Majid Khadduri (Arabic: مجيد خدوري) (September 27, 1909 – January 25, 2007) was an Iraqi–born academic. He was founder of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies Middle East Studies program. Internationally, he was recognized as a leading authority on a wide variety of Islamic subjects, modern history and the politics of the Middle East. He was the author of more than 35 books in English and Arabic and hundreds of articles.
|Born||September 27, 1909|
|Died||January 25, 2007 (aged 97)|
Potomac, Maryland, United States
|Occupation||Professor of Middle Eastern Studies|
Khadduri was born in Mosul, Iraq in 1909 where he lived until 1928, when he graduated high school. Afterwards he headed to Lebanon and the American University of Beirut, where he received his B.A. in 1932. He followed this up with a Ph. D in International Law and Political Science in 1938. From 1939 to 1947 he worked for the Iraqi Ministry of Education and as a law professor at the Higher Teachers College. In 1946 he was a member of the first Iraqi delegation to the United Nations and helped draft the organization's charter.
He had two brothers, Khalid, and Dulel, and two sisters Mathela and Khairiya. He married Madjia Dawaff, who died in 1972, and had two children: Farid and Shirin, who in turn gave him three grandchildren. He died on January 25, 2007 at a care facility in Potomac, Maryland.
After his experiences at the United Nations, Khadduri returned to the United States, where he was a professor at Indiana University and his alma mater, the University of Chicago, before settling at Johns Hopkins University, where he founded the SAIS Middle Eastern Studies program and served until 1970. From 1960 to 1980 he served as director of Center for Middle East Studies. It was here that he offered some of the first courses on Islamic law in the nation. His graduates include:
Throughout his tenure, he was also a visiting professor at institutions such as Columbia University, Harvard University, the University of Virginia and Georgetown University. He also founded the Shaybani Society of International Law, the International Association of Middle East Studies and the University of Libya where he served as dean in 1957.
Abd al-Rahman al-Bazzaz (Arabic: عبد الرحمن البزاز; l20 February 1913– 28 June 1973) was a politician, reformist, and writer. He was a pan-Arab nationalist and served as the Dean of Baghdad Law College and later as Prime Minister of Iraq. Al-Bazzaz main political project was the professionalization of the government through increasing access to civilian expertise. That civic agenda came at the expense of the military. Al-Bazzaz was charged by the Ba'athist-dominated government of participation in activities against the government and he was tortured and imprisoned. Al-Bazzaz was finally released because of illness in 1970 and moved to London for treatment where he later died in Baghdad, 28 june 1973.Abdul Majid Kubar
Abdul Majid Kabar (عبد المجيد كعبار / ʿbd āl-Mağid Kaʿbār ) (9 May 1909 – 1986), also known as Abdulmegid Coobar, was the Prime minister of Libya from 26 May 1957 to 17 October 1960, and he is from a Circassian origin.
Kubar worked his way up in Tripolitanian politics until he was appointed a member of the National Constituent Assembly in 1950. In Libya first general election 1952, he entered parliament and served as the house speaker until he became prime minister in 1957. A financial scandal centered on the cost of a road being built in Fezzan to Sabha led to his downfall. Originally cost $5.3 million and scheduled to be completed in three years, the cost overruns led to later estimates of three times the cost. Fearing a vote of no confidence, he resigned in 1960.Al-Risala (Al-Shafi‘i)
See Risala (disambiguation) for other books known as "Ar-Risala".The Risāla by ash-Shafi'i (d. 820), full title Kitab ar-Risāla fī Uṣūl al-Fiqh (Arabic: كتاب الرسالة في أصول الفقه "book of the communication on the foundations of comprehension (i.e. Islamic jurisprudence)") is a seminal text on the principles of Islamic jurisprudence
The word risāla in Arabic means a "message" or "letter, communication". Shafi'i's treatise received its name owing to a traditional, though unverified, story that Shafi'i composed the work in response to a request from a leading traditionist in Basra, ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Mahdī; the story goes that Ibn Mahdī wanted Shafi'i to explain the legal significance of the Quran and the sunna, and the Risāla was Shafi'i's response.In this work, al-Shafi'i is said to have outlined four sources of Islamic law, though this division based on four has been attributed to later commentators on the work rather than to Shafi'i himself. Al-Shafi'i is said he revised and re-read Al-Risala four hundred times.Deaths in January 2007
The following is a list of notable deaths in January 2007.
Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:
Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.Eric Hooglund
Eric James Hooglund (born March 18, 1944) is an American political scientist and an expert on contemporary Iran. Since 2010 he has been a Senior Research Professor at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Lund University in Sweden.Hooglund was born in Waterville, Maine, and was educated at the University of Maine at Orono, from where he revived a BA in history in 1966. He was a Peace Corps Volunteer in Iran (1966–68) and subsequently undertook graduate studies at Johns Hopkins University under the pre-eminent scholar of Islamic law, Majid Khadduri, receiving a Ph.D in international relations and Middle Eastern Studies in 1975. During his doctoral field research in Iran in the early 1970s, he worked with Hamid Enayat, Nader Afshar Naderi, Javad Safinejad and Mostafa Azkia. His dissertation on the politics of land reform became his first published book, Land and Revolution in Rural Iran, 1960-1980, and it shows the influence of the ideas of James Scott, Eric Wolf, and Barrington Moore, Jr. on his approach to the study of peasant societies and rural resistance movements.
Hooglund has a long-standing commitment to the development of Middle Eastern studies as an academic discipline. For more than a decade he was a member of the editorial collective of Middle East Report published by MERIP, later was editor of the Middle East Journal and since 1995 has been editor of Middle East Critique. He also has worked for several Middle East-focused non-governmental organizations, including the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the National Security Archive, and the Institute for Palestine Studies. His teaching experience includes Bates College and Bowdoin College in Maine, Ohio State University, the University of California, Berkeley, St. Antony’s College, Oxford, Shiraz University in Iran, and Middle East Technical University in Turkey.Hooglund has published several books and over 100 articles during his professional career. In his work Hooglund examines diverse aspects of Iranian culture, government, history, international relations, literature, migration, political economy, sociology, and religion. Although trained as a political scientist his best-known work falls in the category of rural political economy and sociology.Fasiq
Fasiq (Arabic: فاسق fāsiq) is an Arabic term referring to someone who violates Islamic law. As a fasiq is considered unreliable, his testimony is not accepted in Islamic courts. The terms fasiq and fisq are sometime rendered as "impious", "venial sinner", or "depraved".Hanafi
The Hanafi (Arabic: حنفي Ḥanafī) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh). It is named after the scholar Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (d. 767), a tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani. The other major schools of Sharia in Sunni Islam are Maliki, Shafi`i and Hanbali.Hanafi is the fiqh with the largest number of followers among Sunni Muslims. It is predominant in the countries that were once part of the historic Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire and Sultanates of Turkic rulers in the Indian subcontinent, northwest China and Central Asia. In the modern era, Hanafi is prevalent in the following regions: Turkey, the Balkans, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Egypt, parts of Iraq, parts of Iran, parts of Russia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of India and China, and Bangladesh.Harbi (Islamic law)
Harbi (Arabic: حربي "belonging to war", a reference to the House of War) is a term of classical Islamic law, which refers to a non-Muslim, who does not live under the condition of the dhimma. Harbi is counterterm to dhimmi. Sometimes the terms appear in the combination "kafir harbi" resp. "kafir dhimmi".
According to the Middle East Media Research Institute Yusuf al-Qaradawi said:
"It has been determined by Islamic law that the blood and property of people of Dar Al-Harb [the Domain of Disbelief where the battle for the domination of Islam should be waged] is not protected. Because they fight against and are hostile towards the Muslims, they annulled the protection of his blood and his property."According to the Middle East Media Research Institute the Egyptian Grand-Mufti, Dr. Sheikh Ali Gomaa, said on Jihad and killing harbis:
Question: "Is it permitted to kill an Israeli traveling outside the borders of his land?"Sheikh Gum'a: "Yes, it is permitted to kill him, because he is a Harbi and the Harbi spreads corruption throughout the face of the earth."However, this was in the context of a question asking for an Arabic response to a perceived corresponding failure of Israelis to distinguish between civilians and militants in its attacks.
Islamic law recognizes a division between two distinct societies. One is the dar al-Islam, the “house of Islam” and peace. The other one is the dar al-harb, the “house of war,” or the “house of the sword.” Dar al-harb is the world of the infidel and the region of perpetual warfare. Barring any treaty, anyone who comes from the dar al-harb has the status under Islamic law of harbi. According to three different sources on Islamic law—Shaybani’s Siyar: The Islamic Law of Nations by Majid Khadduri, Al-Hidayah, and Ibn Rushd’s The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer—the word harbi means “enemy".
