Magnolia

Magnolia is a large genus of about 210[notes 1] flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol.

Magnolia is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are extremely tough.[1] Fossilized specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago.[2] Another aspect of Magnolia considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals; the perianth parts are undifferentiated and called tepals rather than distinct sepals and petals. Magnolia shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella and Nymphaea (as well as with many more recently derived plants such as Lilium).

The natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution, with a main center in east and southeast Asia and a secondary center in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, and some species in South America.

Magnolia
Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Flower Closeup 2146px
M. virginiana
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Magnoliids
Order: Magnoliales
Family: Magnoliaceae
Genus: Magnolia
L.
Type species
Magnolia virginiana
L.
Subgenera
  • Magnolia
  • Yulania
  • Gynopodium

Description

Mature magnolia fruit just starting to open, with a few seeds visible
Magnolia Fruit (South America)
Magnolia seeds and fruit on a tree in northern Argentina

As with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9–15 tepals in 3 or more whorls. The flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate carpels and stamens are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated receptacle. The fruit dehisces along the dorsal sutures of the carpels. The pollen is monocolpate, and the embryo development is of the Polygonum type.

Taxonomy

History

Early

Magnolia flowers (Wiesbaden, Germany)
Magnolia flowers in Wiesbaden, Germany

The name Magnolia first appeared in 1703 in the Genera[3] of Charles Plumier (1646–1704), for a flowering tree from the island of Martinique (talauma). English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most probably the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia. He was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis[4] and of Mark Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands.[5] These were the first works after Plumier's Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America. The species that Plumier originally named Magnolia was later described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck,[6] and has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri (and still a number of other names) but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala.[notes 2]

Carl Linnaeus, who was familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema Naturae, without a description, but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia in the first edition of Species Plantarum. There he described a monotypic genus, with the sole species being Magnolia virginiana. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen (if there ever was one) of Plumier's Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant which was described by Catesby in his 1730 Natural History of Carolina. He placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana var. fœtida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora. Under Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus described five varieties (glauca, fœtida, grisea, tripetala, and acuminata). In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae (1759), he merged grisea with glauca, and raised the four remaining varieties to species status.[notes 3]

By the end of the 18th century, botanists and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan. The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora,[notes 4] and Magnolia coco and Magnolia figo.[notes 5] Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and at roughly the same time Magnolia kobus was also first collected.[7]

Recent

With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera Magnolia and Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species M. grandiflora, which is of horticultural importance, especially in the southeastern United States, and M. virginiana, the type species. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as M. denudata and M. kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in Yulania, is also the American deciduous M. acuminata (cucumber tree), which has recently attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower color in many new hybrids.

Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time. Because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events (such as ice ages, mountain formation, and continental drift), its distribution has become scattered. Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family (or even within the genus Magnolia), solely based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task.[notes 6]

Phylogenetic era

By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large-scale research on phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships.[8][9][10] What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more closely allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia subgenus Magnolia. These phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data.[11]

As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically, three choices are available: 1 to join Michelia and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for which the name Michelia has priority), 2 to raise subgenus Yulania to generic rank, leaving Michelia names and subgenus Magnolia names untouched, or 3 to join Michelia with genus Magnolia into genus Magnolia s.l. (a big genus). Magnolia subgenus Magnolia cannot be renamed because it contains M. virginiana, the type species of the genus and of the family. Not many Michelia species have so far become horticulturally or economically important, apart for their wood. Both subgenus Magnolia and subgenus Yulania include species of major horticultural importance, and a change of name would be very undesirable for many people, especially in the horticultural branch. In Europe, Magnolia even is more or less a synonym for Yulania, since most of the cultivated species on this continent have Magnolia (Yulania) denudata as one of their parents. Most taxonomists who acknowledge close relations between Yulania and Michelia therefore support the third option and join Michelia with Magnolia.

The same goes, mutatis mutandis, for the (former) genera Talauma and Dugandiodendron, which are then placed in subgenus Magnolia, and genus Manglietia, which could be joined with subgenus Magnolia or may even earn the status of an extra subgenus. Elmerrillia seems to be closely related to Michelia and Yulania, in which case it will most likely be treated in the same way as Michelia is now. The precise nomenclatural status of small or monospecific genera like Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax, Manglietiastrum, Aromadendron, Woonyoungia, Alcimandra, Paramichelia and Tsoongiodendron remains uncertain. Taxonomists who merge Michelia into Magnolia tend to merge these small genera into Magnolia s.l. as well. Botanists do not yet agree on whether to recognize a big Magnolia or the different small genera. For example, Flora of China offers two choices: a large genus Magnolia which includes about 300 species, everything in the Magnoliaceae except Liriodendron (tulip tree), or 16 different genera, some of them recently split out or re-recognized, each of which contains up to 50 species.[12] The western co-author favors the big genus Magnolia, whereas the Chinese recognize the different small genera.

Subdivision

Species of magnolia are most commonly listed under three subgenera, 12 sections, and 13 subsections, such as that used here, following the classification of the Magnolia Society.[13] It does not represent the last word on the subclassification of the genus Magnolia (see above), as a clear consensus has not yet been reached. Each species entry follows this pattern: Botanical name Naming auth. - (REGION FOUND)

The subdivision structure is as follows:

  • Subgenus Magnolia (8 sections)
    • Magnolia
    • Gwillimia (2 subsections)
      • Gwillimia
      • Blumiana
    • Talauma (3 subsections)
      • Talauma
      • Dugandiodendron
      • Cubenses
    • Manglietia
    • Kmeria
    • Rhytidospermum (2 subsections)
      • Rhytidospermum
      • Oyama
    • Auriculata
    • Macrophylla
  • Subgenus Yulania (2 sections)
    • Yulania (2 subsections)
      • Yulania
      • Tulipastrum
    • Michelia (4 subsections)
      • Michelia
      • Elmerrillia
      • Maingola
      • Aromadendron
  • Subgenus Gynopodium (2 sections)
    • Gynopodium
    • Manglietiastrum

Subgenus Magnolia

Anthers open by splitting at the front facing the centre of the flower, deciduous or evergreen, flowers produced after the leaves.

