Mahanubhava

Mahanubhav (also known as Jai Krishni Pantha) refers to Hindu sects in India, started by Sarvadnya Shri Chakradhar Swami (or Chakradahrara) in 1100-1200. Shri Chakradhar Swami propagated a religious movement, as well as social movement, in which all members were accepted irrespective of their castes, and the traditional ritualistic religion was rejected. Some sources list the founder of Mahanubhava as Govinda Prabhu and Chakradhara as its first "apostle".[1] The religion survives to the present. It teaches that Krishna is the only God.[2]

Avatars

Shri Chakradhar Swami told his disciples that the lord takes avatars in all four yugas. Accordingly, there is not a time in this world when an avatar is absent. But he told of only five of the innumerable avatars, namely: Shri Krishna, Shri Dattatreya Prabhu, Shri Chakrapani Prabhu, Shri Govindaprabhu, and Sarvadnya Shri Chakrdhar Swami (himself). Even knowing of one avatar, and walking on the path lightened by him, can lead to the ultimate bliss (moksha). There were only five, because these avatars fell in the Guru Parampara. Govind Prabhu was the guru of Shri Chakradhar Swami. Shri Chakrapani Prabhu was the guru of Shri Govindaprabhu. Shri Dattatreya Prabhu was the guru of Shri Chakrapani Prabhu. Shri Dattatreya Prabhu and Shri Krishna are not said to have another avatar as Guru.

The biography of Chakradhar Swami Leela Charitra (लीळाचरित्र), written by his disciple Mhaimbhat, is first biography written in Marathi. This scripture is said to contain all the secrets of the universe. 'Mahdaaisa', who borned in jalna district of Maharashtra one of the sect's initial women disciples, is believed to be the first female Marathi poet. Shri Chakradhar Swami accepted Maharashtra as his Karmabhoomi as this place had Adhikaari Purush that time. Hence Maharashtra has many teertha sthaan (holy places) of Mahanubhav Pantha. Sarvadnya Shri Chakradhar Swami considered Maharashtra for his work because of Adhikari Jivas, mainly: Nagdev Acharya, Mhaibhatta, Baisa, Mahadaisa. This Pantha is a pantha of Parameshwara (God)|Parameshwara, who incarnated in every one of the Yugas. There are four Yugas:

1. Treta Yuga : Dattatreya Prabhu (incarnation)
2. Dwapar Yuga: { Bhagavan Krishna }
3. Kali yuga: (3 avatars, namely: Shri Chakrapani Maharaj, Shri Govinda Prabhu Maharaj, Sarvadnya Shri Chakradhar Swami)

Out of all five avatars, two avatars are still present on earth, namely: Shri Dattatreya Prabhu and Shri Chakradhar Swami. The Jiv-Udharana (Moksha) is still given by these two avatars. The dnyan or knowledge of the god is called "Bramhavidya", which is given by Shri Dattatreya Prabhu in treta yuga. In Dwapar Yuga by Shri Krishna and in Kaliyuga by Shri Chakradhara Swami.

Philosophy

During the period when Sarvadnya Shri Chakradhar Swami preached his philosophy, there were number of religious and philosophical currents like Advaita of Shankaracharya, Vishishtadvaita of Ramanuja, hathayoga of Nath Sect and to some extent bhakti tradition of Vitthal from Pandharpur. As Chakradhar Swami attempted and develop and propagate his own philosophy. The philosophy of Chakradhar Swami is based on Dualism (dwaita) and it regards the soul, deity, the world of appearance, and God as four distinct constants. Also the world of appearance is regarded as materialistic, God as eternally free, deity as ever-bound and soul as ethereal. The dualism between soul and God is clearly understood as a constant in this philosophy. It is believed that the original purity of soul is revealed when the slough of ignorance over it is removed. This normally does not happened because of the obstruction of materialistic life. In order to free from this imbroglio, there is no other way to submit to Almighty God. The Almighty is all-pervasive, without beginning, eternal, permeated with joy. The ever-bound deities cannot proffer the experience of eternally ethereal almighty God. Salvation (moksha) is possible only by removing the slough of ignorance. Salvation is attainable in two ways, one through knowledge and one through Bhakti or devotion to God. God who is without bodily attributes, or any forms, assumes incarnation in order to grant salvation of his devotee. He grants his association which is liberating.

