Mahogany

Mahogany is a straight-grained, reddish-brown timber of three tropical hardwood species of the genus Swietenia, indigenous to the Americas[1] and part of the pantropical chinaberry family, Meliaceae.

Khaya anthotheca
Red mahogany tree. Khaya anthotheca
Swietenia macrophylla wood
Honduran mahogany

Description

The three species are:

While the three Swietenia species are classified officially as "genuine mahogany", other Meliaceae species with timber uses are classified as "true mahogany." (Only members of the genus Swietenia can be called "genuine mahogany.") Some may or may not have the word mahogany in their trade or common name. Some of these true mahoganies include the African genera Khaya (African mahogany) and Entandrophragma (sapele mahogany);[1] New Zealand mahogany or kohekohe (Dysoxylum spectabile);[5] Chinese mahogany, Toona sinensis;[6] Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni;[7][8] Indian mahogany, Toona ciliata;[9] Chinaberry, Melia azedarach; Pink Mahogany (or Bosse), Guarea; Chittagong (also known as Indian Mahogany), Chukrasia velutina; and Crabwood Carapa guianensis. Some members of the genus Shorea (Meranti, Balau, or Lauan) of the family Dipterocarpaceae are also sometimes sold as Philippine mahogany,[1] although the name is more properly applied to another species of Toona, Toona calantas.[10]

Side Chair with Baluster Splat and Tassel-Carved Crest Rail LACMA M.2006.51.45
Mahogany chair

Mahogany is a commercially important lumber prized for its beauty, durability, and color, and used for paneling and to make furniture, boats, musical instruments and other items. The leading importer of mahogany is the United States, followed by Britain;[1] while the largest exporter today is Peru, which surpassed Brazil after that country banned mahogany exports in 2001.[11] It is estimated that some 80 or 90 percent of Peruvian mahogany exported to the United States is illegally harvested, with the economic cost of illegal logging in Peru placed conservatively at $40–70 million USD annually.[12][13] It was estimated that in 2000, some 57,000 mahogany trees were harvested to supply the U.S. furniture trade alone.[1]

Mahogany is the national tree of the Dominican Republic[14] and Belize.[15] A mahogany tree with two woodcutters bearing an axe and a paddle also appears on the Belizean national coat of arms, under the national motto, Sub umbra floreo, Latin for "under the shade I flourish."[15]

Specific gravity of mahogany is 0.55. [16]

Overview

Distribution

The natural distribution of these species within the Americas is geographically distinct. S. mahagoni grows on the West Indian islands as far north as the Bahamas, the Florida Keys and parts of Florida; S. humilis grows in the dry regions of the Pacific coast of Central America from south-western Mexico to Costa Rica; S. macrophylla grows in Central America from Yucatan southwards and into South America, extending as far as Peru, Bolivia and extreme western Brazil.[17] In the 20th century various botanists attempted to further define S. macrophylla in South America as a new species, such as S. candollei Pittier and S. tessmannii Harms., but many authorities consider these spurious. According to Record and Hess, all of the mahogany of continental North and South America can be considered as one botanical species, Swietenia macrophylla King.[18]

History

The name mahogany was initially associated only with those islands in the West Indies under British control (French colonists used the term acajou, while in the Spanish territories it was called caoba). The origin of the name is uncertain, but it could be a corruption of 'm'oganwo', the name used by the Yoruba and Ibo people of West Africa to describe trees of the genus Khaya, which is closely related to Swietenia. When transported to Jamaica as slaves, they gave the same name to the similar trees they saw there.[19] Though this interpretation has been disputed, no one has suggested a more plausible origin.[20] The indigenous Arawak name for the tree is not known. In 1671 the word mahogany appeared in print for the first time, in John Ogilby's America.[21] Among botanists and naturalists, however, the tree was considered a type of cedar, and in 1759 was classified by Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) as Cedrela mahagoni. The following year it was assigned to a new genus by Nicholas Joseph Jacquin (1727–1817), and named Swietenia mahagoni.

