as well as during the Crimean War and the Second Boer War. As a result of bitter fighting in 1916, during the First World War, the division became referred to as the 3rd (Iron) Division, or the Iron Division or Ironsides. During the Second World War, the division (now known as the 3rd Infantry Division) fought in the Battle of France including a rearguard action during the Dunkirk Evacuation, and played a prominent role in the D-Day landings of 6 June 1944. The division was to have been part of a proposed Commonwealth Corps, formed for a planned invasion of Japan in 1945–46, and later served in the British Mandate of Palestine. During the Second World War, the insignia became the "pattern of three" — a black triangle trisected by an inverted red triangle, created by Bernard Montgomery to instil pride in his troops.

Air vice-marshal

Air vice-marshal (AVM) is a two-star air officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force. The rank is also used by the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence and it is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. Air vice-marshals may be addressed generically as "air marshal".Air vice-marshal is a two-star rank and has a NATO ranking code of OF-7. It is equivalent to a rear-admiral in the Royal Navy or a major-general in the British Army or the Royal Marines. In other NATO forces, such as the United States Armed Forces and the Canadian Armed Forces, the equivalent two-star rank is major general.

The rank of air vice-marshal is immediately senior to the rank air commodore and immediately subordinate to the rank of air marshal. Since before the Second World War it has been common for air officers commanding RAF groups to hold the rank of air vice-marshal. In small air forces such as the Royal New Zealand Air Force and the Ghana Air Force, the head of the air force holds the rank of air vice-marshal.

The equivalent rank in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force, Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force, Women's Royal Air Force (until 1968) and Princess Mary's Royal Air Force Nursing Service (until 1980) was "air chief commandant".

Army of Northern Virginia

The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was also the primary command structure of the Department of Northern Virginia. It was most often arrayed against the Union Army of the Potomac.

Brigadier general

Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) or brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops (four battalions). In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general (OF-6).

In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, which is usually equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank.

The rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a "brigadier general", or simply a "brigadier", would command a brigade in the field. The rank name général de brigade (which translates as "brigade general") was first used in the French revolutionary armies.

In the first quarter of the 20th century, British and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; in the 1920s this practice changed to the use of brigadier, which was not classed as a general officer.

Some armies, such as Taiwan and Japan, use major general as the equivalent of brigadier general (See also Japan & Taiwan for details.). Some of these armies then use the rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks.Mexico uses the ranks of both General brigadier and General de brigada.

Brigadier general (United States)

In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general (BG, BGen, or Brig Gen) is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Air Force. Brigadier general ranks above a colonel and below major general. The rank of brigadier general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral (lower half) in the other uniformed services (the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard, as both Armed Forces and Uniformed Services; and the Public Health Service and National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, as Uniformed Services). The NATO equivalent is OF-6.

Commandant of the Marine Corps

The commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC) is normally the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CMC reports directly to the United States Secretary of the Navy and is responsible for ensuring the organization, policy, plans, and programs for the Marine Corps as well as advising the President, the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary of the Navy on matters involving the Marine Corps. Under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, the CMC designates Marine personnel and resources to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands. The commandant performs all other functions prescribed in Section 5043 in Title 10 of the United States Code or delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in his administration in his name. As with the other joint chiefs, the commandant is an administrative position and has no operational command authority over United States Marine Corps forces.

The commandant is nominated by the president for a four-year term of office and must be confirmed by the Senate. By statute, the commandant is appointed as a four-star general while serving in office. "The Commandant is directly responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for the total performance of the Marine Corps. This includes the administration, discipline, internal organization, training, requirements, efficiency, and readiness of the service. The Commandant is also responsible for the operation of the Marine Corps material support system." Since 1801, the official residence of the commandant has been located in the Marine Barracks in Washington, D.C. and his main offices are in Arlington County, Virginia.

Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army)

The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) is a military award of the United States Army that is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. The performance must be such as to merit recognition for service that is clearly exceptional. Exceptional performance of normal duty will not alone justify an award of this decoration.Separate Distinguished Service Medals exist for the different branches of the military as well as a fifth version of the medal which is a senior award of the United States Department of Defense. The army version of the Distinguished Service Medal is typically referred to simply as the "Distinguished Service Medal", while the other branches of service use the service name as a prefix.

For service not related to actual war, the term "duty of a great responsibility" applies to a narrower range of positions than in time of war, and requires evidence of conspicuously significant achievement. However, justification of the award may accrue by virtue of exceptionally meritorious service in a succession of high positions of great importance.

Awards may be made to persons other than members of the United States Armed Forces for wartime services only, and then only under exceptional circumstances, with the express approval of the president in each case.

Fort Benning

Fort Benning is a United States Army post straddling the Alabama–Georgia border next to Columbus, Georgia. Fort Benning supports more than 120,000 active-duty military, family members, reserve component soldiers, retirees, and civilian employees on a daily basis. It is a power projection platform, and possesses the capability to deploy combat-ready forces by air, rail, and highway. Fort Benning is the home of the United States Army Maneuver Center of Excellence, the United States Army Armor School, United States Army Infantry School, the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (formerly known as the School of the Americas), elements of the 75th Ranger Regiment (United States), the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade, and other additional tenant units.

It is named after Henry L. Benning, a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War.Since 1909, Fort Benning has served as the Home of the Infantry. Since 2005, Fort Benning has been transformed into the Maneuver Center of Excellence, as a result of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission's decision to consolidate a number of schools and installations to create various "centers of excellence". Included in this transformation was the move of the Armor School from Fort Knox to Fort Benning.

General officers in the Confederate States Army

The general officers of the Confederate States Army (CSA) were the senior military leaders of the Confederacy during the American Civil War of 1861–1865. They were often former officers from the United States Army (the regular army) prior to the Civil War, while others were given the rank based on merit or when necessity demanded. Most Confederate generals needed confirmation from the Confederate Congress, much like prospective generals in the modern U.S. armed forces.

Like all of the Confederacy's military forces, these generals answered to their civilian leadership, in particular Jefferson Davis, the South's president and therefore commander-in-chief of the Army, Navy, and Marines of the Confederate States.

Generalmajor

For the use of this Two-star rank in other countries, see Major general.

General Major, short GenMaj, (English: major general) is a general officer rank in many countries, and is identical to and translated as major general.

It is currently the third highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer), German Air Force (Luftwaffe). This rank is also used in the Austrian Armed Forces, but is abbreviated as GenMjr.

Historically, German Army ranks for their Generals prior to 1945 were offset by one from western nomenclature. Thus, prior to 1945 the Generalmajor rank in the German Army was equivalent to the Brigadier General rank in the West, and so forth.

Lieutenant general

Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general.

In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal. A lieutenant general commands an army corps, made up of typically three army divisions, and consisting of around 60,000–70,000 soldiers (U.S.).

The seeming incongruity that a lieutenant general outranks a major general (whereas a major outranks a lieutenant) is due to the derivation of the latter rank from sergeant major general, which was also subordinate to lieutenant general. In some countries (e.g. France and Italy), the ranks of corps general or lieutenant colonel general are used instead of lieutenant general, in an attempt to solve this apparent anomaly – these ranks are often translated into English as lieutenant general.However, some countries of Latin America such as Brazil and Chile use divisional general as the equivalent of lieutenant general. In addition, because no brigadier general rank is used in Japan, lieutenant general is the rank of divisional commander. Therefore, it corresponds to divisional general of these countries. In a number of smaller states which employ NATO and western style military organizational structures, because of the limited number of soldiers in their armies, the rank of lieutenant general is the highest army rank in use. In Latvia, Lithuania and Singapore, the chief of defence is a lieutenant general, and in the Irish Defence Forces and Israel Defense Forces, the Chief of Staff holds this rank.