  • Magnolia grandiflora L. - (SE US)
  • Magnolia guatemalensis Donn. Sm. - (GUATEMALA, HONDURAS, EL SALVADOR)
    • Magnolia guatemalensis ssp. guatemalensis (GUATEMALA)
    • Magnolia guatemalensis ssp. hondurensis (Molina) Vazquez (HONDURAS, EL SALVADOR)
  • Magnolia iltisiana Vazquez (W MEXICO)
  • Magnolia pacifica Vazquez (W MEXICO)
    • Magnolia pacifica ssp. pacifica (W MEXICO)
    • Magnolia pacifica ssp. pugana Iltis & Vazquez (W MEXICO)
    • Magnolia pacifica ssp. tarahumara Vazquez (W MEXICO)
  • Magnolia panamensis Vazquez & Iltis (PANAMA)
  • Magnolia poasana (Pittier) Dandy (COSTA RICA, PANAMA)
  • Magnolia schiedeana Schltdl. (E MEXICO)
  • Magnolia sharpii Meranda (CHIAPAS MEXICO)
  • Magnolia sororum Seibert (COSTA RICA, PANAMA)
    • Magnolia sororum ssp. lutea Vazquez . (COSTA RICA, PANAMA)
    • Magnolia sororum ssp. sororum (PANAMA)
  • Magnolia tamaulipana Vazquez - Mexican evergreen magnolia (NE MEXICO)
  • Magnolia virginiana L. (SE US)
  • Magnolia yoroconte Dandy (GUATEMALA, HONDURAS, BELIZE)
  • Magnolia albosericea Chun & Tsoong. (HAINAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia championii Benth (S & SE CHINA)
  • Magnolia coco (Lour.) DC. (SE CHINA)
  • Magnolia delavayi Franchet (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia fistulosa (Finet & Gagnep.) Dandy (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia henryi Dunn (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia nana Dandy (VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia odoratissima Law et Zhou (S CHINA)
  • Magnolia pterocarpa Roxb. (NEPAL, BURMA)
  • Magnolia gigantifolia (Miq.) Noot. (BORNEO, SUMATRA)
  • Magnolia hodgsonii (Hook.f. & Thom.) H.Keng (NEPAL, BURMA)
  • Magnolia lasia Noot. (BORNEO)
  • Magnolia liliifera (L.) Baillon (SE ASIA, BORNEO, PHILIPPINES, SINGAPORE, SUMATRA)
    • Magnolia liliifera var. angatensis (Blanco) Noot. (PHILIPPINES)
    • Magnolia liliifera var. beccarii (Ridley) Noot. (BORNEO)
    • Magnolia liliifera var. liliifera (SE ASIA)
    • Magnolia liliifera var. obovata (Korth.) Govaerts (BORNEO)
    • Magnolia liliifera var. singapurensis (Ridley) Noot. (SINGAPORE, SUMATRA)
  • Magnolia mariusjacobsia Noot. (BORNEO)
  • Magnolia persuaveolens Dandy (BORNEO)
    • Magnolia persuaveolens ssp. persuaveolens (BORNEO)
    • Magnolia persuaveolens ssp. rigida Noot. (BORNEO)
  • Magnolia sarawakensis (Agostini) Noot. (BORNEO)
  • Magnolia villosa (Miq.) H.Keng (SUMATRA, BORNEO)
  • Magnolia argyrothricha (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia calimaensis (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia calophylla (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia cararensis (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia chimantensis Steyermark & Maguire - Chimanta magnolia (VENEZUELA)
  • Magnolia colombiana (Little) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia guatapensis (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia jaenensis Marcelo-Peña (PERU)
  • Magnolia lenticellata (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia magnifolia (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia mahechae (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia ptaritepuiana Steyermark - ptari-tepui magnolia (VENEZUELA)
  • Magnolia striatifolia Little (COLOMBIA, ECUADOR)
  • Magnolia urraoense (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia yarumalense (Lozano) Govaerts (COLOMBIA)
  • Magnolia aromatica (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (S CHINA)
  • Magnolia blaoensis (Gagnep.) Dandy (VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia blumei Prantl (SUMATRA, JAVA)
    • Magnolia blumei var. blumei (SUMATRA, JAVA)
    • Magnolia blumei var. sumatrana (Miq.) Figlar & Noot. (W SUMATRA)
  • Magnolia calophylloides Figlar & Noot. (W SUMATRA)
  • Magnolia caveana (Hook.f. & Thoms.) D.C.Raju & M.P.Nayer (ASSAM, N BURMA)
  • Magnolia chevalieri (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (VIETNAM, LAOS)
  • Magnolia conifera (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE CHINA, VIETNAM)
    • Magnolia conifera var. chingii (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE CHINA)
    • Magnolia conifera var. conifera (SE CHINA, VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia crassipes (Y.W.Law) V.S.Kumar (GUANGDONG (CHINA))
  • Magnolia dandyi (Gapnep.) Dandy (S CHINA, VIETNAM, LAOS)
  • Magnolia decidua (Q.Y.Zheng) V.S.Kumar (JIANGXI (CHINA))
  • Magnolia dolichogyna (Dandy ex Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (BORNEO, MALAY PENIN.)
  • Magnolia duclouxii Finet & Gagnep. (VIETNAM, SW CHINA)
  • Magnolia figlarii V.S.Kumar (SICHUAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia fordiana (Oliv.) Hu (VIETNAM, S CHINA)
    • Magnolia fordiana var. calcarea (X.H.Song) Chen & Noot. (GUIZHOU (CHINA))
    • Magnolia fordiana var. fordiana (VIETNAM, S CHINA)
    • Magnolia fordiana var. forrestii (W.W.Sm. Ex Dandy) Chen & Noot. (SW CHINA)
    • Magnolia fordiana var. kwangtungensis (Merr.) Chen & Noot. (SE CHINA)
  • Magnolia garrettii (Craib) V.S.Kumar (SW CHINA, VIETNAM, THAILAND)
  • Magnolia grandis (Hu & W.C.Cheng) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia hookeri Cubitt & W.W.Sm. (SW CHINA, N BURMA, THAILAND)
  • Magnolia insignis (Wall.) Blume (S CHINA, NEPAL, BURMA)
  • Magnolia lanuginosoides Figlar & Noot. (SUMATRA)
  • Magnolia lucida (B.L.Chen & S.C.Yang) V.S.Kumar (SW CHINA)
  • Magnolia megaphylla (Hu & W.C.Cheng) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia moto (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (SE CHINA)
  • Magnolia obovalifolia (C.Y.Yu & Law) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia ovoidea (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia phuthoensis (Dandy ex Gapnep.) V.S.Kumar (VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia rufibarbata (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia sabahensis (Dandy ex Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (BORNEO)
  • Magnolia tibetica V.S.Kumar (TIBET)
  • Magnolia utilis (Dandy) V.S.Kumar (N BURMA, THAILAND)
  • Magnolia ventii (N.V.Tiep) V.S.Kumar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia yuyuanensis (Y.W.Law) V.S.Kumar (E CHINA)
  • Magnolia duperreana Pierre (VIETNAM, CAMBODIA)
  • Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot. (YUNNAN, GUANGXI (CHINA))
  • Magnolia thailandica Noot. & Chalermglin (THAILAND)
Magnolia hypoleuca 2
M. obovata
Magnolia wilsonii1UME
M. wilsonii
  • Magnolia globosa Hook.f. & Thoms. (NEPAL, BURMA)
  • Magnolia sieboldii K.Koch (KOREA, E CHINA, JAPAN)
    • Magnolia sieboldii ssp. japonica K.Ueda (JAPAN, CENTRAL CHINA)
    • Magnolia sieboldii ssp. sieboldii (JAPAN)
    • Magnolia sieboldii ssp. sinensis (Rehd. & Wilson) Spongberg (CENTRAL CHINA)
  • Magnolia wilsonii (Finet. & Gagnep.) Rehd. - Wilson's magnolia (SW CHINA)
Magnolia fraseri1a.UME
M. fraseri
  • Magnolia fraseri Walt. - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US)
    • Magnolia fraseri var. fraseri - Fraser magnolia or ear-leaved magnolia (SE US)
    • Magnolia fraseri var. pyramidata (Bartram) Pampanini - pyramid magnolia (SE US)[notes 7]
M.macrophylla var. ashei 200706
M. macrophylla var. ashei flower in female phase
  • Magnolia macrophylla Michx. (SE US, E MEXICO)
    • Magnolia macrophylla var. ashei (Weatherby) D.Johnson (SE US)[notes 8]
    • Magnolia macrophylla var. dealbata (Zuccarini) D.Johnson (E MEXICO)[notes 9]
    • Magnolia macrophylla var. macrophylla (SE US)

