Major League Rugby

Major League Rugby (MLR or USMLR) is a professional rugby union competition and the top-level championship for clubs in North America. In the 2019 season it was contested by nine teams: eight from the United States and one from Canada.[2] Officially sanctioned by USA Rugby, which is a member union of Rugby Americas North (RAN), and consequently part of World Rugby, the league was founded in 2017, and is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah.

With its initial beginnings as part of established amateur rugby clubs in major North American urban areas, MLR began its first season in 2018 as an initiative of the American rugby community in partnership with private investors.[3] Three further American clubs, Atlanta, Boston and Washington D.C., are set to begin play in 2020.[2]

Major League Rugby
Most recent season or competition:
2019 Major League Rugby season
US Major League Rugby logo
SportRugby union
Inaugural season2018
CommissionerDean Howes[1]
No. of teams12
CountriesUnited States (11 teams)
Canada (1 team)
HeadquartersSalt Lake City, Utah, United States
Most recent
Seattle Seawolves
(2nd title)
Most titlesSeattle Seawolves (2 titles)
TV partner(s)



In September 2016, with at least five amateur rugby union clubs across the United States discussing a possible professional league, Dean Howes, who had previously been an executive with Major League Soccer's Real Salt Lake and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League, stepped in as senior strategic advisor for Rugby Utah in an attempt to provide a pathway for expanding professional rugby stateside.[4]

By February 2017, a total of nine amateur rugby union organizations including the Austin Huns, Dallas Griffins, Glendale Raptors, Houston Strikers, Kansas City Blues, Minneapolis, New Orleans RFC, Rugby Utah and the Seattle Saracens, announced their intentions to form a professional league to begin play the following year.[5][6]

On August 15, 2017, the Austin Huns announced that it would opt-out of MLR in favor of allowing a newly-branded spinoff, the Austin Elite compete in the league.[7] The Houston Strikers rebranded themselves as the Houston SaberCats. Whereas the elite players of New Orleans, Utah, and Seattle became the New Orleans Gold, Utah Warriors, and Seattle Seawolves respectively, interests in Minneapolis were replaced by the San Diego Legion.[8] With Kansas City and Dallas still in planning stages, the league continued as seven members for its inaugural season.[9]

On November 6, 2017, Major League Rugby and CBS Sports Network announced a multi-year television partnership which marked MLR's first major television deal for broadcast rights.[10] It was the first time in American history that a new sporting league had a national television deal prior to launch.[11]

Early seasons and rapid expansion

The first regular-season game in Major League Rugby history was held on April 21, 2018, when the Houston SaberCats hosted the New Orleans Gold in Houston.

In addition to Rugby United New York, the Toronto Arrows joined the league ahead of 2019 season as the first Canadian team in MLR. Three further American clubs are set to begin play in 2020.[2]

In late April 2019, RUNY announced the signing of French international Mathieu Bastareaud which is seen as a major coup for the league, since Bastereaud is a current French international and world-class player, making him by far the most prominent player in the league at that time.

Competition format

Major League Rugby spans six months from late January through to mid-June. The regular season is a double round-robin with all clubs playing each other home and away.[2] Each team plays sixteen games, half of them at home. This is followed by a postseason for the top four teams consisting of two semi-final matches and the Championship Game to determine the season's MLR champion team.[12]

For the 2020 season, MLR will change to a conference format.[13] Both conferences, the Western Conference and the Eastern Conference, will consist of six teams: Seattle, San Diego, Utah, Glendale, Austin and Houston in the west and existing teams New Orleans, New York, and Toronto to be joined by 2020 newcomers Atlanta, Washington, D.C., and New England in the east. Each team will play a double round-robin within their conference in addition to playing six games against teams from the other conference, for a total of 16 regular-season games.[14] The postseason will consist of the top three teams from each conference: a wildcard game between the second and third ranked teams, followed by a playoff game between the wildcard winner and the first ranked team in the conference. The resulting playoff winners from each conference will then face off in the league championship. The season is scheduled to start on February 15, 2020.