Until the 19th century all of the mahogany was regarded as one species, although varying in quality and character according to soil and climate. In 1836 the German botanist Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini (1797–1848) identified a second species while working on specimens collected on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and named it Swietenia humilis. In 1886 a third species, Swietenia macrophylla, was named by Sir George King (1840–1909) after studying specimens of Honduras mahogany planted in the Botanic Gardens in Calcutta, India. Today, all species of Swietenia grown in their native locations are listed by CITES, and are therefore protected. Both Swietenia mahagoni, and Swietenia macrophylla were introduced into several Asian countries at the time of the restrictions imposed on American mahogany in the late 1990s and both are now successfully grown and harvested in plantations in those countries. A small percentage of global supply of genuine mahogany comes from these Asian plantations, notably from India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and from Fiji, in Oceania. For Swietenia macrophylla, the trees in these plantations are still relatively young compared to the trees being harvested from old growth forests in South America. Thus, the illegal trade of bigleaf mahogany continues apace[22].

Species

Species of Swietenia cross-fertilise readily when they grow in proximity; the hybrid between S. mahagoni and S. macrophylla is widely planted for its timber.

In addition, the U.S. timber trade also markets various other Federal Trade Commission-defined species as mahoganies under a variety of different commercial names, most notably Philippine mahogany, which is actually from the genus Shorea, a dipterocarp. This wood is also called Lauan or Meranti.

History of American mahogany trade

Squaring mahogany
Mahogany loggers in Belize, around 1930

In the 17th century, the buccaneer John Esquemeling recorded the use of mahogany or cedrela on Hispaniola for making canoes: "The Indians make these canoes without the use of any iron instruments, by only burning the trees at the bottom near the root, and afterwards governing the fire with such industry that nothing is burnt more than what they would have..."[23]

The wood first came to the notice of Europeans with the beginning of Spanish colonisation in the Americas. A cross in the Cathedral at Santo Domingo, bearing the date 1514, is said to be mahogany, and Phillip II of Spain apparently used the wood for the interior joinery of the Escorial Palace, begun in 1584.[24] However, caoba, as the Spanish called the wood, was principally reserved for ship building, and it was declared a royal monopoly at Havana in 1622. Hence very little of the mahogany growing in Spanish controlled territory found its way to Europe.

After the French established a colony in Saint Domingue (now Haiti), some mahogany from that island probably found its way to France, where joiners in the port cities of Saint-Malo, Nantes, La Rochelle and Bordeaux used the wood to a limited extent from about 1700.[25] On the English-controlled islands, especially Jamaica and the Bahamas, mahogany was abundant but not exported in any quantity before 1700.

18th century

While the trade in mahogany from the Spanish and French territories in America remained moribund for most of the 18th century, this was not true for those islands under British control. In 1721 the British Parliament removed all import duties from timber imported into Britain from British possessions in the Americas.[26] This immediately stimulated the trade in West Indian timbers including, most importantly, mahogany. Importations of mahogany into England (and excluding those to Scotland, which were recorded separately) reached 525 tons per annum by 1740, 3,688 tons by 1750, and more than 30,000 tons in 1788, the peak year of the 18th century trade.[27]

At the same time, the 1721 Act had the effect of substantially increasing exports of mahogany from the West Indies to the British colonies in North America. Although initially regarded as a joinery wood, mahogany rapidly became the timber of choice for makers of high quality furniture in both the British Isles and the 13 colonies of North America.

Mahagoni Tree
Mahogany tree at Kannavam Forest, Kerala

Until the 1760s over 90 per cent of the mahogany imported into Britain came from Jamaica.[28] Some of this was re-exported to continental Europe, but most was used by British furniture makers. Quantities of Jamaican mahogany also went to the North American colonies, but most of the wood used in American furniture came from the Bahamas.[29] This was sometimes called Providence wood, after the main port of the islands, but more often madera or maderah, which was the Bahamian name for mahogany.[30]

In addition to Jamaica and Bahamas, all the British controlled islands exported some mahogany at various times, but the quantities were not large. The most significant third source was Black River and adjacent areas on the Mosquito Coast (now Republic of Honduras), from where quantities of mahogany were shipped from the 1740s onwards. This mahogany was known as 'Rattan mahogany', after the island of Ruatan, which was the main offshore entrepot for the British settlers in the area.