Subgenus Yulania

Anthers open by splitting at the sides, deciduous, flowers mostly produced before leaves (except M. acuminata)

Magnolienbluete freiburg
M. liliiflora
  • Magnolia acuminata (L.) L. (E NORTH AMERICA)
    • Magnolia acuminata var. acuminata (E NORTH AMERICA)
    • Magnolia acuminata var. subcordata (Spach) Dandy (SE US)
Starr 070320-5725 Michelia x alba
Magnolia × alba
  • Magnolia × alba (DC.) Figlar & Noot. (HYBRID ORIGIN)
  • Magnolia angustioblonga (Law & Wu) Figlar (SW CHINA)
  • Magnolia baillonii Pierre (SW CHINA, VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia balansae A.DC. (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia banghamii (Noot.) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA, SUMATRA)
  • Magnolia braianensis (Gagnep.) Figlar (VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia cavaleriei (Finet & Gagnep.) Figlar (S CHINA)
  • Magnolia champaca (L.) Baillon ex Pierre (S INDIA, LESSER SUNDA IS., JAVA, MALAY PENIN.)
    • Magnolia champaca var. champaca (S INDIA, LESSER SUNDA IS.)
    • Magnolia champaca var. pubinervia (Blume) Figlar & Noot. (JAVA, MALAY PENIN.)
  • Magnolia chapensis (Dandy) Sima (S CHINA, N VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia compressa Maxim. (JAPAN, SW CHINA)
  • Magnolia coriacea (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Figlar (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia dianica Sima & Figlar (SW CHINA)
  • Magnolia doltsopa (Buch.-Ham. Ex DC.) Figlar (SW CHINA, HIMALAYAS)
  • Magnolia elliptilimba (B.L.Chen & Noot.) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia ernestii Figlar . (SICHUAN (CHINA))
    • Magnolia ernestii ssp. ernestii (SICHUAN (CHINA))
    • Magnolia ernestii ssp. szechuanica (Dandy) Sima & Figlar (SICHUAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia figo (Lour.) DC. (SE CHINA)
    • Magnolia figo var. crassipes (Law) Figlar & Noot. (SE CHINA)
    • Magnolia figo var. figo . (SE CHINA)
    • Magnolia figo var. skinneriana ined. (SE CHINA)
  • Magnolia flaviflora (Law & Wu) Figlar (VIETNAM, SW CHINA)
  • Magnolia floribunda (Finet & Gagnep.) Figlar . (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia foveolata (Merr. Ex Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia fujianensis (Q.F.Zheng) Figlar (SE CHINA)
  • Magnolia fulva (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA), VIET.?)
    • Magnolia fulva var. calcicola Sima & Yu (YUNNAN (CHINA))
    • Magnolia fulva var. fulva . (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia guangxiensis (Law & R.Z.Zhou) Sima (GUANGXI (CHINA))
  • Magnolia hypolampra (Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia ingrata (B.L.Chen & S.C.Lang) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia jiangxiensis (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Figlar (JIANGXI (CHINA))
  • Magnolia kingii (Dandy) Figlar (BANGLADESH, ASSAM)
  • Magnolia kisopa (Bush.-Ham. ex DC.) Figlar (VIETNAM, NEPAL)
  • Magnolia koordersiana (Noot.) Figlar (MALAYSIA, W SUMATRA)
  • Magnolia lacei (W.W.Smith) Figlar (SW CHINA, VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall.) Figlar & Noot. (YUNNAN (CHINA), NEPAL)
  • Magnolia leveilleana (Dandy) Figlar (SW CHINA)
  • Magnolia macclurei (Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, N VIETNAM)
    • Magnolia macclurei var. macclurei . (S CHINA, N VIETNAM)
    • Magnolia macclurei var. sublanea Dandy (GUANGDONG (CHINA))
  • Magnolia mannii (King) King (ASSAM)
  • Magnolia martinii H.Lev. (SE CHINA, VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia masticata (Dandy) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA), LAOS)
  • Magnolia maudiae (Dunn) Figlar (SE CHINA, HAINAN IS.)
    • Magnolia maudiae var. hunanensis (C.L.Peng & L.H.Yan) Sima (HUNAN (CHINA))
    • Magnolia maudiae var. maudiae (SE CHINA, HAINAN IS.)
    • Magnolia maudiae var. platypetala (Hand.-Mazz.) Sima (S-CENTRAL CHINA)
  • Magnolia mediocris (Dandy) Figlar (S CHINA, VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia microcarpa (B.L.Chen & S.C.Yang) Sima (S CHINA)
  • Magnolia microtricha (Hand.-Mazz.) Figlar. (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia montana (Blume) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA to BORNEO)
  • Magnolia nilagirica (Zenker) Figlar (S INDIA, SRI LANKA)
  • Magnolia oblonga (Wall. Ex Hook.f. & Thomson) Figlar . (ASSAM)
  • Magnolia odora (Chun) Figlar & Noot. (SE CHINA, N VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia opipara (H.T.Chang & B.L.Chen) Sima (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia philippinensis P.Pharm (PHILIPPINES)