The Mahanubhav philosophy accepts the concept of incarnation. According to it, there are five incarnations of God. These five incarnations are known as "Panchakrishna" (or "Five Krishnas"), and they are to be meditated upon forever:

  1. Shri Krishana Chakravarti (of Dwaraka, Mathura)
  2. Shri Dattatreya Prabhu (Badrikashram)
  3. Shri Changdeva Raul (Chakrapani Prabhu, Phalatan Maharashtra)
  4. Shri Gundam Raul (Govind Prabhu, Riddhapur, Amravati Maharashrta)
  5. Sarvadnya Shri Chakradhar Swami (Bharuch, Gujarat)

The Mahanubhav philosophy says,"Panchakrishna" were the only God it never reside in other human beings.Other form of energies has no effect on Nature.So, if you have any dukha or problems in life you should always approach "Panchakrishna" i.e. they mean to say all problems have one solution.Even if you got hurt in your right hand you should apply medicine on your left hand...this is true philosophy of Mahanubhav Panth. These Pachakrishnas are the Incarnations of the Parambramha Parameshwara (God).

Code of conduct

Sarvadnya Shri Chakradhar Swami propounded his philosophy like Shri Krishna from among the "Five Krishnas". Although he was of Gujarati by birth, he had excellent command of the Marathi language. He moved among all sections of society. He discoursed his philosophy extremely effectively among the people in their own language. He used formulaic language full of meaning in a compact style.

One of the most important aspects of the philosophy propounded by him is asceticism. His fourfold teachings are: non-violence, celibacy, asceticism and bhakti. And the different aspects of Gods incarnations to be worshipped are: name, form, activity, deeds, place, vachans (shruti), memories (Smriti) and the blessing of God incarnate.

One can practice bhakti by memorising deeds of the Al-mighty. The aspirant for salvation must sacrifice his country, village and his relations and offer his life to God. Chakradhara Swami also taught the disciple of the sect when, where, how, how much alms they should be beg for. The central theme of his teaching was, "Feel the soul and not the body". Living the life of mendicant and practicing asceticism severely, the devotee should live according to principle, "God is mine and I am God’s". The core of his code of behaviour is summed up in the following line for the benefit of his followers: "Even if the head is cut off, the body should worship God".

Besides teaching strict vegetarianism, the Mahanubhava Panth forbids the use of alcohol and teaches non-violence.[2]

Literature

Mahanubhav's literature generally comprises works that describe the incarnations of gods, the history of the sect, commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita, poetical works narrating the stories of life of Shri Krishna and grammatical and etymological works that are deemed useful to explain the philosophy of sect

Leelacharitra is thought to be the first biography written in the Marathi language. Mahimbhat's second important literacy creation was Shri Govindaprabhucharitra or Rudhipurcharitra, a biography of Swami's guru, Shri Govind Prabhu, in the form of 325 deeds. This was probably written in 1288, soon after the death of Shri Prabhu.

Apart from Leelacharitra, Keshobas alias Keshavrajsuri has collected the Swami aphoristic vachans or actually spoken words, known as Sutrapath which is always on the lips of the follower of Mahanubhav. Keshavrajsuri translated the some of "deeds" from Leelacharitra into Sanskrit in his work called "Ratnamala". Similarly he has written in Sanskrit Dristantstotarm based on Dristantpath. The first Acharya of Mahanubhava Sect is Nagdevachrya or Bhatobas. His biography was written by Narendra and Bhaidevbas in about 1308.

In this manner seven works which have been written are known as satigranth and they are accepted by the follower of the sect. These works and their writers are:

  1. Narendra : Rukaminiswayamvara (1292)
  2. Bhaskarbhat Borikar : Shishupalvadha (1312)
  3. Bhaskarbhat Borikar : Uddhavgita (1313)
  4. Damodar Pandit : Vachhaharana (1316)
  5. Ravalobas : Sahayadrivaranana (1353)
  6. Narayanbas Bahahaliye : Riddhipurvarnana (1418)
  7. Vishvanath Balapurkar : Janaprabodh (1418).

