Majestic Park

Majestic Park (1908–18) was one of the first Major League Baseball spring training facilities and was located at the corner of Belding Street and Carson Street in Hot Springs, Arkansas. Today the site is still in use by Champion Christian College. First built by the Detroit Tigers as a practice field in 1908, Majestic Park was the spring training site of the Boston Red Sox and their star pitcher Babe Ruth (1909–10, 1912–18), Cincinnati Reds (1910–11), Brooklyn Dodgers (1910) and St. Louis Browns (1911). The location later became the site of Dean Field (1935–47)/Jaycee Park (1947–present). Dean Field also served as home to the Rogers Hornsby Baseball College.

The Hot Springs Bathers minor league team and the Chicago White Sox (1948–51) minor league Spring Training were held at Jaycee Park. Jaycee Park hosted the 1952 Negro League World Series and a 1953 exhibition game featuring Jackie Robinson.[1][2] The site can claim games featuring both All-time Home Run record holders, Babe Ruth and Hank Aaron as among those who have played at the site. In 1914, Babe Ruth was just beginning his career (as a dominant left-handed pitcher) for the Red Sox, while a young Aaron played in the 1952 Negro League World Series.[1][3][4]

Today, the site has four historical plaques, as part of the Hot Springs Historic Baseball Trail. Majestic Field, Rogers Hornsby, Jackie Robinson and Hank Aaron each have historical plaques on the site.[5]

Jackie Robinson, Brooklyn Dodgers, 1954
Jackie Robinson, Brooklyn Dodgers, 1954

Along with Babe Ruth, Jackie Robinson and Hank Aaron, others who performed at the site include Ty Cobb, Honus Wagner, Jimmie Foxx, Gil Hodges, Harry Hooper, Cy Young, Rogers Hornsby, Grover Cleveland Alexander, Herb Pennock, Tris Speaker, and Walter Johnson.[6] The Sporting News (1998) ranking of the greatest players ever listed: Babe Ruth (1), Ty Cobb (3), Walter Johnson (4), Hank Aaron (5) and Rogers Hornsby (9).[7]

Majestic Park (1908-18; 1919-1935)
Dean Field (1935-1947)
Jaycee Park (1947-Present)
Former namesMajestic Park; Dean Field
LocationBelding Street and Carson Street
109 W. Belding Street
Hot Springs, AR 71901
 United States
Coordinates34°29.7274′N 93°3.0985′W / 34.4954567°N 93.0516417°W
OwnerChampion Christian College
OperatorChampion Christian College
Broke ground1908
Renovated1909, 1919, 1947,
Expanded1909, 1947
Demolished1918, 1947
Major League Spring Training
Detroit Tigers (1908)
Boston Red Sox (1909-1910, 1912-18)
Cincinnati Reds (1910-1911)
Brooklyn Dodgers (1910)
St. Louis Browns (1911)
Baseball Schools
Ray Doan Baseball School
Rogers Hornsby Baseball College
George Barr Umpire School
Minor League
Hot Springs Bathers (CSL) (1947-55)
Chicago White Sox-Minor League Camp (1948-51)[1]

Baseball in Hot Springs

Often called the "birthplace" of Spring Training baseball, Hot Springs first welcomed Major League Baseball in 1886, when the Chicago White Stockings (now the Chicago Cubs), brought their coaches and players to the city in preparation for the upcoming season.[8][9] Team President Albert Spalding (owner of Spalding Sporting Goods) and the team's player/manager Cap Anson, thought the city was an ideal training site for the players. The first baseball location was Hot Springs Baseball Grounds. Many other Major League teams followed and began training in Hot Springs. Needing venues for teams to use, Whittington Park was built in 1894, followed by Majestic Park (1908) and Fogel Field (1912).[9] 134 members of the Baseball Hall of Fame are documented to have trained or played, in Hot Springs.[5]

Red Sox 1916
World Series Champion Red Sox 1916, Babe Ruth in front row, middle

History of Original Majestic Field

In 1908, the Detroit Tigers created a practice baseball field at the site. In 1909, the stands forMajestic Park were built at the field by Boston Red Sox owner John I. Taylor, who signed a five-year lease on the property as a Spring Training location. Trolleys were routed to turn around in front of the park. The Majestic name came from the Majestic Hotel in Hot Springs.[10] Two years later, Taylor would construct Fenway Park for the Red Sox.[11][12][13] The Boston Red Sox (1909-1910, 1912–18), Cincinnati Reds (1910-1911), Brooklyn Dodgers (1910) and St. Louis Browns (AL) (1911) held Spring Training Camp at the original Majestic Park.