  • Magnolia punduana (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Figlar (ASSAM)
  • Magnolia rajaniana (Craib.) Figlar . (THAILAND)
  • Magnolia scortechinii (King) Figlar & Noot. (MALAY PENIN., W SUMATRA)
  • Magnolia shiluensis (Chun & Y.F.Wu) Figlar (HAINAN IS.)
  • Magnolia sirindhorniae Noot. & Chalermglin (THAILAND)
  • Magnolia sphaerantha (C.Y.Wu ex Z.S.Yue) Sima (SW CHINA)
  • Magnolia subulifera (Dandy) Figlar (VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia sumatrae (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (MALAYSIA, SUMATRA)
  • Magnolia xanthantha (C.Y.Wu ex Law & Y.F.Wu) Figlar (YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia platyphylla (Merr.) Figlar & Noot. (PHILIPPINES)[14]
  • Magnolia pubescens (Merr.) Figlar & Noot. (PHILIPPINES)[15]
  • Magnolia sulawesiana Brambach, Noot. & Culmsee (SULAWESI)[16]
  • Magnolia tsiampacca (L.) Figlar & Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO, SULAWESI, MOLUCCAS, NEW GUINEA, BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO)[17]
    • Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. mollis (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO)[18]
    • Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca (SULAWESI, MOLUCCAS, NEW GUINEA, BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO)[19]
      • Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. glaberrima (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (NEW GUINEA)[20]
      • Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. tsiampacca (SULAWESI, MOLUCCAS, NEW GUINEA, BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO)
  • Magnolia vrieseana (Miq.) Baill. ex Pierre (SULAWESI, MOLUCCAS)[21]
  • Magnolia annamensis Dandy (VIETNAM)
  • Magnolia carsonii Dandy ex Noot. (BORNEO, CELEBES)
    • Magnolia carsonii var. carsonii (BORNEO)
    • Magnolia carsonii var. drymifolia Noot. (BORNEO)
    • Magnolia carsonii var. phaulanta (Dandy ex Noot.) S.Kim (CELEBES)
  • Magnolia cathcartii (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Noot. (SW CHINA, BURMA)
  • Magnolia griffithii King (INDIA, ASSAM)
  • Magnolia gustavii King (INDIA, ASSAM)
  • Magnolia macklottii (Korth.) Dandy (W JAVA, BORNEO, SUMATRA)
    • Magnolia macklottii var. beccariana (Agostini) Noot. (SUMATRA)
    • Magnolia macklottii var. macklottii (W JAVA, BORNEO)
  • Magnolia pealiana King (ASSAM)
  • Magnolia ashtonii Dandy ex. Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO)
  • Magnolia bintuluensis (Agostini) Noot. (SUMATRA, BORNEO)
  • Magnolia borneensis Noot. (BORNEO, PHILIPPINES)
  • Magnolia elegans (Blume) Keng (SUMATRA, JAVA)
  • Magnolia pahangensis Noot. (BORNEO, PHILIPPINES)

Subgenus Gynopodium

  • Magnolia kachirachirai (Kanehira & Yamamoto) Dandy (TAIWAN)
  • Magnolia lotungensis Chun & Tsoon (S CHINA)
  • Magnolia nitida W.W.Smith (NW YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia omeiensis (Hu & Cheng) Dandy (SICHUAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia yunnanensis (Hu) Noot. (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))
  • Magnolia pleiocarpa (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (ASSAM)
  • Magnolia praecalva (Dandy) Figlar & Noot. (VIETNAM, MALAY PENIN.)
  • Magnolia sinica (Law) Noot. (SE YUNNAN (CHINA))

Etymology

Charles Plumier (1646–1704) described a flowering tree from the island of Martinique in his Genera,[3] giving it the name Magnolia, after the French botanist Pierre Magnol.

Uses

Magnolia x soulangeana
Magnolia × soulangeana
Michelia figo Purple Queen1
Flowering Magnolia figo 'Purple Queen'

Horticultural uses

Star Magnolia from Halifax botanical gardens
Star magnolia from botanical gardens, Halifax, Nova Scotia

In general, the genus Magnolia has attracted horticultural interest. Some, such as the shrub M. stellata (star magnolia) and the tree M. × soulangeana (saucer magnolia) flower quite early in the spring, before the leaves open. Others flower in late spring or early summer, including M. virginiana (sweetbay magnolia) and M. grandiflora (southern magnolia).

Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the parent species, as well as having more impressive flowers. One of the most popular garden magnolias, M. × soulangeana, is a hybrid of M. liliiflora and M. denudata.

In the eastern United States, five native species are frequently in cultivation: M. acuminata (as a shade tree), M. grandiflora, M. virginiana, M. tripetala, and M. macrophylla. The last two species must be planted where high winds are not a frequent problem because of the size of their leaves.