Drawing from the Siyar, Khadduri defines harbi as “a person belonging to the territory of war, equivalent to an alien in modern terminology, but may be regarded as an enemy as well since he was also in a state of war with the Muslims.” In War and Peace in the Law of Islam, Khadduri writes: It follows that the existence of a dar al-Harb is ultimately outlawed under the Islamic jural order; that the dar al-Islam is permanently under jihad obligation until the dar al-Harb is reduced to non-existence; and that any community accepting certain disabilities must submit to Islamic rule and reside in the dar al-Islam or be bound as clients to the Muslim community. The universality of Islam, in its all-embracing creed, is imposed on the believers as a continuous process of warfare, psychological and political if not strictly military.
Khadduri states this as a matter of doctrine—because the “dar al-harb is ultimately outlawed under the Islamic jural order; … the dar al-Islam is permanently under jihad obligation until the dar al-harb is reduced to non-existence.” Reliance of the Traveller confirms this: There is no indemnity obligatory for killing a non-Muslim at war with Muslims (harbi), someone who has left Islam, someone sentenced to death by stoning for adultery by virtue of having been convicted in court, or those it is obligatory to kill by military action such as a band of highwaymen. As stated by Shaybani, affirmed by Khadduri, and confirmed by the Reliance of the Traveller, the term harbi retains its legal status in Islamic law. Since published shariah holds that the dar al-Islam is in an ongoing state of war with the dar al-harb, the legal theory indicates that all non-Muslims not a part of the dar al-Islam (and not under treaty) are classified as harbi.Ibn al-Azraq
'Abū 'Abd-Allāh Ibn al-Azraq was a Muslim jurist born in Málaga, Al Andalus in 1427.Educated in Law in Málaga and Granada, he became a judge in Guadix, Málaga, and finally became the Supreme Judge of Granada under Sultan Abu al-Hasan. Ibn al-Azraq wrote a book on statecraft, he which he commented the work of Ibn Khaldun, entitled Marvel of State conduct, and the nature of authority.In 1487, he was sent by the Nasrid dynasty as an envoy to Mamluk Egypt, in order to obtain help against the Spanish offensive against Granada.At the same time, two envoys were sent to the Ottoman Empire, with the same request for help, one from Xàtiva, and a certain Pacoret from Paterna.As his mission was fruitless, he remained in the Orient, and became judge in Jerusalem in 1491. He died the same year after a few months.Ijma
Ijmāʿ (Arabic: إجماع) is an Arabic term referring to the consensus or agreement of the Muslim scholars basically on religious issues. Various schools of thought within Islamic jurisprudence may define this consensus to be that of the first generation of Muslims only; or the consensus of the first three generations of Muslims; or the consensus of the jurists and scholars of the Muslim world, or scholarly consensus; or the consensus of all the Muslim world, both scholars and laymen.Iraq–Pakistan relations
Iraq–Pakistan relations refers to the foreign relations between the Republic of Iraq and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Cultural interaction and economic trade between Indus Valley and Mesopotamia date back to 1800 BCE. In 1955 Iraq and Pakistan joined the Baghdad Pact, a military alliance against the Soviet Union. However, when the king of Iraq was assassinated in 1958, Iraq pulled out of the Baghdad Pact, which was renamed as the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO). Tensions persisted between Iraq and Pakistan through the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries with the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, and the Iraq War. However the relations stabilized. Pakistan currently maintains an embassy in Baghdad and Iraq in Islamabad.Jihad
Jihad (English: ; Arabic: جهاد jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim. It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to convert unbelievers, or efforts toward the moral betterment of society, though it is most frequently associated with war. In classical Islamic law, the term often refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi and pious circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad. The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups.
The word jihad appears frequently in the Quran with and without military connotations, often in the idiomatic expression "striving in the path of God (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)". Islamic jurists and other ulema of the classical era understood the obligation of jihad predominantly in a military sense. They developed an elaborate set of rules pertaining to jihad, including prohibitions on harming those who are not engaged in combat.