The Boston Red Sox were a dominant team, winning four World Series Championships in their time at Majestic Park (1912, 1915, 1916 and 1918). It was in 1918 spring training that the Red Sox first began to use Babe Ruth in the field, instead of exclusively at pitcher, to take advantage of his hitting.[14]

On March 29, 1918, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway, owners of the Majestic Park property cancelled the Red Sox lease for 1919 to utilize a portion of the ballpark area for railroad needs.[15] In 1918, the original Majestic Park facility was demolished, leading to other fields on the property that had ties to the Major Leagues: Dean Field and Jaycee Park.[6] The relocated field was renamed "Dean Field" in 1938 after Hall of Famer Dizzy Dean and his brother "Daffy" Paul Dean. Jaycee Park was built on the adjacent south side of the lot in 1947 to replace Ban Johnson Park, which was located across town.[16][17]

Dizzy Dean plaque HOF
Dizzy Dean plaque HOF. "Dean Field" was named for Dean and his brother Paul "Daffy" Dean

When Dean Field (1935-1947) and Jaycee Park (1947-Present) evolved, they hosted the Rogers Hornsby Baseball College, the George Barr Umpire School, the Chicago White Sox (1949–52) Minor League Spring Training and the Hot Springs Bathers as tenants.[18][19]

The minor league Bathers (1947-1955) were a Cotton States League team that was an affiliate of the Chicago White Sox (1947-1951), St. Louis Cardinals (1954) and the Kansas City Athletics (1955). Paul Dean Managed the 1954 team.[20][21]

Baseball Schools

The Roy Doan Baseball School operated from 1934–38, attracting hundreds of students and utilized Dean Field and other locations throughout Hot Springs.[17] In 1939, Hall of Fame player and manager Rogers Hornsby, a former instructor with Roy Doan, started his own Rogers Hornsby Baseball College. Hornsby's six-week event ran until 1952, annually attracting 100-200 prospective professionals and numerous major league scouts. Cy Young, Jimmie Foxx, Tris Speaker and Schoolboy Rowe were among the instructors. The George Barr Umpire School, the first ever training school for aspiring umpires, operated in Hot Springs through 1940, being held in conjunction with the baseball schools.[22][23][24][25]

Babe Ruth

Babe Ruth played at Majestic Park for six seasons. In 1914, the lefty pitcher first faced Major League players as a young minor leaguer. Ruth would make the Red Sox' major league roster in 1915 and establish himself as a star pitcher.[26] In 1918, during Spring Training, Ruth played first base as an emergency measure in a game against Brooklyn at Whittington Field (now Ban Johnson Park). The game helped change baseball history. Ruth hit two home runs that day and the second was a reported 573-foot home run that landed in the Arkansas Alligator Farm across the street.[27][28][29] As a result, the Red Sox began to use Ruth as both a pitcher and a hitter. With Ruth regularly in the 1918 lineup, he led the American League with 11 home runs. He also pitched to a 13–7 record and the Red Sox won the World Series.[30] Sold to the New York Yankees in 1920, Ruth went on to total 714 Home Runs, a record that stood until broken by Hank Aaron.[30]

Babe Ruth Culver Service Photograph, 1916
Babe Ruth, 1916

Jackie Robinson

On October 22, 1953, Jackie Robinson played in an exhibition game at Jaycee Park. Having broken Major League Baseball's color barrier in 1947, Robinson and the some other Major League players (including his Dodgers teammate Gil Hodges) toured, calling themselves Jackie Robinson's All-Stars. Robinson's squad played the Negro American League All-Stars that day, losing 14-9.[31] Today, there is a plaque at the site as part of the "Hot Springs Baseball Historic Trail" honoring the event.[32]