Culinary uses

The flowers of many species are considered edible. In parts of England, the petals of M. grandiflora are pickled and used as a spicy condiment. In some Asian cuisines, the buds are pickled and used to flavor rice and scent tea. In Japan, the young leaves and flower buds of Magnolia hypoleuca are broiled and eaten as a vegetable. Older leaves are made into a powder and used as seasoning; dried, whole leaves are placed on a charcoal brazier and filled with miso, leeks, daikon, and shiitake, and broiled. There is a type of miso which is seasoned with magnolia, hoba miso.[22][23]

In parts of Japan, the leaves of M. obovata are used for wrapping food and cooking dishes.

Traditional medicine

MagnoliaTreeInFullGlory
Magnolia tree in full bloom
Magnolia Tree Kenosha
Magnolia tree in Kenosha
Magnolia Tree - panoramio
Magnolia tree in the Fall.

The bark and flower buds of M. officinalis have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where they are known as hou po (厚朴). In Japan, kōboku, M. obovata, has been used in a similar manner.

Timber

The cucumbertree, M. acuminata, grows to large size and is harvested as a timber tree in northeastern US forests. Its wood is sold as "yellow poplar" along with that of the tuliptree, Liriodendron tulipifera. The Fraser magnolia, M. fraseri, also attains enough size sometimes to be harvested, as well.

Other uses

Magnolias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the giant leopard moth.

Chemical compounds and bioeffects

The aromatic bark contains magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, and obovatol.[24][25][26][27][28][29] Magnolol[30] and honokiol[31] activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

Culture

Symbols

Arts

Film and television

  • Paul Thomas Anderson created a movie titled Magnolia.
  • Steel Magnolias is a 1989 American comedy-drama film about the bond among a group of women from Louisiana, who can be as beautiful as magnolias, but are as tough as steel. The magnolia specifically references a magnolia tree about which they are arguing at the beginning.[32]

Music

Literature

  • The 1989 movie Steel Magnolias is based on a 1987 play, Steel Magnolias, by Robert Harling.
  • In the 1939 song "Strange Fruit", originally written as a poem by New York schoolteacher and communist activist Abel Meeropol to condemn the practice of lynching, the magnolia flower was referenced as being associated with the Southern United States, where many lynchings took place: "Pastoral scene of the gallant south/The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth/Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh,/Then the sudden smell of burning flesh." Despite Meeropol's frequent mention of the South and magnolia trees, the image which inspired his poem, Lawrence Beitler's 1930 photograph capturing the lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith following the robbery and murder of Claude Deteer, actually occurred in Marion, Indiana, where magnolia trees are less common.
  • In the 1960s, magnolias were a symbol of the South in the popular press: the New York Post noted of Lyndon Johnson that "A man who wore a ten-gallon Stetson and spoke with a magnolia accent had little hope of winning the Democratic nomination in 1960", and biographer Robert Caro picks up the symbol by saying that when Johnson became president "[t]he taint of magnolias still remained to be scrubbed off."[33]

Visual arts

Magnolia flower Maloney
Magnolia by Sarah Maloney

The Canadian artist, Sarah Maloney,[34] has created a series of sculptures of magnolia flowers in bronze and steel, entitled First Flowers,[35] in which she draws our attention to the dual symbols of beginnings in the flower, as both an evolutionary archetype and also one of the first trees to flower in spring (see illustration).

See also

List of AGM magnolias

Notes

  1. ^ The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up. Recent molecular and morphological research shows that former genera Talauma, Dugandiodendron, Manglietia, Michelia, Elmerrillia, Kmeria, Parakmeria, Pachylarnax (and a small number of monospecific genera) all belong within the same genus, Magnolia s.l. (s.l. = sensu lato: 'in a broad sense', as opposed to s.s. = sensu stricto: 'in a narrow sense'). The genus Magnolia s.s. contains about 120 species. See the section Nomenclature and classification in this article.
  2. ^ Under the rule of priority, the first name that is validly published in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum (1 May 1753) or any other work of any other botanist after that, takes precedence over later names. Plumier's name was not a binomen and moreover published before Species Plantarum, so it has no status. The first binomen published after 1753 was Lamarck's Annona dodecapetala (1786). Magnolia plumieri (1788) was published on a later date by Schwartz, and is treated as a later synonym, as are Magnolia fatiscens (1817; Richard), Talauma caerulea (Jaume St-Hilaire 1805) and Magnolia linguifolia (1822).
  3. ^ Magnolia glauca has the same type specimen as Magnolia virginiana and as the latter is the first valid name, the species is now called Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay magnolia). Var. fœtida was renamed Magnolia grandiflora, which is legitimate as the epithet fœtida only has priority in its rank of variety. Magnolia grandiflora is the southern magnolia. Magnolia tripetala (umbrella magnolia) and Magnolia acuminata (cucumber tree) are still recognized as species.
  4. ^ Under these names the species were described by Desrousseaux in Lamarck's Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome troisieme (1792): 675. In the beginning of the 20th century, descriptions which seemed to represent the same species, were found in a work of the French naturalist P.J. Buc'hoz, Plantes nouvellement découvertes (1779), under the names Lassonia heptapeta and Lassonia quinquepeta. In 1934, the English botanist J.E. Dandy argued that these names had priority over the names by which both species had been known for over a century and hence from then on Magnolia denudata had to be named Magnolia heptapeta, Magnolia liliiflora should be changed into Magnolia quinquepeta. After a lengthy debate, specialist taxonomists decided that the Buc'hoz's names were based on chimaeras (pictures constructed of elements of different species), and as Buc'hoz did not cite or preserve herbarium specimens, his names were ruled not to be acceptable.
  5. ^ These species were published as Liriodendron coco and Liriodendron figo by J. de Loureiro in Flora Cochinchinensis (1790) and later (1817) transferred to Magnolia by A. P. de Candolle. Magnolia figo was soon after transferred to the genus Michelia.
  6. ^ In 1927 J.E. Dandy accepted 10 genera in The genera of Magnoliaceae, Kew Bulletin 1927: 257-264. In 1984 Law Yuh-Wu proposed 15 in A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 22: 89-109; in 2004 even 16, in Magnolias of China. This is not just about grouping some genera together where others do not; authors often choose different boundaries.
  7. ^ Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia pyramidata.
  8. ^ Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia ashei.
  9. ^ Often treated as a distinct species, Magnolia dealbata.