The league is structured as a closed system and, similar to other American sports leagues, does not have promotion and relegation.[15] It operates as a single entity similar to Major League Soccer, with each team or "franchise" owned by the league and the franchise operators owning a share of the league.[1]

Locations of teams for 2020 Major League Rugby season
         Red pog.svg Western Conference
         Blue pog.svg Eastern Conference
         Steel pog.svg Future expansion teams

Current teams

There are twelve teams confirmed for the 2020 Major League Rugby season with a regular season of 96 matches and be divided into two conferences:[2]

Conference Club Metro area Stadium Capacity Joined Coach Broadcasters
Western Conference Austin Elite Austin, Texas Dell Diamond[a] 11,631 2018 Tbc CBS Austin
Univision Austin
Glendale Raptors Denver, Colorado Infinity Park[b] 5,000 2018 Peter Borlase KUSA9
Houston SaberCats Houston, Texas Aveva Stadium 4,000 2018 Paul Healy KUBE-TV
Univision Houston
San Diego Legion San Diego, California Torero Stadium 6,000 2018 Rob Hoadley FOX 5 San Diego
Seattle Seawolves Seattle, Washington Starfire Stadium[c] 4,500 2018 Tbc Univision Seattle
Utah Warriors Salt Lake City, Utah Zions Bank Stadium[d] 5,000 2018 Tbc Univision Utah
My Utah TV
Eastern Conference New England Free Jacks Boston, Massachusetts Union Point Sports Complex [e] 2,000 2020 Josh Smith CBS 4 Boston
New Orleans Gold New Orleans, Louisiana Eagle Athletic Facility[f] 3,000 2018 Nate Osborne Cox Sports TV
Old Glory DC Washington, D.C. Cardinal Stadium[g] 3,500 2020 Andrew Douglas Univision DC
Rugby United New York New York, New York MCU Park 7,000 2019 Mike Tolkin SportsNet New York
Rugby ATL Atlanta, Georgia 2020 Scott Lawerence WSB-TV
Toronto Arrows Toronto, Ontario Alumni Field
Lamport Stadium
2019 Chris Silverthorn CTV Toronto

Expansion teams

The following teams have been officially announced as joining the league in 2021.[24] The expansion franchise fee is US$4 million as of 2019.[24]

Club Metro area Stadium Capacity Joining Coach
Dallas MLR Team Dallas, Texas 2021

The following teams are rumored to have either paid the expansion fee, or are deep in negotiations.[25][26][27]

Club Metro area Stadium Capacity Joining Coach
Los Angeles MLR Team Los Angeles, California 2021
Ohio MLR Team Columbus, Ohio Fortress Obetz 6,500
Las Vegas MLR Team Las Vegas, Nevada
Vancouver MLR Team Vancouver, British Columbia
Halifax MLR Team Halifax, Nova Scotia Wanderers Grounds 6,200


By year
Year Teams Final Semi-finalists
Champion Score Runner-up Higher seeded Lower seeded
2018 7 Seattle Seawolves 23–19 Glendale Raptors San Diego Legion Utah Warriors
2019 9 Seattle Seawolves 26–23 San Diego Legion Toronto Arrows Rugby United New York


Major League Rugby players are generally drawn from North American clubs, although teams are allowed to sign up to ten overseas players.


MLR season
Player of the Year Forward of the Year Back of the Year Coach of the Year
MLR championship
MVP of the Championship Match MVP of the Championship Series
  • no award

Television coverage

Major League Rugby programming runs in prime weekend time slots on Saturday afternoons and Sunday evenings.[28]

The CBS Sports Network televises 13 matches nationally over the course of the season. This includes a Game of the Week during each of the 10 rounds of the MLR regular season along with all three post-season matches.[12] Live streaming is also available through the CBS Sports Network streaming platforms.[12] Dan Power(Play By Play) , Brian Hightower (Color Analyst) and Stacy Paetz (Sideline) were the CBS Sports commentators for the 2019 season.[29] The remaining games are available on ESPN properties and regional sports networks.[30]

ESPN has the national and international rights to an 18-game package covering regular season matches to audiences across its various platforms.[30]