Jalicha dev (जाळीचा देव) Village, Dist-Jalna

This is a small village in Jalna district, population around 1500. Surrounded by hills, 196 houses, it is a very clean, green, peaceful village. Pilgrims from different parts of Maharashtra come here to worship. Villagers are very loving and helpful. Mate Patil is the common surname in this village. People living in this village belongs to Mahanubhav Panth and they pray Krishna's 'Panch Avatar'. Here, every festival is uniquely celebrated.

History

It was Nagadeva who systematized Mahanubhava. Mahadamba was a leading poetess of the movement.[1]

Publications

The Mahanubhava Panth publishes Mahanubhav Sandesh, a newspaper in both Hindi and Marathi. There are plans to eventual expand the publication to an English edition.[3]

Legal cases

A member of the Mahar caste who had converted to Mahanubhava had the issue of his conversion considered by the Supreme Court of India in the case Chaterbhuj Vithaldas Jasani v Moreshwar Parashram. The argument was that since the Mahanubhava reject castes, they could not be considered members of the Mahar caste, a scheduled caste, and were thus ineligible to run for legislative seats reserved to this caste. The court found he was still part of the Mahar caste.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b Indian History. Allied Publishers. ISBN 9788184245684.
  2. ^ a b "Mahanubhav Panth". Hinduism Facts | Facts about Hindu Religion. 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  3. ^ "Mahanubhava Sandesh website". Archived from the original on 2015-05-30. Retrieved 2015-05-30.
  4. ^ Equality Justice and Reverse Discrimination. Mittal Publications.
Achintya Bheda Abheda

Achintya-Bheda-Abheda (अचिन्त्यभेदाभेद, acintyabhedābheda in IAST) is a school of Vedanta representing the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference. In Sanskrit achintya means 'inconceivable', bheda translates as 'difference', and abheda translates as 'non-difference'. The Gaudiya Vaishnava religious tradition employs the term in relation to the relationship of creation and creator (Krishna, Svayam Bhagavan), between God and his energies. It is believed that this philosophy was taught by the movement's theological founder Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486 - 1534) and differentiates the Gaudiya tradition from the other Vaishnava Sampradayas. It can be understood as an integration of the strict dualist (dvaita) theology of Madhvacharya and the qualified monism (vishishtadvaita) of Ramanuja.

Ammana

Ammana (IAST: Ammaṇa, r. c. 1270 CE) was a ruler of the Seuna (Yadava) dynasty of Deccan region in India. He succeeded his father Mahadeva, and remained on throne for a few months, before being overthrown by his cousin Ramachandra.

Anne Feldhaus

Anne Feldhaus (Phelḍahāusa, Âna; born 1949) is Distinguished Foundation Professor of Religious Studies at Arizona State University and became President of the Association for Asian Studies in 2018. Her field of specialty is Maharashtra, India, combining philological and ethnographic approaches to study religious traditions of Maharashtra, the Marathi-language region of western India.

Chakradhar

Chakradhar means holder of Chakra that is Vishnu.

Ashok Chakradhar (born 1951), Hindi author and poet

Chakradhar Swami, Indian philosopher, Founder of Mahanubhava Sect in Vaishnavism

Chakradhar Satapathy (died 2006), former MLA of the Patakura assembly constituency

Chakri (composer) (born as Chakradhar, 1974–2014), Indian music composer and singer

Chakradhar Singh (1905–1947)

Chakradhar Gogoi

Chakradhar Swami

Sarvadnya Shri Chakradhar Swami (also known as Harinatha and Haripala, sometimes spelled Chakradhara). He was said to be an incarnation of Nirgun and Nirakar Parmeshwar and is sometimes credited as the founder of the Mahanubhava Sect in 1267. Other sources list Govinda Prabhu as the founder and Chakradhara as its first "apostle". Chakradhar propagated a religious movement as well as social movement, in which all were accepted irrespective of their castes and the traditional ritualistic religion was rejected.