At the end of the Seven Years' War (1756–63), the mahogany trade began to change significantly. During the occupation of Havana by British forces between August 1762 and July 1763, quantities of Cuban or Havanna mahogany were sent to Britain, and after the city was restored to Spain in 1763, Cuba continued to export small quantities, mostly to ports on the north coast of Jamaica, from where it went to Britain.[31] However, this mahogany was regarded as inferior to the Jamaican variety, and the trade remained sporadic until the 19th century.

Another variety new to the market was Hispaniola mahogany, also called 'Spanish' and 'St Domingo' mahogany. This was the result of the 1766 Free Ports Act, which opened Kingston and other designated Jamaican ports to foreign vessels for the first time.[32] The object was primarily to encourage importations of cotton from French plantations in Saint Domingue, but quantities of high quality mahogany were also shipped. These were then forwarded to Britain, where they entered the market in the late 1760s.

Fruit with leaves at Branch Canopy I IMG 8673
Mahogany fruit in situ
Toona calantas (Philippine mahogany) seeds - 7.jpeg
Mahogany fruit and seeds

In terms of quantity, the most significant new addition to the mahogany trade was Honduras mahogany, also called 'baywood', after the Bay of Honduras. British settlers had been active in southern Yucatan since the beginning of the 18th century, despite the opposition of the Spanish, who claimed sovereignty over all of Central America.

Their main occupation was cutting logwood, a dyewood in high demand in Europe. The centre of their activity and the primary point of export was Belize. Under Article XVII of the Treaty of Paris (1763), British cutters were for the first time given the right to cut logwood in Yucatan unmolested, within agreed limits. Such was the enthusiasm of the cutters that within a few years the European market was glutted, and the price of logwood collapsed.

However, the price of mahogany was still high after the war, and so the cutters turned to cutting mahogany. The first Honduras mahogany arrived in Kingston, Jamaica, in November 1763, and the first shipments arrived in Britain the following year.[33]

By the 1790s most of the viable stocks of mahogany in Jamaica had been cut, and the market was divided between two principal sources or types of mahogany. Honduras mahogany was relatively cheap, plentiful, but rarely of the best quality. Hispaniola (also called Spanish or Santo Domingo) mahogany was the wood of choice for high quality work.

Data are lacking, but it is likely that the newly independent United States now received a good proportion of its mahogany from Cuba. In the last quarter of the 18th century France began to use mahogany more widely;[34] they had ample supplies of high quality wood from Saint Domingue. The rest of Europe, where the wood was increasingly fashionable, obtained most of their wood from Britain.[35]

Recent history

The French Revolution of 1789 and the wars that followed radically changed the mahogany trade, primarily due to the progressive collapse of the French and Spanish colonial empires, which allowed British traders into areas previously closed to them. Saint Domingue became the independent republic of Haiti, and from 1808, Spanish controlled Santo Domingo and Cuba were both open to British vessels for the first time.

From the 1820s mahogany from all these areas was imported into Europe and North America, with the lion's share going to Britain. In Central America British loggers moved northwest towards Mexico and south into Guatemala. Other areas of Central America as far south as Panama also began to be exploited.

The most important new development was the beginning of large scale logging in Mexico from the 1860s. Most mahogany was cut in the province of Tabasco and exported from a number of ports on the Gulf of Campeche, from Vera Cruz eastwards to Campeche and Sisal.[36] By the end of the 19th century there was scarcely any part of Central America within reach of the coast untouched by logging, and activity also extended into Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil.[35]

Trade in American mahogany probably reached a peak in the last quarter of the 19th century. Figures are not available for all countries, but Britain alone imported more than 80,000 tons in 1875.[37] This figure was not matched again. From the 1880s, African mahogany (Khaya spp.), a related genus, began to be exported in increasing quantities from West Africa, and by the early 20th century it dominated the market.