AT&T Sports Networks have a 17-game package covering six of the seven MLR teams for games not broadcast on the CBS Sports Network.[28] Home-and-away matches for Austin, Houston and New Orleans are carried on AT&T SportsNet Southwest. Seattle's matches are carried on Root Sports Northwest and all Glendale and Utah games are hosted on AT&T SportsNet Rocky Mountain.[28]

San Diego has a separate local rights agreement for their market with all the Legion's home-and-away MLR games that are not on the CBS Sports Network being televised locally on Channel 4 YurView California.[31]

Austin Elite Rugby partnered with Facebook Watch for their Texas-based viewers during the 2019 season.

Rugby United New York announced regional television partnership with SNY, which will televise nine games of RUNY's inaugural season (2019), with the premiere game airing LIVE Sunday, January 27 at 5:00 PM EST.[32] Also, NBC Sports Washington and NBC Sports Philadelphia+ will join SNY in televising match coverage of eight remaining games, beginning Saturday February 16 at 3 PM EST when RUNY travels to face the NOLA Gold. The partnership with the NBC Sports Regional Networks expands RUNY's TV market into two key East Coast markets.[33]

Toronto Arrows Rugby announced a television partnership with GameTV for the 2019 season.

The 2019 Championship game was broadcast on CBS, the first MLR game to be televised on free-to-air TV. It gained a 0.32 Sports TV rating which equated to 510,000 two-plus-person households.[34]


Top five attendances for Major League Rugby games (all time, from 2018 onward):

Rank Attendance Game Date Season Venue Metro area
1 6,000 San Diego Legion vs Seattle Seawolves (Final) 2019-06-16 2 Torero Stadium San Diego, CA
2 4,500 San Diego Legion vs Rugby United New York (Semi-Final) 2019-06-09 2 Torero Stadium San Diego, CA
3 4,175 San Diego Legion vs New Orleans Gold 2019-06-02 2 Torero Stadium San Diego, CA
4 4,000 Glendale Raptors vs Seattle Seawolves 2019-05-18 2 Infinity Park Glendale, CO
5 3,800 Seattle Seawolves vs Austin Elite 2019-06-02 2 Starfire Stadium Seattle, WA
3,800 Seattle Seawolves vs Utah Warriors 2019-05-26 2 Starfire Stadium Seattle, WA

The highest attended non-competition game by an MLR team was a pre-season clash between Utah Warriors and Glendale Raptors, 31 March 2018, which drew 9,186 at Rio Tinto Stadium.


  • Dean Howes – Commissioner, 2016–present.[1]
  • Nic Benson – Deputy Commissioner, 2016–present.[35]


The league signed a multi-year partnership deal with XBlades in 2017 to supply all jersey/kit apparel for each MLR team and all match officials.[36] The MLR also announced Ram Rugby as the official ball supplier.[37] In May 2018, via Instagram, MLR announced Impact Custom Mouth Guards as the official mouth guard of the league.[38]

Jersey sponsorships
Team Sponsor Annual value
Austin Elite None
Glendale Raptors None
Houston SaberCats Aveva[39] Undisclosed
New Orleans Gold Louisiana Tourism Undisclosed
Rugby United New York None
San Diego Legion None
Seattle Seawolves None
Toronto Arrows Honda[40] Undisclosed
Utah Warriors Nui[41] Undisclosed
New England Free Jacks None Boathouse
Old Glory DC Cuisine Solutions Adidas
Rugby ATL None TBA
Exhibition teams
Team Sponsor Manufacturer

See also


  1. ^ Dell Diamond is located in Round Rock, Texas, which is a part of the Greater Austin metro area.
  2. ^ Infinity Park is in Glendale, Colorado, a home rule municipality in the Denver metropolitan area.
  3. ^ Starfire Stadium is in the Seattle suburb of Tukwila, Washington.[16]
  4. ^ Zions Bank Stadium is in Herriman, Utah, located within the Salt Lake City metropolitan area.[17]
  5. ^ A Boston franchise, known as the New England Free Jacks, joined MLR in 2020.[18]
  6. ^ Eagle Athletic Facility is on the campus of Archbishop Shaw High School in Marrero, Louisiana,[19] on the Westbank of the New Orleans metropolitan area.[20]
  7. ^ Old Glory DC, a Washington, D.C. team that joined in 2020[21][22] and could play exhibition games in 2019.[23]