Hank Aaron: Negro League World Series

Hank Aaron 1960
Hank Aaron, Milwaukee Braves, 1960

In 1952, as referenced in a plaque at the site,[33] 18-year old shortstop Hank Aaron played for the Negro League Indianapolis Clowns against the Birmingham Black Barons at Jaycee Park in the Negro League World Series. The World Series was eventually won by the Clowns, with Aaron hitting 5 Home runs and batting over .400. The 1952 World Series was also the last for the Negro Leagues.[34] Discovered by the Clowns while playing for a semi-pro team (Mobile Black Bears) in a game against them, they signed Aaron in April, 1951. After his performance in the Negro League World Series, Aaron signed with the Boston Braves. Hank Aaron would eventually become baseball's all-time Home Run leader, with 755 career Home Runs, breaking Babe Ruth's record of 714 on April 8, 1974.[35][36][37]


The First Boys of Spring is a 2015 documentary on the history of Hot Springs Spring Training. The film features Majestic Park items. Produced by Arkansas filmmaker Larry Foley, it is narrated by Hot Springs area native, actor Billy Bob Thornton.[38][39][40] The Foley documentary was aired nationally on the MLB Network beginning in February, 2016.[41]

Site Today

In 1953, the Hot Springs Boys and Girls Club built and opened a youth facility on the parcel at 109 West Belding Street, where it still remains today. In 2018, Champion Christian College took possession of the property after the charter of the Boys and Girls Club was revoked due to diminished funding. [42]

The Jaycee Park Baseball Complex and the surrounding fields are utilized for youth baseball and softball. The complex has eight fields, with Jaycee Park remaining as the largest, with the original 1st base and home plate bleachers and still intact.[6][43][44]

Today, as part of the Hot Springs Baseball Historic Trail, four separate plaques have been erected at the site: Majestic Field, Hank Aaron, Jackie Robinson and Rogers Hornsby. The Hornsby and Majestic Field plaques are on West Belding Street and the Aaron and Robinson plaques are located just behind the 3 rd base dugout adjacent to the original Majestic Field.

The Majestic Field plaque reads:

The Hank Aaron plaque reads:

The Jackie Robinson plaque says the following:

The Rogers Hornsby plaque at the site reads:


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  2. ^ "Arkansas Baseball Encyclopedia | Archives". 1963-05-23. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  3. ^ "Baseball In Arkansas Project » Majestic Park". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  4. ^ "Majestic Park | My Blog". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  5. ^ a b "Historic Baseball Trail Documenting Hot Springs as Birthplace of Spring Baseball Will Open on March 29; 45 Percent of Hall of Fame, Other Legendary Players Included". 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  6. ^ a b c "Arkansas Baseball Encyclopedia | Majestic Park". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  7. ^ "100 Greatest Baseball Players by The Sporting News : A Legendary List by Baseball Almanac". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  8. ^ "arlington hotel, oaklawn, gangster museum, hot springs baseball trail, historical landmarks | Hot Springs, Arkansas". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  9. ^ a b "Major League Spring Training in Hot Springs". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-02-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ Murray, James (1993-03-22). "When Baseball Sprang for Hot Springs". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  12. ^ "The Land of Hot Waters". 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  13. ^ "All Those Springs Ago..." 2012-03-27. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  14. ^ "Boston Red Sox Team History & Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  15. ^ "1918 BOSTON RED SOX (SPRING TRAINING)". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  16. ^ "Arkansas Baseball Encyclopedia | Jaycee Park". 1963-05-23. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  17. ^ a b "Arkansas Baseball Encyclopedia | Dean Field". 1963-05-23. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  18. ^ "Arkansas Baseball Encyclopedia - Dean Field". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  19. ^ "Log In ‹ Baseball In Arkansas Project — WordPress". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  20. ^ "Hot Springs, Arkansas Encyclopedia -". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  21. ^ "1954 Hot Springs Bathers Statistics -". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  22. ^ "Arkansas Baseball Encyclopedia | George Barr Umpire School". 1963-05-23. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  23. ^ "Arkansas Baseball Encyclopedia | Ban Johnson Field". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  24. ^ "Hot Springs Baseball Tour". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  25. ^ "Arkansas Baseball Encyclopedia | Dean Field". 1963-05-23. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  26. ^ Adomites, Paul. "Babe Ruth's First Spring Training - Babe Ruth | HowStuffWorks". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  27. ^ "Home Run That Changed Baseball". Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  28. ^ Monagan, Matt (March 16, 2018). "100 years ago, Babe Ruth became Babe Ruth with a 500-foot homer into an Alligator Farm". Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  29. ^ Jenkinson, Bill (2011). "The Official Hot Springs Baseball Historic Trail". Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  30. ^ a b "Babe Ruth Statistics and History". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  31. ^ "Arkansas Baseball Encyclopedia | Jackie Robinson's All-Stars Exhibitions". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  32. ^ "Jackie Robinson - Hot Springs Arkansas Historic Baseball Trail". 1953-10-22. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  33. ^ "Hank Aaron - Hot Springs Arkansas Historic Baseball Trail". 1952-10-01. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  34. ^ "See The Trail - Hot Springs Arkansas Historic Baseball Trail". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  35. ^ "Hank Aaron - Played In Negro League And Major League - Babe Ruth Accomplishments, Home, and Braves - JRank Articles". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  36. ^ "Negro Leagues Baseball eMuseum: Personal Profiles: Henry "Hank" Aaron". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  37. ^ Heaphy,Leslie A. The Negro Leagues, 1869-1960p.222
  38. ^ Bauman, Bonnie. "Boys of Spring". Arkansas Life. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  39. ^ "Home". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  40. ^ "Larry Foley - Home". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  41. ^ Newman, Mark (2016-01-20). "MLB Network to air 'First Boys of Spring' doc |". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  42. ^ "Boys & Girls Club property gets new life". Arkansas Online. 14 April 2018.
  43. ^ "Boys and Girls Club of Hot Springs". HSBGC. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  44. ^ "Jaycee Park | My Blog". 1947-05-01. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  45. ^ "Majestic Field - Hot Springs Arkansas Historic Baseball Trail". Retrieved 2016-02-24.
  46. ^ "Hank Aaron «  Hot Springs Arkansas Historic Baseball Trail". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  47. ^ "Jackie Robinson «  Hot Springs Arkansas Historic Baseball Trail". Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  48. ^ "Rogers Hornsby «  Hot Springs Arkansas Historic Baseball Trail". Retrieved 14 November 2018.