In 1907 the total of mahogany from all sources imported into Europe was 159,830 tons, of which 121,743 tons were from West Africa.[38] By this time mahogany from Cuba, Haiti and other West Indian sources had become increasingly difficult to obtain in commercial sizes, and by the late 20th century Central American and even South American mahogany was heading in a similar direction. In 1975 S. humilis was placed on CITES Appendix II followed by S. mahagoni in 1992. The most abundant species, S. macrophylla, was placed on Appendix III in 1995 and moved to Appendix II in 2003.

Uses

Mahogany has a straight, fine, and even grain, and is relatively free of voids and pockets. Its reddish-brown color darkens over time, and displays a reddish sheen when polished. It has excellent workability, and is very durable. Historically, the tree's girth allowed for wide boards from traditional mahogany species. These properties make it a favorable wood for crafting cabinets and furniture.

Much of the first-quality furniture made in the American colonies from the mid 18th century was made of mahogany, when the wood first became available to American craftsmen. Mahogany is still widely used for fine furniture; however, the rarity of Cuban mahogany, the over-harvesting of Honduras and Brazilian mahogany, and the protests by indigenous peoples and environmental organizations from the 1980s into the 2000s[39][40][22][41], have diminished their use. Recent mahogany production from Mexico and Fiji has a lighter color and density than South American production from the early 20th century.[42]

Mahogany also resists wood rot, making it attractive in boat construction and outdoor decking. It is a tonewood,[43] often used for musical instruments, particularly the backs, sides and necks of acoustic guitars, electric guitar bodies,[44] and drum shells because of its ability to produce a very deep, warm tone compared to other commonly used woods, such as maple or birch.[45][46] Guitars featuring mahogany in their construction include Martin D-18, select Taylor Guitars, Gibson Guitars, Hagström. In the 1930s Gibson used the wood to make banjo necks as well, the RB, TB and PB style 3s and RB, TB and PB style 75s were most commonly fitted with mahogany necks.

