Mahdavia

Mahdavia (Arabic: مهدويmahdawi) or Mahdavism, is a Mahdiist Muslim sect founded by Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri in India in the late 15th century. Syed Muhammad declared himself to be Imam Mahdi at the holy city of Mecca, in front of the Kaaba in 1496 and is revered as such by the Mahdavia community throughout the world and Zikri Mahdavis in Balochistan.

Beliefs

Mahdavis believe in oneness of Allah, the prophethood of Muhammad as the last messenger of Allah, and the Quran as their holy book. They strictly adhere to the five pillars of Islam, sunnah tradition, and sharia, while having high respect and reverence for the House of Muhammad and his immediate progeny (ahl-e bayt), the Rashidun caliphs, and the companions of Muhammad (sahaba).

Mahdavis also respect all four schools of Islamic jurisprudence, but widely follow the traditions similar to Hanafi jurisprudence.

They offer prayers five times a day led by their murshids, or spiritual guides; fast during Ramadan; offer special thanks on Dugana Laylat al-Qadr past midnight between 26 and 27 Ramadan; perform hajj; and pay zakat. They also attach great significance to zikr (remembrance of Allah), after dawn (fajr) prayers, and in the evening after asr prayer.

Mahdavis, besides following the five pillars of Islam, also follow the seven obligations of sainthood, known as faraiz-e wilaya Muhammadiya. These obligations are: renunciation (tark-e dunya), quest for divine vision (talab didar-e Ilahi), company of truthfuls and ascetics (sohbath-e sadiqan), migration (hijrah), retreat and solitude (uzlath az khalq), absolute dependence on Allah (tawakkul), constant remembrance of Allah (zikr-e Ilahi) and distributing tithe (ushr). Followers of Jaunpuri strictly follow some of these obligations in their day-to-day life. Most of them initiate renunciation in the advanced stage of their lives, after getting retirement from the jobs or by handing over business to their heirs. Their renunciation is in any way not related to celibacy, because almost all of them get married.[1]

Mohammad Jaunpuri declared himself to be Promised Mahdi, and as such a "caliph of Allah". He claimed to teach the true inner meaning of the Qur'an and strictly adhere to the Sunnah of Muhammad. Jaunpuri's declaration was ignored by the ulema of Mecca, but after he repeated his declaration in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, he gained a group of followers and established a line of caliphs who led the movement after his death.

After Jaunpuri's demise in 1505, the Mahdavi movement went through a militant phase, lasting during the reign of the first five Mahdavi caliphs. The movement was persecuted under the Sultan Muzaffar Shah II (r. 1511–1526) of Gujarat Sultanate.

The second Mahdavi caliph, Bandagi Miyan Syed Khundmir and his fukhra disciples (the persons who renounce the world and keep remembering Allah with zikr), faced organised persecution by the regime of Muzaffar at the behest of his court-appointed Mullas and was killed in 1523 along with hundreds of unarmed and peaceful disciples. Syed Khundmir's tomb is located in the town of Champaner in the Panchmahal district of the western Indian state Gujarat, where thousands of seekers and followers, from different parts of India and other countries, arrive to pay tribute.

After failure to re-appear in that year, the movement lost much of its fervor and entered a "quietist" phase, which lasted throughout the 17th century. In the 18th century, the movement mostly died out in northern India.[2]

After the 1799 siege of Seringapatam, the British government invited the Mahdavis to re-settle in Mysore.[3]

Mahdavis

Zikris are an offshoot of the Mahdavi movement found mostly in the Balochistan region of western Pakistan.[4]

They too follow Prophet Mohammed, the Five Pillars of Islam and offer namaz prayers in the common mosques like the Hanafi Muslims but with the condition that the Imam must also be of Mahdavi belief. The content of their prayer, which they call Zikr-e-Elahi, refers to the worship of God. In addition to the Hajj, Zikris also visit (ziyarat) to the Koh-e-Murad ("Mountain of Desire" in Balochi), where their Promised Imam al-Mahdi Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri is believed to have stayed and in 1504 AD, he offered two Raka'as (cycles) special thanks giving prayers Dougana Laylat al-Qadr in the midnight of 27th Ramadan 908 Hijri. Following his tradition, including Zikris all Mahdavis offer Dougna Laylathu'l-Qadr prayers on 27th Ramadan midnight every year, under the leadership of their murshid. Thus, Mahdavis are a sect who follow the Sufi order, defined by the medieval saint Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri of the capital city of the Sharqi dynasty. This city was also known as The Shiraz of the East, due to its academic and intellectual eminence and the presence of many Islamic scholars in that era.