External links

Ban Johnson Park

Ban Johnson Park was a baseball stadium located in Hot Springs, Arkansas, within the Whittington Park Historic District, a "tree-shaded greenway" that is located along Whittington Creek, which runs down the center island of Whittington Avenue. The location of the ballpark was across from the still active Arkansas Alligator Farm and Petting Zoo (built 1902).Originally known as Whittington Park, the field served as a training site for many Major League Baseball teams, by hosting spring training games and serving as home for minor league teams. In 1918, Babe Ruth hit a 573-foot home run at the park, while a pitcher for the Boston Red Sox. The park was also home to the ever first Umpire School. In 1935, Ray Doan, the operator of a youth instructional camp at Whittington Park, renamed the park after Hall of Fame baseball pioneer Ban Johnson, founder of the American League.

Chicago Cubs

The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) Central division. The team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located on the city's North Side. The Cubs are one of two major league teams in Chicago; the other, the Chicago White Sox, is a member of the American League (AL) Central division. The Cubs, first known as the White Stockings, were a founding member of the NL in 1876, becoming the Chicago Cubs in 1903.The Cubs have appeared in a total of eleven World Series. The 1906 Cubs won 116 games, finishing 116–36 and posting a modern-era record winning percentage of .763, before losing the World Series to the Chicago White Sox ("The Hitless Wonders") by four games to two. The Cubs won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first major league team to play in three consecutive World Series, and the first to win it twice. Most recently, the Cubs won the 2016 National League Championship Series and 2016 World Series, which ended a 71-year National League pennant drought and a 108-year World Series championship drought, both of which are record droughts in Major League Baseball. The 108-year drought was also the longest such occurrence in all major North American sports. Since the start of divisional play in 1969, the Cubs have appeared in the postseason ten times through the 2018 season.The Cubs are known as "the North Siders", a reference to the location of Wrigley Field within the city of Chicago, and in contrast to the White Sox, whose home field (Guaranteed Rate Field) is located on the South Side.

The Cubs have multiple rivalries. There is a divisional rivalry with the St. Louis Cardinals, a newer rivalry with the Milwaukee Brewers and an interleague rivalry with the Chicago White Sox.