Mahogany as an invasive species

In the Philippines, environmentalists are calling for an end to the planting of mahogany because of its negative impact on the environment and wildlife, including possibly causing soil acidification and no net benefit to wildlife.[47][48]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bridgewater, Samuel (2012). A Natural History of Belize: Inside the Maya Forest. Austin: University of Texas Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 9780292726710.
  2. ^ "Mahogany," Encyclopedia of Environmental Science (University of Rochester Press, 2000, ed. John F. Mongillo), p. 216.
  3. ^ David Humphreys, Logjam: Deforestation and the Crisis of Global Governance (Routledge, 2012), p. 200.
  4. ^ Simon Gardner, Pindar Sidisunthorn and Lai Ee May, 2011. Heritage Trees of Penang. Penang: Areca Books. ISBN 978-967-57190-6-6
  5. ^ Julian Matthews, Trees in New Zealand (Lansdowne Press, 1983), p. 72; Eion Scarrow, New Zealand Native Trees and Shrubs (TVNZ, 1986), p. 16.
  6. ^ Christophe Wiart, Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific (CRC Press, 2006), p. 203; Zhuge Ren & Clem Tisdell, China's Economic Growth and Transition: Macroeconomic, Environmental and Social-Regional Dimensions (Nova Publishers 1997, eds. C. Clement Allan Tisdell & Joseph C. H. Chai), p. 338.
  7. ^ Michel H. Porcher (October 7, 2005). "Sorting Toona names". Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
  8. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Toona". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
  9. ^ "Toona ciliata Roem". India Biodiversity Portal. Retrieved December 12, 2013.
  10. ^ ASEAN Tropical Plant Database. "Toona calantas Merr. & Rolfe". National Institute of Environmental Research, Republic of Korea. Archived from the original on December 11, 2013. Retrieved December 12, 2013.
  11. ^ Donald R. Liddick, Crimes Against Nature: Illegal Industries and the Global Environment (ABC-CLIO, 2011), p. 104.
  12. ^ Nikolas Kozloff, Rain in the Amazon: How South America's Climate Change Affects the Entire Planet (Macmillan, 2010)
  13. ^ Marcelo M. Giugale & Vicente Fretes Cibils, An Opportunity for a Different Peru: Prosperous, Equitable, and Governable (World Bank Publications, 2007), p. 378.
  14. ^ Alan Cambeira, Quisqueya La Bella: The Dominican Republic in Historical and Cultural Perspective (M.E. Sharpe, 1997), p. 17.
  15. ^ a b Victoria Day-Wilson, Living Abroad in Belize (Avalon Travel 2012), p. 14.
  16. ^ "Engineering Fundamentals: An Introduction to Engineering, By Saeed Moaveni, pg 273".
  17. ^ Lydia White & Peter Gasson, Mahogany (2008), pp. 2-3.
  18. ^ Record & Hess, Timbers of the New World (1972), p. 368.
  19. ^ F. Bruce Lamb, 'On Further defining Mahogany', Economic Botany, 17 (1963), pp. 217-239.
  20. ^ Kemp Malone, 'Notes on the Word Mahogany', Economic Botany, 19 (1965), pp. 286-292.
  21. ^ John Ogilby, America, Being the Latest and Most Accurate Description of the New World, London (1971).
  22. ^ a b "What to Avoid/What to Choose - Mahogany (Sweitenia sp., Khaya sp.)". Rainforest Relief. Retrieved 2018-11-22.
  23. ^ John Esquemeling, The Buccanneers of America, translated from the Dutch 1684, reprinted London (1893), p. 26
  24. ^ Bryan Latham, Timber, Its Development and Distribution, London (1957), p. 155.
  25. ^ Jacqueline Viaux-Locquin, Les bois d'ebenisterie dans le mobilier francais, Paris (1997), pp. 2-10.
  26. ^ This was the Act of 8 George I cap. 12.
  27. ^ Adam Bowett, 'The 1721 Naval Stores Act and the Commercial Introduction of Mahogany', Furniture History, XXX (1994), pp. 42-56; Adam Bowett, The English Mahogany Trade 1700-1793, unpublished PhD thesis, Brunel University (1997); The National Archives (United Kingdom), Cust. 3.
  28. ^ The National Archives (United Kingdom), Cust. 3.
  29. ^ Bowett (1997); The National Archives (United Kingdom), Shipping Returns, CO 142 (Jamaica); CO 27 (Bahamas).
  30. ^ Brad Rauschenberg, 'Timber Available in Charleston, 1660-1820', Journal of the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts, XX, No. 2; Bowett (1997).
  31. ^ The National Archives (United Kingdom), Cust 3; Shipping returns, CO 142 (Jamaica).
  32. ^ This was the Act of 6 George III cap. 49.
  33. ^ The National Archives (United Kingdom), Shipping register, CO 142 (Jamaica); Cust 3.
  34. ^ Viaux-Locquin (1997), p. 6.
  35. ^ a b The National Archives (United Kingdom), Cust 3.
  36. ^ Thomas Laslett, Timber and Timber Trees, London (1875), p.178
  37. ^ The National Archives (United Kingdom), Cust. 5.
  38. ^ J. R. Baterden, Timber, London (1908), p. 158.
  39. ^ George Monbiot (1992). Mahogany is Murder: Mahogany Extraction from Indian Reserves in Brazil. Friends of the Earth. ISBN 978-1-8575-0160-5.
  40. ^ "Greenpeace Curbs Mahogany Logging in Brazil, 1999-2004". Global Nonviolent Action Database. Retrieved 2018-11-22.
  41. ^ "Partners in mahogany crime" (PDF). Greenpeace.
  42. ^ http://www.commercialforestproducts.com/what-happened-to-the-good-mahogany/
  43. ^ Beberman, Norman L. "Koa: Beautiful Looking, Beautiful Sounding Tonewood". GuitarNation.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-23.
  44. ^ http://gaskellguitars.com/tonewoods-used-to-make-guitars/
  45. ^ Matt Bruck (2005). Guitar World Presents Guitar Gear 411. Alfred Music Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-7579-4061-3.
  46. ^ Tom Hirst (2003). Electric Guitar Construction. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-57424-125-9.
  47. ^ Agustin A. Pinol; E.A. Perino; M.T. Pollisco; H.O. San Valentin; M.V. Pacho (February 2016). "Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network (APFISN) A Report on the Stocktaking of National Forest Invasive Species (FIS) Activities in the Philippines". Apfisn.net. Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  48. ^ Philip McKenzie (2005). "Country report on forest invasive species in the Philippines". The unwelcome guests: proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Forest Invasive Species Conference : Kunming, China 17-23 August 2003. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. ISBN 974-7946-77-7.