The number of Mahdavis is not known with any confidence. Gall (1998) stated that they were "estimated to number over 750,000 people",[4] while the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations in 2004 stated that there were "approximately 200,000".[5] The Mahdavis form a local majority in Pakistan's Gwadar District,[5] and there are sizable communities in Karachi, the Pakistani part of Makran, Lasbela District, and Quetta, and in Pakistan's Sindh province. Their concentration in urban Karachi is due to many Mahdavis having relocated to the city, especially the neighborhood of Lyari Town.

With the general rise of Islamic extremism and jihadism in the region since the 1980s, Mahdavis have been discriminated against, targeted, and killed by Sunni militants in Pakistan.[6][7][8][9][10] As a result, the Mahdavis community has been shrinking and becoming less visible, with many killed by the Sunni Hanafi. Non-governmental organizations including the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) are working with local activists to create a greater awareness of the Mahdavis predicament. Recently, police protection has been provided to some Mahdavis pilgrims. Many Mahdavis have been killed by Sunni and Terrorist during fasting in Ramadan.

The persecution of Mahdavis by Sunni militants as of 2014 has been part of the larger backlash against religious minorities in Pakistani Balochistan, targeting Hindus, Hazaras, Shias, and Zikris, resulting in the migration of over 300,000 Shias, Zikris, and Hindus from Pakistani Balochistan. The persecutions were due both to banned militant organizations such as Lashkar-i-Jhangvi and Pakistani Taliban.[7][8][9][10]

Mahdavia community in India

Anjuman E Mahdavia is a Mahdavia community center in Hyderabad Telangana, India, established in 1902.[11] L. K. A. Iyer in 1930 reports the existence of a community of "Mahdavia Musalmans" in Mysore Donabaghatta, Channapatna , Kirugavalu. There is a village named by Donabaghatta in Karnataka.Large groups of mehdavis residing in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Karnataka-Bengaluru, etc.[12]

See also

Others who claimed to be Mahdi

References

  1. ^ "Khalifatullah Mehdi (AHS)". www.khalifatullahmehdi.info.
  2. ^ Timothy R. Furnish, Holiest Wars: Islamic Mahdis, their Jihads, and Osama bin Laden, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005, pp 38–41.
  3. ^ L. K. A. Iyer, The Mysore: Tribes and Castes, Vol IV (1930), p. 383: "the benign British government issued a proclamation assuring peace and inviting all the Mahdavis to the territory of Mysore to resettle there, and they then settled in different places after their exile."
  4. ^ a b " Mahdavis are estimated to number over 750,000 people. They live mostly in Makran and Las Bela in southern Pakistan, and are followers of a 15th-century mahdi, an Islamic messiah, called Nur Pak ('Pure Light'). Mahdavis practices and rituals differ from those of orthodox Islam... " Gall, Timothy L. (ed). Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life. Vol. 3, Asia & Oceania. Cleveland, OH: Eastword Publications Development (1998); pg. 85 cited after adherents.com.
  5. ^ a b Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Annual Report on International Religious Freedom (2004), p. 656.
  6. ^ "The Zikri question has become one of the leading issues during last few years which mobilized enormous resistance by the religious groups, particularly the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI), in Balochistan" Mansoor Akbar Kundi, Balochistan, a socio-cultural and political analysis, Qasim Printers, 1993, p. 83.
  7. ^ a b "Human Rights Commission of Pakistan worried over mass migration of Hindus from Balochistan". dna. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Meanwhile, in Balochistan". Epaper.dawn.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  9. ^ a b "Pro-Taliban takfiris hail ISIS: Zikri-Balochs, Hindus threatened to death". The Shia Post. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  10. ^ a b "Gunmen target minority sect in Pakistan". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Hyderabad: The State government has declared April 19 as optional holiday on the occasion of 'Hazrat Syed Mohd. Juvanpuri Mahdi Ma'ud (AS)' instead of April 20". Hyderabadcircle.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
  12. ^ The Mysore. Books.google.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.

Other sources

  • Ziaullah Yadullahi (trans.). "Maulud Sharif". Jamiat-e-Mahdavia, Bangalore (2007).
  • Azhar Munīr, I. A. Rehman. Zikris in the light of history & their religious beliefs, Izharsons, 1998.