Château de Montaigne

The Château de Montaigne is a castle mansion situated on the borders of Périgord and Bordelais, near Bergerac and Saint-Émilion, in the small commune of Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne in the Dordogne département of France. The structure originated in the 14th century and was the family residence of the Renaissance philosopher and thinker Michel de Montaigne.

Conover, North Carolina

Conover is a city in Catawba County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 8,165 at the 2010 census, with an estimated population of 8,236 in 2013, making Conover the fastest growing city in the Hickory Metro Area. It is part of the Hickory–Lenoir–Morganton Metropolitan Statistical Area and Charlotte Metropolitan Area.

Fogel Field

Fogel Field was a baseball stadium, located in Hot Springs, Arkansas. The site was also known as Fordyce Field and Holder Field. Fogel Field was built in 1912 as a spring training site for Major League Baseball teams. The field was named for Horace Fogel, President of the Philadelphia Phillies. Fogel Field hosted the Phillies (1912) and the Pittsburgh Pirates (1921–1923, 1926). The Kansas City Monarchs (1928), Homestead Grays (1930–1931) and Pittsburgh Crawfords (1932-1935) of Negro League Baseball also used Fogel Field as their spring training.

Several minor league teams from the American Association used Fogel Field as well: Indianapolis Indians (1926–1927), Milwaukee Brewers (1927–1931) and St. Paul Saints (1934–1935) . The Montreal Royals of the International League (1932) trained at Fogel Field.

Gardiner, New York

Gardiner is a town in Ulster County, New York. The population was 5,713 at the 2010 census.

The Town of Gardiner is in the south-central part of the county.

George Barr (umpire)

George McKinley Barr (July 19, 1892 – July 26, 1974) was a professional baseball umpire who was a pioneer in Umpiring Instruction. Barr worked in the National League from 1931 to 1949. Barr umpired 2,757 major league games in his 19-year career. He umpired in four World Series (1937, 1942, 1948, 1949) and two All-Star Games (1937 and 1944). Barr was founder of the George Barr Umpire School, the earliest umpire training school and author of the first book on umpiring. Barr was a pioneer in using the inside chest protector.

Hot Springs, Arkansas

Hot Springs is a resort city in the state of Arkansas and the county seat of Garland County. The city is located in the Ouachita Mountains among the U.S. Interior Highlands, and is set among several natural hot springs for which the city is named. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 35,193. In 2017 the estimated population was 36,915.The center of Hot Springs is the oldest federal reserve in the United States, today preserved as Hot Springs National Park. The hot spring water has been popularly believed for centuries to possess healing properties, and was a subject of legend among several Native American tribes. Following federal protection in 1832, the city developed into a successful spa town. Incorporated January 10, 1851, the city has been home to Major League Baseball spring training, illegal gambling, speakeasies and gangsters such as Al Capone, horse racing at Oaklawn Park, the Army and Navy Hospital, and 42nd President Bill Clinton. One of the largest Pentecostal denominations in the United States, the Assemblies of God, traces its beginnings to Hot Springs.

Today, much of Hot Springs's history is preserved by various government entities. Hot Springs National Park is maintained by the National Park Service, including Bathhouse Row, which preserves the eight historic bathhouse buildings and gardens along Central Avenue. Downtown Hot Springs is preserved as the Central Avenue Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The city also contains dozens of historic hotels and motor courts, built during the Great Depression in the Art Deco style. Due to the popularity of the thermal waters, Hot Springs benefited from rapid growth during a period when many cities saw a sharp decline in building; much like Miami's art deco districts. As a result, Hot Springs's architecture is a key part of the city's blend of cultures, including a reputation as a tourist town and a Southern city. Also a destination for the arts, Hot Springs features the Hot Springs Music Festival, Hot Springs Documentary Film Festival, and the Valley of the Vapors Independent Music Festival annually.

Hot Springs Bathers

The Hot Springs Bathers were a Cotton States League baseball team based in Hot Springs, Arkansas, United States, that played from 1938 to 1941 and from 1947 to 1955. In 1938, they were affiliated with the Chicago Cubs. In 1939 and 1940, they were affiliated with the Detroit Tigers. From 1948 to 1951, they were affiliated with the Chicago White Sox. They were affiliated with the St. Louis Cardinals in 1954 and the Kansas City Athletics in 1955. From 1938 to 1941, they played at Whittington Park/Ban Johnson Park, and from 1947 to 1955 they played at Bathers Field/Jaycee Park/Majestic Park.