In the modern era, the notion of jihad has lost its jurisprudential relevance and instead given rise to an ideological and political discourse. While modernist Islamic scholars have emphasized defensive and non-military aspects of jihad, some Islamists have advanced aggressive interpretations that go beyond the classical theory.Jihad is classified into inner ("greater") jihad, which involves a struggle against one's own base impulses, and external ("lesser") jihad, which is further subdivided into jihad of the pen/tongue (debate or persuasion) and jihad of the sword. Most Western writers consider external jihad to have primacy over inner jihad in the Islamic tradition, while much of contemporary Muslim opinion favors the opposite view. Gallup analysis of a large survey reveals considerable nuance in the conceptions of jihad held by Muslims around the world.Jihad is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, though this designation is not commonly recognized. In Twelver Shi'a Islam jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion. A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid (plural mujahideen). The term jihad is often rendered in English as "Holy War", although this translation is controversial.Kaddouri
Kaddouri (Arabic: خضوري) and many other transliterations is a surname. It may refer to:
Omer Kaddouri, CEO of Rotana Hotels
Badr El Kaddouri, Moroccan footballer
Majid Khadduri, Iraqi academic
Omar El Kaddouri, Belgian footballer
Yitzhak Kaduri (died 2006), Mizrahi Haredi rabbi and kabbalist
Elie Kedourie (1926–1992), British historian
Ellis Kadoorie (1865–1922), philanthropist
Elly Kadoorie (1867–1944), philanthropist
Lawrence Kadoorie, Baron Kadoorie (1899–1993), famous industrialist, hotelier
Horace KadoorieList of Binghamton University honorary degree recipients
This is a list of honorary degree recipients from Binghamton University in New York.List of Iraqi Americans
This is a list of notable Iraqi Americans, including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American descendants.Nazir (title)
The title nāẓir (Arabic: ناظر, Turkish: nazır) refers to an overseer in a general sense. It is the normal term for the administrator of a waqf (charitable endowment). The office or territory of a nāẓir is a nazirate.According to al-Qābisī, writing in the tenth century, the pagan ruler of Tadmakka appointed a superintendant, which al-Qābisī calls a nāẓir, from among the Muslims living in his land to oversee them. This was probably a common arrangement.The title was used in Egypt for the heads of government departments and agencies it adopted a modern cabinet system. It was synonymous with inspector, supervisor or controller. In Egypt it may also be used for the directors or managers of commercial enterprises.In the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, the title nāẓir al-khuṭṭ was used for the official in charge of a subdivision of a district. Usually he was a tribal head. Nāẓir ʿumūm was a traditional and usually hereditary Sudanese title for the head of a tribal confederation. It was only infrequently recognised by the Anglo-Egyptian government, but it was used for lower-level salaried officials in the Jazīra. As a traditional Sudanese title, nāẓir may be an Arabic rendering of the originally Funj titles mānjil and manfona. One of his duties was to administer uncultivated land (qifār) within the tribal homeland (dār).Ribat
A ribat (Arabic: رِبَـاط; ribāṭ, hospice, hostel, base or retreat) is an Arabic term for a small fortification as built along a frontier during the first years of the Muslim conquest of North Africa to house military volunteers, called the murabitun. These fortifications later served to protect commercial routes, and as centers for isolated Muslim communities. Ribats were first seen in the 8th century. The word "ribat" in its abstract refers to voluntary defense of Islam, which is why ribats were originally used to house those who fought to defend Islam in jihad. They can also be referred to by other names such as khanqah, most commonly used in Iran, and tekke, most commonly used in Turkey.Classically, ribat referred to the guard duty at a frontier outpost in order to defend dar al-Islam. The one who performs ribat is called murabit. Contemporary use of the term ribat is common among militant groups such as al-Qa'ida or Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.Shafi‘i
The Shafi‘i (Arabic: شافعي Shāfiʿī, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam. It was founded by the Arab scholar Al-Shafi‘i, a pupil of Malik, in the early 9th century. The other three schools of Sunni jurisprudence are Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali.The Shafi school predominantly relies on the Quran and the Hadiths for Sharia. Where passages of Quran and Hadiths are ambiguous, the school first seeks religious law guidance from Ijma – the consensus of Sahabah (Muhammad's companions). If there was no consensus, the Shafi‘i school relies on individual opinion (Ijtihad) of the companions of Muhammad, followed by analogy.The Shafi‘i school was, in the early history of Islam, the most followed ideology for Sharia. However, with the Ottoman Empire's expansion and patronage, it was replaced with the Hanafi school in many parts of the Muslim world. One of the many differences between the Shafi‘i and Hanafi schools is that the Shafi‘i school does not consider Istihsan (judicial discretion by suitably qualified legal scholars) as an acceptable source of religious law because it amounts to "human legislation" of Islamic law.The Shafi‘i school is now predominantly found in Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, eastern Egypt, the Swahili coast, Hijaz, Yemen, Kurdish regions of the Middle East, Dagestan, Chechen and Ingush regions of the Caucasus, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Kerala and some coastal parts of India, Singapore, Myanmar, Thailand, Brunei, and the Philippines.University of Libya
The University of Libya (Arabic: الجامعة الليبية) was a public university based in Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya. The university was established in 1955 and disestablished in 1973, when its colleges were split into two new universities: the University of Tripoli (later Al Fateh University) in Tripoli, and the University of Benghazi (later Garyounis University) in Benghazi.