Dattatreya

Dattatreya, Dattā or Dattaguru or Duttatreya, is a paradigmatic Sannyasi (monk) and one of the lords of Yoga in Hinduism. In many regions of India and Nepal, he is considered a deity. In Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Telangana, Karnataka and Gujarat, he is a syncretic deity, considered to be an avatar (incarnation) of the three Hindu gods Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, collectively known as Trimurti. In other regions, and some versions of texts such as Garuda Purana, Brahma Purana and Sattvata Samhita, he is an avatar of Maha Vishnu.His iconography varies regionally. In western Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, for example, he is typically shown with three heads and six hands, one head each for Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, and one pair of hands holding the symbolic items associated with each member of the Trimurti: The jaapmaala and water pot of Brahma, the conch and sudarshana chakra (discus) of Vishnu, and the trishula (trident) and two headed drum of Shiva. He is popularly depicted as a reclusive and ascetical saadhu living in a forest or wilderness, suggestive of his renunciation of worldly comforts and possessions, and pursuit of a meditative yogi lifestyle. In paintings and some large carvings, he is surrounded by four dogs and a cow, the dogs are not symbols for the four Vedas but Duttaguru's teaching of similitude and equality among all creatures especially animals, right from the pure and holy cow to the dog, the least and lowest of lifeforms in Hindu thought; this exegesis was put forward by a charismatic personality, the avtari purush (godman) of the Dattatreya lineage, Shri Ramakrishna Saraswati Kshirsagar Swamiji of Ambikapur (Ahmednagar). The cow is adored and reverenced mainly in North India as a symbol of the Mother Earth who nourishes all living beings. In the temples of southern Maharashtra, Varanasi (Benares), and the Himalayas, his iconography shows him with one head and two hands, with four dogs and a cow.According to Rigopoulos, in the Nath tradition of Shaivism, Dattatreya is revered as the Adi-Guru (First Teacher) of the Adinath Sampradaya of the Nathas, the first "Lord of Yoga" with mastery of Tantra (techniques), although most traditions and scholars consider Adi Nath an epithet of Shiva. His pursuit of simple life, kindness to all, sharing of his knowledge and the meaning of life during his travels is reverentially mentioned in the poems by Tukaram, a saint-poet of the Bhakti movement. Over time, Dattatreya has inspired many monastic movements in Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism, particularly in the Deccan region of India, south India, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Himalayan regions where Shiva tradition has been strong. According to Mallinson, Dattatreya is not the traditional guru of the Nath Sampradaya, he was coopted by the Nath tradition in about the 18th century as a guru, as a part of Vishnu-Shiva syncretism. This is evidenced by the Marathi text Navanathabhaktisara, states Mallinson, wherein there is syncretic fusion of the Nath Sampradaya with the Mahanubhava sect by identifying nine Naths with nine Narayanas.Several Upanishads are dedicated to him, as are texts of the Advaita Vedanta-Yoga tradition in Hinduism. One of the most important texts of Advaita Vedanta, namely Avadhuta Gita (literally, "song of the free") is attributed to Dattatreya. Annual festival in the Hindu calendar month of Mārgaśīrṣa (November/December) reveres Dattatreya and this is called Datta Jayanti.

Jayananda Dasa

Jayananda Dasa was an influential religious figure in the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) in San Francisco between 1967-1977. ISKCON views Jayananda Dasa as a saint. Jayananda's guru, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Srila Prabhupada) said that he was proud that he had such a good disciple as Jayananda, and when Jayananda left his body, Prabhupada said: "Jayananda went back home to Godhead."

Born as Jim Kohr in Dayton, Ohio, he graduated from Ohio State in 1962 with a degree in Industrial Engineering. Jayananda was employed as a cab driver in San Francisco when he first came into contact with Srila Prabhupada. Jayananda helped found an ISKCON center there in 1967 and later became the president of the temple. He was instrumental in organizing the first ISKCON Ratha Yatra festival, which is now held every summer in San Francisco and is a day of public holiday in the city.

Leela Charitra

Leela Charitra is a biography of Bhagavan Shri Chakradhar Swami, the guru of the Mahanubhava sect, and is a sacred text of that sect. It was written in the late 13th century by his follower Mhaimbhat. It is the earliest known written work of Marathi literature. "Leela Charitra" Latest Edition will be published in the year 2016 by Raghav bhat satarkar

Marathi language

Marathi (English: ; मराठी Marāṭhī; Marathi: [məˈɾaʈʰi] (listen)) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. At 83 million speakers in 2011, Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the third largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi & Bengali. The language has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating back to around 900 AD. The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. Koli and Malvani Konkani have been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties.