References

  1. ^ Bernhardt, P. (2000). "Convergent evolution and adaptive radiation of beetle-pollinated angiosperms" (PDF). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 222 (1–4): 293–320. doi:10.1007/bf00984108. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-12-23.
  2. ^ Crane, P.R. (1988). "The phylogenetic position and fossil history of the Magnoliaceae". In Hunt, David R. (ed.). Magnolias and their allies: Proceedings of an International Symposium, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, U.K., 12-13 April 1996. Milbourne Port. p. 21. ISBN 9780951723487. OCLC 40781614.
  3. ^ a b Plumier, C. (1703) Nova plantarum Americanarum genera. Paris. [New genera of American plants].
  4. ^ Dillenius, J.J. (1732), Hortus Elthamensis, seu plantarum rariorum quas in horto suo Elthami in Cantio coluit vir ornamentissimus et praestantissimus Jacobus Sherard. London [The garden of Eltham, or rather about the rare plants that the most distinguished and prominent man Jacob Sherard grows in his garden in Eltham in Kent].
  5. ^ Catesby, M. (1730), The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, containing the figures of birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, insects and plants, Vol. 1. London.
  6. ^ Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de (1786), Encyclopédie Méthodique Botanique, tome second: 127. Paris.
  7. ^ Magnolia kobus only received its name in 1814, when it was validly published by A.P. de Candolle. There has been much confusion about earlier attempts to validly publish this species, especially because descriptions and type specimens did not match.
  8. ^ Azuma, H.; Thien, L.B.; Kawano, S. (1999). "Molecular phylogeny of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) inferred from cpDNA sequences and evolutionary divergence of the floral scents". Journal of Plant Research. 112 (1107): 291–306. doi:10.1007/pl00013885.
  9. ^ Azuma, H.; García-Franco, J.G.; Rico-Gray, V.; Thien, L.B. (2001). "Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions". American Journal of Botany. 88 (12): 2275–2285. doi:10.2307/3558389. JSTOR 3558389. PMID 21669660.
  10. ^ Kim, S.; et al. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae inferred from ndhF sequences". American Journal of Botany. 88 (4): 717–728. doi:10.2307/2657073. JSTOR 2657073.
  11. ^ Figlar, R.B. (2000), Proleptic branch initiation in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania provides basis for combinations in subfamily Magnolioideae. In: Liu Yu-hu et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Family Magnoliaceae: 14-25, Science Press, Beijing.
  12. ^ 4. Magnoliaceae, Flora of China
  13. ^ Classification used by the Magnolia Society accessed 8 July 2013
  14. ^ WCSP. "Magnolia platyphylla in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  15. ^ WCSP. "Magnolia pubescens in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  16. ^ Brambach, F.; Nooteboom, H.P.; Culmsee, H. (2013). "Magnolia sulawesiana described, and a key to the species of Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) occurring in Sulawesi". Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants. 58 (3): 271–276. doi:10.3767/000651913X676817.
  17. ^ WCSP. "Magnolia tsiampacca in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  18. ^ WCSP. "Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. mollis in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  19. ^ WCSP. "Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  20. ^ WCSP. "Magnolia tsiampacca ssp. tsiampacca var. glaberrima in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  21. ^ WCSP. "Magnolia vrieseana in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  22. ^ Facciola, S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, 1990. ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
  23. ^ Facciola, S. Cornucopia II - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications,1998. ISBN 0-9628087-2-5
  24. ^ Han H.; Jung J.K.; Han S.B.; Nam S.Y.; Oh K.W.; Hong J.T. (2011). "Anxiolytic-like effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol isolated from magnolia officinalis through enhancement of GABAergic transmission and chloride influx". Journal of Medicinal Food. 14 (7–8): 724–731. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.1111. PMID 21501091.
  25. ^ Kalman D.S.; Feldman S.; Feldman R.; Schwartz H.I.; Krieger D.R.; Garrison R. (2008). "Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on stress levels in healthy women: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Nutrition Journal. 7 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-11. PMC 2359758. PMID 18426577.
  26. ^ Ma L.; Chen J.; Wang X.; Liang X.; Luo Y.; Zhu W.; Wang T.; Peng M.; Li S.; Jie S.; Peng A.; Wei Y.; Chen L. (2011). "Structural modification of honokiol, a biphenyl occurring in magnolia officinalis: The evaluation of honokiol analogues as inhibitors of angiogenesis and for their cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationship". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 54 (19): 6469–6481. doi:10.1021/jm200830u. PMID 21853991.
  27. ^ Fried L.E.; Arbiser J.L. (2009). "Honokiol, a multifunctional antiangiogenic and antitumor agent". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 11 (5): 1139–1148. doi:10.1089/ars.2009.2440. PMC 2842137. PMID 19203212.
  28. ^ Hu J.; Chen L.-J.; Liu L.; Chen X.; Chen P.; Yang G.-L.; Hou W.-L.; Tang M.-H.; Zhang F.; Wang X.-H.; Zhao X.; Wei Y.-Q. (2008). "Liposomal honokiol, a potent anti-angiogenesis agent, in combination with radiotherapy produces a synergistic antitumor efficacy without increasing toxicity". Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 40 (6): 617–628. doi:10.3858/emm.2008.40.6.617. PMC 2679338. PMID 19116447.
  29. ^ Lee YJ, Lee YM, Lee CK, Jung JK, Han SB, Hong JT (2011). "Therapeutic applications of compounds in the Magnolia family". Pharmacol. Ther. 130 (2): 157–176. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.01.010. PMID 21277893.
  30. ^ Fakhrudin, N; Ladurner, A; Atanasov, AG; Heiss, EH; Baumgartner, L; Markt, P; Schuster, D; Ellmerer, EP; Wolber, G; Rollinger, JM; Stuppner, H; Dirsch, VM (Apr 2010). "Computer-aided discovery, validation, and mechanistic characterization of novel neolignan activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma". Mol Pharmacol. 77 (4): 559–66. doi:10.1124/mol.109.062141. PMC 3523390. PMID 20064974.
  31. ^ Atanasov AG, Wang JN, Gu SP, Bu J, Kramer MP, Baumgartner L, Fakhrudin N, Ladurner A, Malainer C, Vuorinen A, Noha SM, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Schuster D, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Heiss EH (October 2013). "Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. 1830 (10): 4813–9. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.06.021. PMC 3790966. PMID 23811337.
  32. ^ Scanlon, J (2007). "If My Husband Calls I'm Not Here: The Beauty Parlor as Real and Representational Female Space". Feminist Studies. 33: 2.
  33. ^ Robert A. Caro, The Passage of Power, vol. 4 of The Years of Lyndon Johnson (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012), p. 348.
  34. ^ Sarah Maloney
  35. ^ Sarah Maloney: First Flowers 2014

Bibliography

External links

Columbia County, Arkansas

Columbia County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,552. The county seat is Magnolia. The county was formed on December 17, 1852, and was named for Christopher Columbus. The Magnolia, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Columbia County.