External links

Media related to Mahogany at Wikimedia Commons

Arctica islandica

The ocean quahog (Arctica islandica) is a species of edible clam, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Arcticidae. This species is native to the North Atlantic Ocean, and it is harvested commercially as a food source. This species is also known by a number of different common names, including Icelandic cyprine, mahogany clam, mahogany quahog, black quahog, and black clam.The typical Arctica islandica resembles the quahog, but the shell of the ocean quahog is rounder, the periostracum is usually black, and on the interior of the shell, the pallial line has no indentation, or sinus. Unlike the quahog, which lives intertidally and can be collected by clam digging, this species lives subtidally, and can only be collected by dredging. They grow to sizes exceeding 50 mm shell height. An individual specimen was reported to have lived 507 years, making it the longest-lived non-colonial metazoan whose age was accurately known.

Betula lenta

Betula lenta (sweet birch, also known as black birch, cherry birch, mahogany birch, or spice birch) is a species of birch native to eastern North America, from southern Maine west to southernmost Ontario, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia.

Cercocarpus

Cercocarpus, commonly known as mountain mahogany, is a small genus of five or six species of nitrogen-fixing flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae. They are native to the western United States and northern Mexico, where they grow in chaparral and semidesert habitats and climates, often at high altitudes. Several are found in the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion.

The classification of Cercocarpus within the Rosaceae has been unclear. The genus has been placed in the subfamily Rosoideae, but is now placed in subfamily Dryadoideae.Members of the genus are deciduous shrubs or small trees, typically reaching heights of 3–6 m (9–18 ft) tall, but exceptionally up to 13 m (40 ft) high. C. montanus usually remains under 1 m (3 ft) high because of incessant browsing by elk and deer.

The name is derived from the Greek words κέρκος (kerkos), meaning "tail" and καρπός (karpos), meaning "fruit". It refers to the tail-like plume on the fruits.

Species Cercocarpus betuloides – birch-leaf mountain mahogany

C. b. var. betuloides

C. b. var. blancheae (C.K. Schneid.) Little – island mountain mahogany

C. b. var. macrourus (Rydb.) Jeps. – Klamath mountain mahogany

Cercocarpus breviflorus A. Gray – hairy mountain mahogany

Cercocarpus douglasii Rydb

Cercocarpus fothergilloides Kunth

Cercocarpus intricatus S. Watson

Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. – curl-leaf mountain mahogany

C. l. nothovar. intercedens C.K. Schneid.

C. l. var. intermontanus N.H. Holmgren

C. l. var. ledifolius

C. l. var. intricatus (S. Watson) M.E. Jones – little-leaf mountain mahogany

Cercocarpus minutiflorus Abrams – smooth mountain mahogany

Cercocarpus montanus Raf. – alder-leaf mountain mahogany

C. m. var. argenteus (Rydb.) F.L. Martin – silver mountain mahogany

C. m. var. montanus

Cercocarpus traskiae Eastw. – Catalina Island mountain mahogany

Coffin

A coffin is a funerary box used for viewing or keeping a corpse, either for burial or cremation.