  1. ^ a b c "Major League Rugby nears kick-off as next attempt to make US a union power". The Guardian. UK. 2017-11-17. Archived from the original on 2017-11-19. Retrieved 2017-11-19.
  2. ^ a b c d e "MLR 2020: LEAGUE FORMAT". Major League Rugby. 2019-07-13. Retrieved 2019-07-13.
  3. ^ "Glendale Raptors Announce Team, Coaches, & Ticket Sales". djcoilrugby. 2018-01-29. Archived from the original on 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  4. ^ "Dean Howes, Former Real Salt Lake CEO, Joins Rugby Utah" (Press release). Utah Rugby. August 24, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  5. ^ "Major League Rugby Coming in 2018". Americas Rugby News. February 13, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  6. ^ "Nine Teams Confirmed for Major League Rugby". Americas Rugby News. May 5, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  7. ^ "Austin Huns Opt Out of Inaugural MLR Season" (Press release). Austin Huns. August 15, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  8. ^ "San Diego Join as Major League Rugby Eyes Rapid Expansion". Americas Rugby News. September 21, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  9. ^ "Major League Rugby: All you need to know about U.S. rugby's newest competition". ESPN. April 30, 2018. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  10. ^ Bristol, Jason (November 13, 2017). "Houston, rugby has landed; to be broadcast on CBS Sports Network". KHOU-TV. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  11. ^ Hamilton, Tom (April 20, 2018). "Major League Rugby: Inside rugby's latest attempt to crack America". ESPN. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  12. ^ a b c "CBS Sports Network Partners with MLR". Major League Rugby (Press release). 2017-11-06. Archived from the original on 2017-11-09. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  13. ^ "Major League Rugby to add three new teams in 2020". 2019-04-12. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  14. ^ Rowe, James (2019-04-11). "Major League Rugby Announces New League Format For 2020". The Runner Sports. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
  15. ^ Parkes, Geoff (2018-05-06). "Why Major League Rugby could finally be the USA's game changer". The Roar. Archived from the original on 2018-11-13. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  16. ^ "Contact". Starfire Sports. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  17. ^ "Utah Warriors Announce Home Venue for the Major League Rugby Season". Utah Warriors. 2018-01-25. Archived from the original on 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  18. ^ "Major League Rugby confirms Boston and Atlanta for 2020". Americas Rugby News. 2018-09-21. Retrieved 2018-07-10.
  19. ^ "Eagle Athletic Facility Mass & Groundbreaking". Carpe Diem!. 2017-11-01. Archived from the original on 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  20. ^ Songy, Marielle (December 2017). "Archbishop Shaw High School Breaks Ground on New Stadium". The West Bank Beacon. New Orleans. Archived from the original on 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  21. ^ "Washington DC team to enter Major League Rugby 'no later' than 2020". Major League Rugby. 2018-05-15. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  22. ^ "Major League Rugby planned for Washington DC!". Archived from the original on 2018-06-03. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  23. ^ Pengelly, Martin (2018-05-15). "Washington DC team to enter Major League Rugby 'no later' than 2020". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 2018-05-15. Retrieved 2018-06-03.
  24. ^ a b "Major League Rugby expanding to 12 teams in 2020". 2019-04-01. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^ a b c "Major League Rugby Announce Telecast Agreement with AT&T Sports Networks". MLR. 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  29. ^ "Major League Rugby".
  30. ^ a b "Major League Rugby and ESPN Announce Rights Agreement". MLR. 2018-03-20. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  31. ^ "Media partners". San Diego Legion. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
  32. ^ "SNY and RUNY Announce Television Partnership". Rugby United New York. 2018-12-20.
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^ "Major League Rugby to launch with 9 teams". Rugby Today. 2017-05-08. Archived from the original on 2017-11-20.
  36. ^ "Major League Rugby announces XBlades as official apparel partner". Major League Rugby. 2017-12-20. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  37. ^ "Major League Rugby Announces Ram Rugby as Official Ball Sponsor". 2018-02-07. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  38. ^ Major League Rugby Announces Impact Mouthguards as Sponsor "Major League Rugby Announces Impact Mouthguards as Sponsor". Major League Rugby. 2018-05-24. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^