External links

'Aql

‘Aql (Arabic: عقل‎, meaning "intellect"), is an Arabic language term used in Islamic philosophy or theology for the intellect or the rational faculty of the soul or mind. It is the normal translation of the Greek term nous. In jurisprudence, it is associated with using reason as a source for sharia "religious law" and has been translated as "dialectical reasoning".

Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi

Abu al-Layth al-Samarqandi was a Hanafite jurist who lived during the second half of the 10th century. He authored various books on theology and jurist works. His work was enumerated by Brockelmann and his little work has been edited twice by AWT Juynboll.

His time of death is not quite certain.

Anjuman E Mahdavia

Markazi Anjuman E Mahdavia, also known as Anjuman or MAM, is the most important community center for the Mahdavia community of Hyderabad, India.

In the early 20th century, Mahdavia community leaders held meetings at the home of Haji Muhammad Ali Khan. On 15 Muharram 1320 AH (24 April 1902), as a result of these assemblies, a proposition for the founding of the Markazi Anjuman-e-Mahdavia was put forward in a meeting with elites and intellectuals who were interested in working for the progress of the community .

Anthropological Perspectives on Religion

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Azariqa

Azariqa (Arabic الأزارقة, al-azāriqa), The strongest and the most extremist branch of Khawarij, who follow the leadership of Nafi ibn al-Azraq al-Hanafī al-Handhalī.

Batiniyya

Batiniyya (Arabic: باطنية‎, romanized: Bāṭiniyyah) refers to groups that distinguish between an outer, exoteric (zāhir) and an inner, esoteric (bāṭin) meaning in Islamic scriptures. The term has been used in particular for an allegoristic type of scriptural interpretation developed among some Shia groups, stressing the bāṭin meaning of texts. It has been retained by all branches of Isma'ilism and its Druze offshoots. The Alawites practice a similar system of interpretation. Batiniyya is a common epithet used to designate Isma'ili Islam, which has been accepted by Ismai'lis themselves.Sunni writers have used the term batiniyya polemically in reference to rejection of the evident meaning of scripture in favor of its bāṭin meaning. Al-Ghazali, a medieval Sunni theologian, used the term batiniyya pejoratively for the adherents of Isma'ilism. Some Shia writers have also used the term polemically.

Batriyya

Batriyya (Arabic: بترية‎, adjective form Batri) is a Muslim sect from Zaidiyyah, some Shia clerics may use this term to refer to any shiite mixing the allegiance to the Imams and the allegiance to Abu Bakr and Umar.

Among those who used the term were Fadil Al-Darbandi, Muhammad Al-Sanad and Yasser Al-Habib.

Comparative religion

Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the world's religions. In general the comparative study of religion yields a deeper understanding of the fundamental philosophical concerns of religion such as ethics, metaphysics, and the nature and forms of salvation. Studying such material is meant to give one a broadened and more sophisticated understanding of human beliefs and practices regarding the sacred, numinous, spiritual, and divine.In the field of comparative religion, a common geographical classification of the main world religions includes Middle Eastern religions (including Iranian religions), Indian religions, East Asian religions, African religions, American religions, Oceanic religions, and

classical Hellenistic religions.

Islamic schools and branches

This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam. The best known split, into Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, and Kharijites, was mainly political at first but eventually acquired theological and jurisprudential dimensions. There are three traditional types of schools in Islam: schools of jurisprudence, Sufi orders and schools of theology. The article also summarizes major denominations and movements that have arisen in the modern era.

Jahmi

Jahmī (Arabic: جهمي‎) was a pejorative term used especially by early Hanbalites to refer to the followers of Jahm ibn Safwan (d. 128/746). In the modern era it is also used by followers of Salafism against Muslims who believe the Quran is a created thing, not the eternal speech of Allah.

List of Sufi orders

The following is a list of Sufi orders or schools (ṭarīqah)

Mahdavi

Mahdavi or Mahdavism refers to the Muslim Mahdavia sect of India and Balochistan.