DIY Network

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As of February 2015, DIY Network is available to approximately 60,942,000 pay television households (52.4% of households with television) in the United States.

Jason Molina

Jason Andrew Molina (December 30, 1973 – March 16, 2013) was an American musician and singer-songwriter. Raised in northern Ohio, he came to prominence performing and recording as Songs: Ohia, both in solo projects and with a rotating cast of musicians in the late 1990s. Beginning in 2003, he would garner a further indie following for his releases with the band Magnolia Electric Co.

Molina had a prolific career between his two musical projects and solo releases, producing a total of sixteen studio albums, eight EPs, and numerous singles. His overall discography was noted by critics for blending elements of indie rock, blues, and alternative country with his tenor vocal range.

In 2009, Molina canceled a tour with Magnolia Electric Co., citing health problems as the reason. He would spend the next four years dealing with alcoholism, which ultimately resulted in his death from multiple organ failure in March 2013.

Magnolia, Arkansas

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Magnolia, Delaware

Magnolia is a town in Kent County, Delaware, United States. It is part of the Dover, Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. Recent estimates put the population at around 235, however, the population was 225 at the 2010 census.

Magnolia (film)

Magnolia is a 1999 American epic drama film written, co-produced and directed by Paul Thomas Anderson. The film stars Jeremy Blackman, Tom Cruise, Melinda Dillon, Philip Baker Hall, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Ricky Jay, William H. Macy, Alfred Molina, Julianne Moore, John C. Reilly, Jason Robards, Patton Oswalt, and Melora Walters, and is a mosaic of interrelated characters in search of happiness, forgiveness and meaning in the San Fernando Valley.

Magnolia received positive reviews, with critics praising its acting, direction, storytelling, ambition, and its soundtrack, largely consisting of Aimee Mann songs; however, some deemed it overlong and melodramatic. Of the ensemble cast, Tom Cruise was nominated for Best Supporting Actor at the 72nd Academy Awards, and won the award in that category at the Golden Globes of 2000. The film also won the Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival. It was Robards' final feature film.

Magnolia Bowl

The Magnolia Bowl is the LSU–Ole Miss football rivalry. It is an American college football rivalry game played annually by the LSU Tigers football team of Louisiana State University (LSU) and the Ole Miss Rebels football team of the University of Mississippi (Ole Miss). The teams compete for the Magnolia Bowl Trophy. The Tigers and the Rebels first met in 1894, and have been regular opponents in Southeastern Conference (SEC), meeting annually, without interruption, since 1945. The rivalry was at its height during the 1950s and 1960s, when both teams were highly ranked and during which time both teams claimed a national championship. The rivalry died down from the 1970s to the 1990s, owing to Ole Miss not returning to conference or national prominence since the 1970s and because LSU has seen new rivalries emerge when the SEC split into two divisions in 1992, most notably Alabama, Arkansas, Auburn, and Florida. Even though the rivalry has not attracted the same national attention in recent years, it still stirs up passion in both Oxford and Baton Rouge.In 2008, the student bodies of both schools elected to christen the yearly contest the "Magnolia Bowl", the magnolia flower being the state flower of both Louisiana and Mississippi, and award a trophy to the winner. Ole Miss defeated LSU 31–13 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana to become the first winner of the new trophy.

It is the second most played rivalry for both teams. The 2011 edition in Oxford was the 100th meeting between the two schools. It was also the most lopsided game in series history, as top-ranked LSU defeated Ole Miss and coach Houston Nutt 52–3. In many cases, wins have come in streaks with the longest being 8, (LSU: 1928–37). The next longest win streak is 6, a total reached by both Ole Miss and LSU. The Tigers won from 2002 to 2007, while the Rebels were able to defeat LSU from 1952 to 1957. LSU leads the series 61-40–4.

Magnolia Cemetery (Mobile, Alabama)

Magnolia Cemetery is a historic city cemetery located in Mobile, Alabama. Filled with many elaborate Victorian-era monuments, it spans more than 100 acres (40 ha). It served as Mobile's primary, and almost exclusive, burial place during the 19th century. It is the final resting place for many of Mobile's 19th and early 20th century citizens. The cemetery is roughly bounded by Frye Street to the north, Gayle Street to the east, and Ann Street to the west. Virginia Street originally formed the southern border before the cemetery was expanded and now cuts east–west through the center of the cemetery. Magnolia contains more than 80,000 burials and remains an active, though very limited, burial site today.

Magnolia Grove, Houston

Magnolia Grove is a small neighborhood located along Buffalo Bayou between downtown Houston and Memorial Park in Houston, Texas. The neighborhood is bounded by Memorial Drive, Shepherd Drive, Washington Avenue, and Waugh Drive.

Magnolia Park, Houston

Magnolia Park is an area of the East End, Houston, Texas, located near the Houston Ship Channel. One of the oldest Hispanic neighborhoods in the City of Houston, Magnolia Park was formerly incorporated as the City of Magnolia Park in eastern Harris County.

Magnolia Pictures

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Magnolia grandiflora

Magnolia grandiflora, commonly known as the southern magnolia or bull bay, is a tree of the family Magnoliaceae native to the southeastern United States, from southeastern North Carolina to central Florida, and west to East Texas. Reaching 27.5 m (90 ft) in height, it is a large, striking evergreen tree, with large dark green leaves up to 20 cm (7 3⁄4 in) long and 12 cm (4 3⁄4 in) wide, and large, white, fragrant flowers up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter.

Although endemic to the lowland subtropical forests on the Gulf and south Atlantic coastal plain, magnolia grandiflora is widely cultivated in warmer areas around the world. The timber is hard and heavy, and has been used commercially to make furniture, pallets, and veneer.