External links

Austin Elite

The Austin Elite is a professional rugby union team based in Austin, Texas, United States. The team was founded in 2017 after a split from the amateur Austin Huns Rugby Football Club who were National Division 1 Club Champions in 2017 and competes in Major League Rugby.

Dell Diamond

Dell Diamond is the home stadium of the Round Rock Express, the Triple-A Minor League Baseball affiliate of the Houston Astros major league baseball team. On April 16, 2000, the then-Double-A affiliate Express played their first home game at the stadium.Dell Diamond is built on 85 acres (344,000 m²) of former farmland on the east side of Round Rock, Texas, a rapidly growing suburban city northeast of Austin. Nolan Ryan and his son Reid Ryan, part owners of the Express, originally wanted a stadium inside the city of Austin, but found a more attractive site in the City of Round Rock, with support from the city leadership. The city of Round Rock contributed $7.35 million to the $25 million cost of the facility. The city owns the ballpark and gave the Express a 38-year lease. Local-based computer technology company Dell contracted for naming rights in a deal that will cost the company $2.5 million over 15 years.

Glendale Raptors

Glendale Raptors R.F.C. is a professional rugby union team based in Glendale, Colorado, an enclave of Denver. The team competes in Major League Rugby.

Griffins Rugby

Dallas Griffins Rugby, formerly Frisco Griffins, is a rugby union team based in Allen, Texas, United States, founded in 2008 by Phil Camm and Bill Bingham. Dallas competed in USA Rugby's first tier amateur competition, Red River Conference D1, and was a member of Major League Rugby at its foundation.

Houston SaberCats

The Houston SaberCats are an American professional rugby union team based in Houston, Texas. The team was founded in 2017 and competes in Major League Rugby, the top-level rugby competition in the United States that played its first season in 2018.

Infinity Park

Infinity Park is a sports stadium in the Denver enclave of Glendale, Colorado, and was formerly the unofficial home stadium of the United States national rugby union team. The stadium has a seating capacity of 5,000 people. The stadium opened in 2007, at a cost of $22.5 million. It is the first rugby-specific, municipally-owned stadium in the United States.Infinity Park is the venue for several domestic rugby teams. The rugby stadium is home to the Glendale Raptors, a professional rugby union team in Major League Rugby, the Glendale Merlins, a Division I men's rugby team that have won the national championship, and of the Denver Barbarians. The stadium also hosts the Women's Premier League's Glendale Lady Raptors. The Denver Stampede of the now defunct PRO Rugby played at the stadium between April and May 2016.

Infinity Park also hosts various tournaments. The stadium regularly hosts USA Rugby national men's club semifinals and finals championships. Infinity Park is the home of the Serevi Rugbytown Sevens Tournament which takes place in August each year and attracts teams from around the world to compete for a winner-take-all $10,000 cash prize. Most notably, it became the new home of the USA Women's Sevens, the country's stop in the annual World Rugby Women's Sevens Series, starting with the 2018–19 season.

LA Coast Rugby

Los Angeles Coast Rugby was a bid for a professional rugby union team to be based in Los Angeles, California as a part of Major League Rugby (MLR) in 2019. No home stadium or coaching staff was announced.

MCU Park

MCU Park (formerly KeySpan Park) is a minor league baseball stadium on the Riegelmann Boardwalk in Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City. The home team is the New York Mets-affiliated Brooklyn Cyclones of the New York–Penn League. The NYU Violets Baseball team began playing at MCU Park in 2015, and the New York Cosmos Soccer Club of the NASL moved in for the 2017 NASL season. Rugby United New York of Major League Rugby began play in 2019 with MCU Park as its home field.