The word took two different paths, cofin in Old French originally meaning basket, became coffin in English and became couffin in modern French which nowadays means a cradle. A distinction is often made between coffin and casket: the latter is generally understood to denote a four-sided (almost always rectangular) funerary box, while a coffin is usually six-sided. However, coffins having a one-piece side with a curve at the shoulder instead of a join are more commonly used in the United Kingdom (UK).

Eucalyptus marginata

Eucalyptus marginata, commonly known as jarrah, djarraly in Noongar language and historically as Swan River mahogany, is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a tree with rough, fibrous bark, leaves with a distinct midvein, white flowers and relatively large, more or less spherical fruit. Its hard, dense timber is insect resistant although the tree is susceptible to dieback. The timber has been utilised for cabinet-making, flooring and railway sleepers.

Gibson Les Paul

The Gibson Les Paul is a solid body electric guitar that was first sold by the Gibson Guitar Corporation in 1952. The Les Paul was designed by Gibson president Ted McCarty, factory manager John Huis and their team. Its design typically comprises a solid mahogany body with a carved maple top and a single cutaway, a mahogany set-in neck with a rosewood fretboard, two pickups with independent volume and tone controls, and a stoptail bridge, although variants exist.

The Les Paul was originally offered with a gold finish and two P-90 pickups. In 1957, humbucking pickups were added, along with sunburst finishes in 1958. The sunburst 1958–1960 Les Paul – today one of the best-known electric guitar types in the world – was considered a failure, with low production and sales. For 1961, the Les Paul was redesigned into what is now known as the Gibson SG. The original single-cutaway, carved top bodystyle was re-introduced in 1968. The Les Paul has been produced in many versions and editions since. Along with Fender's Telecaster and Stratocaster, it was one of the first mass-produced electric solid-body guitars. Due to their versatility, Les Paul electric guitars have been used in a wide range of music genres, including rock, country, pop, soul, rhythm and blues, blues, jazz, reggae, punk, and heavy metal.

Honey Mahogany

Alpha Mulugeta (born December 28, 1983), better known by his stage name of Honey Mahogany, is a drag performer, entertainer, singer, and television personality. He first came to national attention on the fifth season of RuPaul's Drag Race, followed by releasing his debut EP Honey Love.

Intsia bijuga

This article is about ipil (Intsia bijuga), for the ipil-ipil tree, see Leucaena leucocephala.Intsia bijuga (commonly known as Borneo teak, Johnstone River teak, Moluccan ironwood, Pacific teak and scrub mahogany) is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, native to the Indo-Pacific. It ranges from Tanzania and Madagascar east through India and Queensland, Australia to the Pacific islands of Fiji and Samoa. It grows to around 50 metres (160 feet) tall with a highly buttressed trunk. It inhabits mangrove forests.

The tree has a variety of common names including ipil, merbau and kwila. In the Philippines, it also known in some areas as taal.

Khaya

Khaya is a genus of five species of trees in the mahogany family Meliaceae. The timber of Khaya is called African mahogany, and is valued as a substitute to genuine mahogany (of the genus Swietenia).

List of woods

This is a list of woods, in particular those most commonly used in the timber and lumber trade.

Mahogany, Calgary

Mahogany is a suburban residential neighbourhood in Calgary, Alberta that was approved by its city council for development beginning in 2007. The community is bordered by 52 St SE to the west, along with the community of Auburn Bay, Stoney Trail to the north, the proposed East Freeway to the east, and an eastern extension of Seton Boulevard (dubbed 196 Avenue SE) to the south.