In 1953, the Cotton States League attempted to evict the Bathers from the league because they signed and planned to play two African-American baseball players, brothers Jim and Leander Tugerson. The eviction was not permanent, however the brothers were never able to play in any regular season games for the team.

The franchise made a misguided return to the spotlight in the One Nation Under Balboni League. This revival has been highlighted by an almost mathematically impossible 1-17 record vs the Asheville Moonshiners over an 8 year period.

Jaycee Park (Hot Springs, Arkansas)

Jaycee Park, also known as Bathers Field, is a ballpark located in Hot Springs, Arkansas, United States. Built in 1946 and 1947, it opened on May 1, 1947 with a seating capacity of 4,000. The site was previously called Majestic Park and was the site of Spring Training for the Detroit Tigers, Boston Red Sox, Pittsburgh Pirates and Brooklyn Dodgers. From 1947 to 1955, it served as the home field for the Hot Springs Bathers, a minor league baseball team that played in the Cotton States League. From 1948 to 1951, it served as a Spring Training site for the Chicago White Sox organization. In 1949, its capacity was down to 2,600, and in 2008 it was down to 1,100.Today, the site is still in use by Champion Christian College, beginning in 2018, after operating as a Boys and Girls Club from 1953-2016.

List of Boston Red Sox seasons

The Boston Red Sox are a professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. From 1912 to the present, the Red Sox have played in Fenway Park. The "Red Sox" name originates from the iconic uniform feature. They are sometimes nicknamed the "BoSox", a combination of "Boston" and "Sox" (as opposed to the "ChiSox"), the "Crimson Hose", and "the Olde Towne Team". Most fans simply refer to them as the Sox.

One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the club was founded in Boston in 1901. They were a dominant team in the early 20th century, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series in 1903. They won four more championships by 1918, and then went into one of the longest championship droughts in baseball history. Many attributed the phenomenon to the "Curse of the Bambino" said to have been caused by the trade of Babe Ruth to the New York Yankees in 1920. The drought was ended and the "curse" reversed in 2004, when the team won their sixth World Series Championship. The Red Sox led all MLB teams in average road attendance in 2007, while the small capacity of Fenway caused them to rank 11th in home attendance. Every home game from May 15, 2003 through April 10, 2013 was sold out—a span of 820 games over nearly ten years.

List of Boston Red Sox spring training venues

The Boston Red Sox have been a member of the American League (AL) of Major League Baseball (MLB) since 1901, and have held spring training prior to each season.

The franchise's first spring training was held in Charlottesville, Virginia, in 1901, when the team was known as the Boston Americans. Since 1993, the city of Fort Myers, Florida, has hosted Boston's spring training, first at City of Palms Park, and since 2012 at jetBlue Park at Fenway South.

Logos and uniforms of the Boston Red Sox

The primary home uniform for the Boston Red Sox is white with red piping around the neck and down either side of the front placket and "RED SOX" in red letters outlined in blue arched across the chest. This has been in use since 1979, and was previously used from 1933 to 1972, although the piping occasionally disappeared and reappeared; in between the Red Sox wore pullovers with the same "RED SOX" template. There are red numbers, but no player name, on the back of the home uniform.

Lone Mountain, Nevada

Lone Mountain is an unincorporated community in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada.

The area was named after a solitary hill that is detached from the Red Rock National Conservation Area, known as "Lone Mountain", which is an isolated, rocky butte northwest of central Las Vegas. The summit stands some 600 feet above the surrounding area, giving great views of the city, the Spring Mountains, and Mt. Charleston. Lone Mountain itself is encircled by a 10-foot-wide, 2.1-mile trail for joggers, hikers and horseback riders.

It is the neighboring community immediately north of Summerlin and roughly bordered on the west by the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, on the south by Cheyenne Avenue, on the east by the 95 Freeway and on the north by West Lone Mountain Road. Within this area are some of the most desirable homes in Las Vegas. While there is a proliferation of new affluent new construction at the western foothills, there are still a number of horse ranches and natural terrain and parks which remain.

The Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department's Academy is located within Lone Mountain, as is the adjacent Police Memorial Park (dedicated in 2009). The park includes the Memorial Wall and two dedicated tree groves to memorialize local police officers who died in the line of duty. Two trees are dedicated to the Ten-13 retired New York Police Officers of the September 11, 2001 tragedy. The area enjoys a low crime rate, perhaps because of the numerous law enforcement officers and their families who reside in this community.

There is an abundance of recreational areas within the area, including Lone Mountain Discovery Park, which is a green space with roller hockey rink, basketball, tennis courts and picnic areas. Majestic Park, a full service softball facility with 12 playing fields.

The homes of Lone Mountain range from the Spanish Colonial horse ranches to the new 3 story, mid-century revival homes at "Hillside", designed by award-winning architect William Ramsey.


Ludhiana is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab. Ludhiana is Punjab's largest city and India's largest city north of Delhi, with an area of 310 sq. km and an estimated population of 1,618,879 as of the 2011 census. The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) south of its present course. It is an industrial center of northern India; the UK's BBC has called it India's Manchester. Ludhiana was among the list of smart cities that will be developed by government of India. According to World Bank Group Ludhiana is the best city in India to do business.

Ludhiana is 107 kilometres (66 mi) west of the state capital, Chandigarh, on NH 95, and is centrally located on National Highway 44, which runs from New Delhi to Amritsar. It is 315 km (194 miles) north of Delhi and 142 km (88 miles) southeast of Amritsar.

Rogers Hornsby

Rogers Hornsby, Sr. (April 27, 1896 – January 5, 1963), nicknamed "The Rajah", was an American baseball infielder, manager, and coach who played 23 seasons in Major League Baseball (MLB). He played for the St. Louis Cardinals (1915–1926, 1933), New York Giants (1927), Boston Braves (1928), Chicago Cubs (1929–1932), and St. Louis Browns (1933–1937). He was named the National League (NL)'s Most Valuable Player (MVP) twice, and was a member of one World Series championship team.

Born and raised in Winters, Texas, Hornsby played for several semi-professional and minor league teams. In 1915, he began his major league career with the St. Louis Cardinals and remained with the team for 12 seasons. During this period, Hornsby won his first MVP Award and the Cardinals won the 1926 World Series. After that season, he spent one season with the New York Giants and another with the Boston Braves before being traded to the Chicago Cubs. He played with the Cubs for four years and won his second MVP Award before the team released him in 1932. Hornsby re-signed with the Cardinals in 1933, but was released partway through the season and was picked up by the St. Louis Browns. He remained there until his final season in 1937. From 1925 to 1937, Hornsby was intermittently his own manager. After retiring as a player, he managed the Browns in 1952 and the Cincinnati Reds from 1952 to 1953.

Hornsby is regarded as one of the best hitters of all time. He had 2,930 hits and 301 home runs in his career; his career batting average of .358 is second only to Ty Cobb, at .367, in MLB history. He also won two Triple Crowns and batted .400 or more three times during his career. He is the only player to hit 40 home runs and bat .400 in the same year (1922). His batting average for the 1924 season was .424, a mark that no player has matched since. He was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1942 and the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame in 2014.

Hornsby married three times, in 1918, 1924, and 1957, and had two children.

Known as someone who was difficult to get along with, he was not well liked by his fellow players. He never smoked, drank, or went to the movies, but frequently gambled on horse races during his career.

Spring training

In Major League Baseball (MLB), spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training allows new players to try out for roster and position spots, and gives established players practice time prior to competitive play. Spring training has always attracted fan attention, drawing crowds who travel to the warm climates of Arizona and Florida to enjoy the weather and watch their favorite teams play, and spring training usually coincides with spring break for many US college students.

Spring training typically starts in mid-February and continues until just before Opening Day of the regular season, which falls in the last week of March. In some years, teams not scheduled to play on Opening Day will play spring training games that day. Pitchers and catchers report to spring training first because pitchers benefit from a longer training period. A few days later, position players arrive and team practice begins. Exhibition games usually begin in late February.

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pennants (7)
AL East
division titles (9)
AL Wild Card
Minor league

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