The official seating capacity at MCU Park is 7,000, though the Cyclones sell up to 2,500 more standing-room tickets. Prior to 2016, the capacity was 7,500 plus 2,500 standing room. Features include a concourse with free-standing concession buildings and overhanging fluorescent lamps in different colors, evoking an amusement park atmosphere. In addition, the park overlooks the Atlantic Ocean as well as the famous Parachute Jump in right field, and the landmarked Wonder Wheel and Coney Island Cyclone in left field.

MCU Park is accessible via the New York City Subway at the Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue station, served by the D​, F​, N​, and Q trains.

New England Free Jacks

The New England Free Jacks are a professional rugby union team in Major League Rugby (MLR) from Boston, Massachusetts. They were announced in September 2018 and began to compete professionally in October 2018. They will begin competing in MLR in the 2020 season.

New Orleans Gold

The New Orleans Gold (also known as NOLA Gold) is a professional rugby union team based at Marrero, Louisiana, in the Westbank area of the New Orleans metropolitan area. The team was founded in 2017 and competes in Major League Rugby.

Old Glory DC

Old Glory DC RFC is a professional rugby union team that is a member of Major League Rugby (MLR). It is based at Cardinal Stadium in Washington, D.C. The organization is led by former USA Eagles Paul Sheehy and Chris Dunlavey. The team will be assisted in the coaching ranks by Andrew Douglas, a renowned New Zealand coach. Old Glory will play an abbreviated schedule of exhibition games in May 2019 and will begin regular-season MLR play in 2020.

Rugby ATL

Rugby ATL is an announced professional rugby union team in Major League Rugby (MLR) from Atlanta, Georgia, to begin play in 2020.

Rugby United New York

Rugby United New York, known as RUNY, is a professional rugby union team based in New York City that is a member of Major League Rugby (MLR). The team played an exhibition season in spring 2018 and joined MLR for its second full season in 2019. The team was founded by James Kennedy.

San Diego Legion

The San Diego Legion is an American professional rugby union team based in San Diego, California. The team was founded in 2017 and competes in Major League Rugby.

Seattle Seawolves

The Seattle Seawolves are an American professional rugby union team based in Seattle, Washington. The team was founded in 2017 and competes in Major League Rugby, the top-level rugby competition in the United States that played its first season in 2018.

Starfire Sports

Starfire Sports is a sporting facility in Tukwila, Washington, on the banks of the Green River, near Seattle. It is operated by the non-profit corporation Starfire Sports and is home to several soccer and rugby teams. At the time of its opening, CEO Chris Slatt believed it to be "the largest synthetic-turf soccer complex in the U.S." Seattle Sounders FC has offices and training facilities at the complex, and stages Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup matches at the main stadium. Their affiliate team, Seattle Sounders FC 2, played at Starfire from 2015 to 2017. The Seattle affiliate of Major League Rugby, the Seattle Seawolves, began play at Starfire Sports in Spring 2018.

Torero Stadium

Torero Stadium is a 6,000-seat stadium in San Diego, California. It was built in 1961. It is home to the University of San Diego football team, which plays in the NCAA Pioneer Football League, the University of San Diego soccer team, which plays in the NCAA West Coast Conference, the San Diego Legion team, which plays in the Major League Rugby league, and formerly the San Diego Breakers, playing in the PRO Rugby competition.

Toronto Arrows

Toronto Arrows R.F.C. is a rugby union club based out of Toronto, Canada, that plays in Major League Rugby. The Arrows team is an independent off-shoot of the Ontario Blues Rugby Football Club and is funded by a group of private investors and supporters. The team splits its home games between Alumni Field of York University and Lamport Stadium for its inaugural 2019 MLR season.

Utah Warriors

The Utah Warriors are a professional rugby union team that competes in Major League Rugby, the top-level rugby competition in the United States that played its first season in 2018. The team is based in Salt Lake City, Utah, and was founded in 2017 by Rugby Utah Ventures.

Major League Rugby
Future teams
MLR seasons
MLR Championships
Player transfers
Governing body
Geographical Unions
National teams
Related articles
Top-level rugby union club competitions
Tier 1 nations
Other nations


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