Marathi distinguishes inclusive and exclusive forms of 'we' and possesses a three-way gender system that features the neuter in addition to the masculine and the feminine. In its phonology, it contrasts apico-alveolar with alveopalatal affricates and alveolar with retroflex laterals ([l] and [ɭ] (Marathi letters ल and ळ respectively).

Marathi literature

Marathi literature is the body of literature of Marathi, an Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Maharashtra and written in the Devanagari script.

Mhaimbhat

Mhaimbhat (c. 13th century) was one of the earliest followers of Chakradhar Swami and the Mahanubhava sect, and author of Leela Charitra, the first biography written in the Marathi language.

Namdev

Namdev, also transliterated as Nam Dayv, Namdeo, Namadeva, (traditionally, c. 1270 – c. 1350) was an Indian poet and saint from Maharashtra, India who is significant to the Varkari sect of Hinduism. Bhagat Namdev's writings were also recognized by the "Gurus" of Sikhism and are included in the holy book of Sikhism, the Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Namdev worship lord Vitthal that is one of the name of lord Vishnu. Also other Hindu warrior-ascetic traditions such as the Dadupanthis and the Niranjani Sampraday that emerged in north India during the Islamic rule.

The details of Namdev's life are unclear. He is the subject of many miracle-filled hagiographies composed centuries after he died. Scholars find these biographies to be inconsistent and contradictory.Namdev was influenced by Vaishnavism, and became widely known in India for his devotional songs set to music (bhajan-kirtans). His philosophy contains both nirguna and saguna Brahman elements, with monistic themes. Namdev's legacy is remembered in modern times in the Varkari tradition, along with those of other gurus, with masses of people walking together in biannual pilgrimages to Pandharpur in south Maharashtra.

Narapura Venkateswara Temple, Jammalamadugu

Sri Narapura Venkateswara Temple is an ancient Hindu-Vaishnavite temple situated in Jammalamadugu, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh India. The temple is dedicated to Lord Venkateswara, an incarnation of Vishnu, who is referred to as Narapura Venkateswara.

Organized religion

Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established. Organized religion is typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices.

Radha-vallabha

Radhavallabha is a Vaishnava denomination which began with the Vaishnava theologian Hith Harivansh Mahaprabhu. This theology and Harivansh's leadership created the Radhavallabha sect. Radhavallabha Theology emphasizes devotion to Radharani. Shri Radhavallabh ji Temple in Vrindaban , Mathura is a very famous temple of the same preaching.This temple is among the most famous 7 temples of Thakur of Vrindavan including Sri Radhavallabh ji, Shri Govind Dev ji, Shri Bankey Bihari Ji and four others. In this temple, there is no deity of Radharani, but a crown has been placed next to Krishna to signify her presence.

Ranna (Kannada poet)

Ranna (Kannada: ರನ್ನ) was one of the earliest and arguably one of the greatest poets of the Kannada language. His style of writing is often compared to that of Adikavi Pampa who wrote in the early 10th century. Together, Ranna, Adikavi Pampa and Sri Ponna are called "three gems of ancient Kannada literature".

Svarupa Damodara

Svarupa Damodara, also known as Purushottama Acharya was a Gaudiya Vaishnava saint and close associate of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. He lived in Navadvipa. He always stayed with Chaitanya.

Purushottama Acharya did not accept the dress of a sannyasi, but only gave up the shikha and sacred thread. His name became Svarupa. After this, taking up the order of his sannyasa-guru, Purushottama Acharya went to Jagannatha Puri. At that time, he again met with Chaitanya.

Vishnu Bhikaji Kolte

Vishnu Bhikaji Kolte (1908–1998) was a Marathi writer and researcher of old Marathi literature. He hailed from Maharashtra, India.

Yamunacharya

Yamunacharya also known as Alavandar and Periya Mudaliar was a Vishistadvaita philosopher in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, India. Ramanuja, one of the leaders of the srivaishnava school sought to be his disciple. He was born in early 10th century CE and was the grandson of a Brahmin, Nathamuni. Nathamuni was a famed yogi who collected to the works of Tamil alvars. Alavandar's birth star was Uttiradam.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.