Mahdavi is also an Iranian surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Ahmad Mahdavi Damghani, Iranian scholar

Justine Harun-Mahdavi, German writer

Mohammad Reza Mahdavi Kani, Iranian ayatollah/monarch

Mohammad Reza Mahdavi, Iranian footballer

Mohammad Reza Mahdavi (born 1981), Iranian footballer

Mahdaviat

Mahdaviat (Persian: مهدويت‎) is a religious term in Shia translating to "Mahdiism" or "belief in the Mahdi". It may refer to

Mahdiism in Islam in general

the Mahdavia ("Mahdiist") sect established in India in the 16th century

Mahdi

The Mahdi (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـهْـدِي‎, ISO 233: al-mahdī, meaning "the guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who, according to some Islamic traditions, will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations) before the Day of Judgment (yawm al-qiyamah, also known as "the Day of Resurrection") and rid the world of evil.There is no direct reference to the Mahdi in the Quran, only in the hadith (the reports and traditions of Muhammad's teachings collected after his death). In most traditions, the Mahdi will arrive with 'Isa (Jesus) to defeat Al-Masih ad-Dajjal ("the false Messiah", or Antichrist). Although the concept of a Mahdi is not an essential doctrine in Sunni Islam, it is popular among both Sunni and Shia Muslims. Both agree that he will rule over Muslims and establish justice; however, they differ extensively on his attributes and status.

Throughout history, various individuals have claimed to be the Mahdi. These have included Muhammad Jaunpuri, founder of the Mahdavia sect; the Báb (Siyyid Ali Muhammad), founder of Bábism; Muhammad Ahmad, who established the Mahdist State in Sudan in the late 19th century; Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya movement; and Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi.

Shi'ites have alternate views on which descendant of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad is the Mahdi. Twelvers, who form the majority of Shi'ites today, believe that Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan al-Askari is the current occulted Imam and Mahdi. Tayyibi Isma'ili Shi'ites, including the Dawoodi Bohrah, believe that At-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim is the current occulted Imam and Mahdi.

Muhammad Jaunpuri

Syed Muhammad Jaunpuri (Urdu: سید محمد جونپورى‎; 9 September 1443 – 23 April 1505), son of Syed Abdullah titled Syed Khan, was born in Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh on Monday the 14th Jamadi-ul Awwal 847 Hijri corresponding to 9 September 1443. His grandfather, Syed Usman, came to India from Samarkand with his family and settled down in Jaunpur on the invitation of the Sharqiya King. He was the most famous ulema, and a noted alim-e-deen (scholar of the religion). Syed Mohammed was a descendent of Imam Moosa Al-Kazim. There are twelve generations between Syed Mohammed and Imam Moosa Al-Kazim. Syed Mohammed claimed to be Imam Mahdi at Mecca in the 901 Hijri, and is revered as such by Mahdavia community. He extensively traveled throughout India, Arabia and Khorasan.

Nukkari

The Nukkari (also Nakkari or Nakkariyah; in Latin sources named Canarii) are one of the main branches of the North African Ibadi, founded in 784 by Abu Qudama Yazid ibn Fandin al-Ifrani. Led by Abu Yazid al-Nukkari, they revolted against the ruling Fatimids in Ifriqiya (today's Tunisia and eastern Algeria), conquering Kairouan in 944 and laying siege to Sousse, but were ultimately defeated in 947. Remnants of the Nukkari are thought to have survived on the island of Djerba.

Organized religion

Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established. Organized religion is typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices.

Sufri

The Sufris (Arabic: الصفرية‎ aṣ-Ṣufriyya) were Khariji Muslims in the seventh and eighth centuries. They established the Midrarid state at Sijilmassa, now in Morocco.

In Tlemcen, Algeria, the Banu Ifran were Sufri Berbers who opposed rule by the Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid Caliphates, most notably under resistance movements led by Abu Qurra (8th century) and Abu Yazid.The Khawarij were divided into separate groups such as the Sufri, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Ajardi, Najdat, and Ibadi. Only the Ibadi continue to exist today.

Zahir (Islam)

Ẓāhir (Arabic: ظاهر‎) is an Arabic term in some tafsir (interpretations of the Quran) for what is external and manifest. Certain esoteric interpretations of Islam maintain that the Quran has an exoteric or apparent meaning, known as zahir, but also an underlying esoteric meaning, known as batin, which can be interpreted only by a figure of esoteric knowledge. For Shi'a Muslims, the Imam of Time alone can understand the esoteric meaning.

In Sufism, the actions of an individual are the zahir, and the intention in the heart is the batin. Zahir is the world of bodies whereas batin is the world of souls. Sufis believe in the purification of the batin by their spiritual guide to assure a zahir that follows Shariat.

Zahir is also the underlying principle of the Ẓāhiriyya, a school of thought in Islamic jurisprudence and theology known for its insistence on sticking to the manifest or apparent meaning of expressions in the Quran and the Sunnah.

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