Magnoliaceae

The Magnoliaceae () are a flowering plant family, the magnolia family, in the order Magnoliales. It consists of two subfamilies: Magnolioideae, of which Magnolia is the best-known genus, and Liriodendroidae, a monogeneric subfamily, of which Liriodendron (tulip trees) is the only genus.

Unlike most angiosperms, whose flower parts are in whorls (rings), the Magnoliaceae have their stamens and pistils in spirals on a conical receptacle. This arrangement is found in some fossil plants and is believed to be a basal or early condition for angiosperms. The flowers also have parts not distinctly differentiated into sepals and petals, while angiosperms that evolved later tend to have distinctly differentiated sepals and petals. The poorly differentiated perianth parts that occupy both positions are known as tepals.

The family has about 219 species and ranges across subtropical eastern North America, Mexico and Central America, the West Indies, tropical South America, southern and eastern India, Sri Lanka, Indochina, Malesia, China, Japan, and Korea.

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There are many nicknames for the city of Houston, the largest city in Texas and fourth-largest city in the United States. The city's nicknames reflect its geography, economy, multicultural population, and popular culture, including sports and music. They are often used by the media and in popular culture to reference the city.

Houston currently has one official nickname, "Space City", signifying the city's global importance to space exploration and historical role as a prominent center of activity by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Also another example , H-Town. Cities adopt official nicknames such as this one to establish a civic identity, promote civic pride, and build community unity. Houston has had other nicknames in the past which have faded in common usage, going as far back as the 1870s.

The city has recently accumulated several unofficial nicknames from among sub-groups within the city, including several whose origins are in the local hip-hop subculture. The most recently added nickname is "The Big Heart", which refers to assistance given by Houston and its citizens to the victims of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and 2006.

Paul Thomas Anderson

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An alumnus of the Sundance Institute, Anderson directed his first feature film, Hard Eight, in 1996. He achieved critical and commercial success with Boogie Nights (1997), set during the Golden Age of Porn. His 2007 film There Will Be Blood, about an oil prospector during the Southern California oil boom, is often cited as one of the best films of the 2000s.Anderson's other films include Magnolia (1999), Punch-Drunk Love (2002), The Master (2012), Inherent Vice (2014), and Phantom Thread (2017).

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The sixth season of RuPaul's Drag Race began airing February 24, 2014. Like the fifth season, the season featured 14 contestants competing for the title of "America's Next Drag Superstar". For the first time in the show's history, the season premiere was split into two episodes; the fourteen queens were split into two groups and the seven queens in each group competed against each other before being united as one group for the third episode.

Santino Rice and Michelle Visage returned as judges. Two new pit crew members, Miles Moody and Simon Sherry-Wood, joined Jason Carter and Shawn Morales. The winner of this season won a prize package that included a supply from Colorevolution Cosmetics and a cash prize of $100,000. This was also the first season where Absolut Vodka and Interior Illusions, Inc. were not sponsors for the show, more specifically for the Untucked episodes. The Interior Illusions Lounge was renamed to the Silver Lounge or FormDecor Lounge. The theme song played during the runway segment every episode was "Sissy That Walk" while the song playing during the credits is "Dance With U", both from the album Born Naked.

The winner of the sixth season of RuPaul's Drag Race was Bianca Del Rio, with Adore Delano and Courtney Act being the runners-up, and BenDeLaCreme being crowned season 6's Miss Congeniality.

Adore Delano competed on the second season of All Stars. She quit the competition and placed ninth overall. In the third season of All Stars, Milk placed ninth, while BenDeLaCreme quit the competition and placed sixth overall.

Gia Gunn competed on the second installment of the Chilean version of Drag Race titled The Switch Drag Race and finished as a runner-up. She also competed as one of the ten contestants of the fourth season of All Stars. She placed 8th overall.

San Miguel Beermen

The San Miguel Beermen are a professional basketball team in the Philippine Basketball Association (PBA). It is one of three PBA clubs owned by the San Miguel Corporation group of companies along with the Magnolia Hotshots and Barangay Ginebra San Miguel. It is the most successful franchise in the history of the PBA and the only remaining original franchise in the league. The Beermen currently lead the league with the most titles (27) and the most all-time victories (more than 1,200 wins). In addition, it has won the Grand Slam in 1989 and the Perpetual Jun Bernardino Trophy after winning three straight PBA Philippine Cups from 2015 to 2017. It is also the only team to have won at least one PBA title in each of the five numerical decades of the league's existence and was the first professional basketball team in the world ever to come back from a 0–3 deficit to win a best-of-seven playoff series which they did during the 2015–16 Philippine Cup Finals.

Show Boat

Show Boat is a musical in two acts, with music by Jerome Kern and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, based on Edna Ferber's best-selling novel of the same name. The musical follows the lives of the performers, stagehands and dock workers on the Cotton Blossom, a Mississippi River show boat, over 40 years from 1887 to 1927. Its themes include racial prejudice and tragic, enduring love. The musical contributed such classic songs as "Ol' Man River", "Make Believe", and "Can't Help Lovin' Dat Man".

The musical was first produced in 1927 by Florenz Ziegfeld. The premiere of Show Boat on Broadway was an important event in the history of American musical theatre. It "was a radical departure in musical storytelling, marrying spectacle with seriousness", compared with the trivial and unrealistic operettas, light musical comedies and "Follies"-type musical revues that defined Broadway in the 1890s and early 20th century. According to The Complete Book of Light Opera:

Here we come to a completely new genre – the musical play as distinguished from musical comedy. Now … the play was the thing, and everything else was subservient to that play. Now … came complete integration of song, humor and production numbers into a single and inextricable artistic entity.

The quality of Show Boat was recognized immediately by critics, and it is frequently revived. Awards did not exist for Broadway shows in 1927, when the show premiered, or in 1932 when its first revival was staged. Late 20th-century revivals of Show Boat have won both the Tony Award for Best Revival of a Musical (1995) and the Laurence Olivier Award for Best Musical Revival (1991).

White Magnolia Plaza

The White Magnolia Plaza, also known as Sinar Mas Center, is a skyscraper whose construction was earlier suspended, but resumed construction in 2013, and was completed on January 4, 2017. It is located north of the Bund, the historic river-front district of Shanghai, adjacent to the international cruise terminal. The original proposal called for a 388-meter (1,273-foot) tower, but it was later scaled down to 260 meters (850 feet), and then the third and final design was changed to 319.5 meters (1,048 feet).

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