Major-general (United Kingdom)

Major general (Maj Gen), is a "two-star" rank in the British Army and Royal Marines. The rank was also briefly used by the Royal Air Force for a year and a half, from its creation to August 1919. In the British Army, a major general is the customary rank for the appointment of division commander. In the Royal Marines, the rank of major general is held by the Commandant General.

A major general is senior to a brigadier but subordinate to lieutenant general. The rank has a NATO rank code of OF-7, equivalent to a rear admiral in the Royal Navy or an air vice-marshal in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many Commonwealth countries.

The rank insignia is the star (or 'pip') of the Order of the Bath, over a crossed sword and baton.

In terms of orthography, compound ranks were invariably hyphenated, prior to about 1980. Nowadays the rank is almost equally invariably non-hyphenated.. When written as a title, especially before a person's name, both words of the rank are always capitalised, whether using the "traditional" hyphenated style of, say, the two World Wars, or the modern un-hyphenated style. When used as common nouns, they might be written in lower-case: "Major-General Montgomery was one of several major-generals to be promoted at this time."

Major general (United States)

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks above brigadier general and below lieutenant general. A major general typically commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the two-star rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, and is the highest permanent peacetime rank in the uniformed services. Higher ranks are technically temporary and linked to specific positions, although virtually all officers promoted to those ranks are approved to retire at their highest earned rank.

Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States

The Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS), or simply as the Loyal Legion is a United States patriotic order, organized April 15, 1865, by officers of the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps of the United States who "had aided in maintaining the honor, integrity, and supremacy of the national movement" during the American Civil War. It was formed by loyal union military officers in response to rumors from Washington of a conspiracy to destroy the Federal government by assassination of its leaders, in the immediate aftermath of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. They stated their purpose as the cherishing of the memories and associations of the war waged in defense of the unity and indivisibility of the Republic; the strengthening of the ties of fraternal fellowship and sympathy formed by companionship in arms; the relief of the widows and children of dead companions of the order; and the advancement of the general welfare of the soldiers and sailors of the United States. As the original officers died off, the veterans organization became an all-male hereditary society. The modern organization is composed of male descendants of these officers (hereditary members), and others who share the ideals of the Order (associate members), who collectively are considered "Companions". A female auxiliary, Dames of the Loyal Legion of the United States (DOLLUS), was formed in 1899 and accepted as an affiliate in 1915.

Sergeant major

Sergeant major is a senior non-commissioned rank or appointment in many militaries around the world. In Commonwealth countries, the various degrees of sergeant major are appointments held by warrant officers. In the United States, there are also various grades of sergeant major (command sergeant major, Sergeant Major of the Army, Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps), but they are all of the same pay grade of E-9. However, the Sergeant Major of the Army and the Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, as their respective service's Senior Enlisted Advisor, receive a special rate of basic pay that is higher than all other sergeants major.

Society of the Cincinnati

The Society of the Cincinnati is a hereditary society with branches in the United States and France, founded in 1783, to preserve the ideals and fellowship of officers of the Continental Army who served in the Revolutionary War. Now in its third century, the Society promotes the public interest in the Revolution through its library and museum collections, publications, and other activities. It is the oldest hereditary society in the United States. The Society does not allow women to join, though there is a partnership society called Daughters of the Cincinnati which permits all female descendants of Continental officers.

Staff College, Camberley

Staff College, Camberley, Surrey, was a staff college for the British Army and the presidency armies of British India (later merged to form the Indian Army). It had its origins in the Royal Military College, High Wycombe founded in 1799, which in 1802 became the Senior Department of the new Royal Military College. In 1858 the name of the Senior Department was changed to "Staff College", and in 1870 this was separated from the Royal Military College. Apart from periods of closure during major wars, the Staff College continued to operate until 1997, when it was merged into the new Joint Services Command and Staff College. The equivalent in the Royal Navy was the Royal Naval Staff College, Greenwich and the equivalent in the Royal Air Force was the RAF Staff College, Bracknell.

United States Air Force Judge Advocate General's Corps

The Judge Advocate General's Corps also known as the "JAG Corps" or "JAG" is the legal arm of the United States Air Force.

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