Mahogany is being developed by Hopewell Residential Communities of Calgary. The chosen builders within Mahogany include: Jayman, Sabal, Stepper Homes and Trico Homes. Calbridge, Baywest and Morrison Homes started building in Mahogany at the end of 2010. The Mahogany Sales Centre and Show Home Parade officially opened on Saturday September 13, 2008.

The area is represented in the Calgary City Council by the Ward 12 councillor.

According to page 22 of the city's Mahogany Community Plan, efforts are to be made to preserve a historic ranch located within the future community. A core commercial hub will be built along 52 Street on the west side, and a future southeast line of the city's C-Train system is expected to run parallel to 52 Street, also servicing Mahogany. The community is to the northeast of Seton, a commercial-residential-service hub that includes the city's new South Health Campus.

Mahogany (color)

Mahogany is a reddish-brown color. It is approximately the color of the wood mahogany. However, the wood itself, like most woods, is not uniformly the same color and is not recognized as a color by most.

The first recorded use of mahogany as a color name in English was in 1737.

Mahogany (email client)

Mahogany is an open source cross-platform email and news client. It is available for X11/Unix and MS Win32 platforms, supporting a wide range of protocols and standards, including SMTP, POP3, IMAP, NNTP (including SSL support for all of them) and full MIME support. The current official release version is 0.67 (published in August 2006).Mahogany is developed by The Mahogany Development Team (Founding members Karsten Ballüder and Vadim Zeitlin). It is licensed under a special Mahogany Artistic License similar to the Perl Artistic License but the developers also allow licensing the program under GNU GPL license.The program features an optional embedded Python interpreter. Python scripts have full access to all internal Mahogany data structures and objects and can be used to extend Mahogany.

Mahogany glider

The mahogany glider (Petaurus gracilis) is an endangered gliding possum native to a small region of coastal Queensland in Australia.

Meliaceae

Meliaceae, the mahogany family, is a flowering plant family of mostly trees and shrubs (and a few herbaceous plants, mangroves) in the order Sapindales.

They are characterised by alternate, usually pinnate leaves without stipules, and by syncarpous, apparently bisexual (but actually mostly cryptically unisexual) flowers borne in panicles, cymes, spikes, or clusters. Most species are evergreen, but some are deciduous, either in the dry season or in winter.

The family includes about 53 genera and about 600 known species, with a pantropical distribution; one genus (Toona) extends north into temperate China and south into southeast Australia, another (Synoum) into southeast Australia, and another (Melia) nearly as far north.

Roatán

Roatán (Spanish pronunciation: [ro.a.ˈtan]) is an island in the Caribbean, about 65 kilometres (40 mi) off the northern coast of Honduras. It is located between the islands of Útila and Guanaja, and is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras.

The island was formerly known as Ruatan and Rattan. It is approximately 77 kilometres (48 mi) long, and less than 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) across at its widest point.

The island consists of two municipalities: José Santos Guardiola in the east and Roatán, including the Cayos Cochinos, further south in the west.

Sapele

Entandrophragma cylindricum is a tree of the genus Entandrophragma of the family Meliaceae. It is commonly known as sapele or sapelli ( sə-PEE-lee) or sapele mahogany, as well as aboudikro, assi and muyovu.

Swietenia macrophylla

Swietenia macrophylla, commonly known as mahogany, Honduran mahogany, Honduras mahogany, big-leaf mahogany, or West Indian mahogany, is a species of plant in the Meliaceae family. It is one of three species that yields genuine mahogany timber (Swientenia), the others being Swietenia mahagoni and Swietenia humilis. It is native to South America and Mexico, but naturalized in the Philippines, Singapore and Hawaii, and cultivated in plantations and wind-breaks elsewhere.

Theme from Mahogany (Do You Know Where You're Going To)

"Theme from Mahogany (Do You Know Where You're Going To)" is a song written by Michael Masser and Gerry Goffin, and initially recorded by American singer Thelma Houston in 1973, and then most notably by Diana Ross as the theme to the 1975 Motown/Paramount film Mahogany.

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