Magnesium carbonate

Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3 (archaic name magnesia alba), is an inorganic salt that is a white solid. Several hydrated and basic forms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals.

Magnesium carbonate
Magnesium carbonate
Uhličitan hořečnatý
Names
Other names
Magnesite
Barringtonite (dihydrate)
Nesequehonite (trihydrate)
Lansfordite (pentahydrate)
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.008.106
E number E504(i) (acidity regulators, ...)
RTECS number
  • OM2470000
Properties
MgCO3
Molar mass 84.3139 g/mol (anhydrous)
Appearance white solid
hygroscopic
Odor odorless
Density 2.958 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.825 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
1.837 g/cm3 (trihydrate)
1.73 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)
Melting point 350 °C (662 °F; 623 K)
decomposes (anhydrous)
165 °C (329 °F; 438 K)
(trihydrate)
anhydrous:
0.0139 g/100ml (25 °C)
0.00603 g/100ml (100 °C)[1]
10−7.8[2]
Solubility soluble in acid, aqueous CO2
insoluble in acetone, ammonia
−32.4·10−6 cm3/mol
1.717 (anhydrous)
1.458 (dihydrate)
1.412 (trihydrate)
Structure
Trigonal
Thermochemistry
75.6 J/mol·K[1]
65.7 J/mol·K[1][3]
-1113 kJ/mol[3]
-1029.3 kJ/mol[1]
Pharmacology
A02AA01 (WHO) A06AD01 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 0969
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterHealth code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g. turpentineReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
1
0
Flash point Non-flammable
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) TWA 5 mg/m3 (resp)[4]
Related compounds
Other anions
Magnesium bicarbonate
Other cations
Beryllium carbonate
Calcium carbonate
Strontium carbonate
Barium carbonate
Related compounds
Artinite
Hydromagnesite
Dypingite
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

Forms

The most common magnesium carbonate forms are the anhydrous salt called magnesite (MgCO3) and the di, tri, and pentahydrates known as barringtonite (MgCO3·2 H2O), nesquehonite (MgCO3·3 H2O), and lansfordite (MgCO3·5 H2O), respectively.[5] Some basic forms such as artinite (MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3 H2O), hydromagnesite (4 MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·4 H2O), and dypingite (4 MgCO3· Mg(OH)2·5 H2O) also occur as minerals.

Magnesite consists of white trigonal crystals. The anhydrous salt is practically insoluble in water, acetone, and ammonia. All forms of magnesium carbonate react in acids. Magnesium carbonate crystallizes in the calcite structure where in Mg2+ is surrounded by six oxygen atoms. The dihydrate one has a triclinic structure, while the trihydrate has a monoclinic structure.

References to 'light' and 'heavy' magnesium carbonates actually refer to the magnesium hydroxy carbonates hydromagnesite and dypingite (respectively).[6]

Preparation

Magnesium carbonate is ordinarily obtained by mining the mineral magnesite. Seventy percent of the world's supply is mined and prepared in China.[7]

Magnesium carbonate can be prepared in laboratory by reaction between any soluble magnesium salt and sodium bicarbonate:

MgCl2(aq) + 2NaHCO3(aq) → MgCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

If magnesium chloride (or sulfate) is treated with aqueous sodium carbonate, a precipitate of basic magnesium carbonate—a hydrated complex of magnesium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide—rather than magnesium carbonate itself is formed:

5MgCl2(aq) + 5Na2CO3(aq) + 5H2O(l) → Mg(OH)2·3MgCO3·3H2O(s) + Mg(HCO3)2(aq) + 10NaCl(aq)

High purity industrial routes include a path through magnesium bicarbonate, which can be formed by combining a slurry of magnesium hydroxide and carbon dioxide at high pressure and moderate temperature.[5] The bicarbonate is then vacuum dried, causing it to lose carbon dioxide and a molecule of water:

Mg(OH)2 + 2 CO2 → Mg(HCO3)2
Mg(HCO3)2 → MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O

Chemical properties

With acids

Like many common group 2 metal carbonates, magnesium carbonate reacts with aqueous acids to release carbon dioxide and water:

MgCO3 + 2 HCl → MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O
MgCO3 + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + CO2 + H2O

Decomposition

At high temperatures MgCO3 decomposes to magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide. This process is important in the production of magnesium oxide.[5] This process is called calcining:

MgCO3 → MgO + CO2 (ΔH = +118 kJ/mol)

The decomposition temperature is given as 350 °C (662 °F).[8][9] However, calcination to the oxide is generally not considered complete below 900 °C due to interfering readsorption of liberated carbon dioxide.

The hydrates of the salts lose water at different temperatures during decomposition.[10] For example, in the trihydrate, which molecular formula may be written as Mg(HCO3)(OH)•2(H2O), the dehydration steps occur at 157 °C and 179 °C as follows:[11]

Mg(HCO3)(OH)•2(H2O) → Mg(HCO3)(OH)•(H2O) + H2O at 157 °C
Mg(HCO3)(OH)•(H2O) → Mg(HCO3)(OH) + H2O at 179 °C

Uses

The primary use of magnesium carbonate is the production of magnesium oxide by calcining. Magnesite and dolomite minerals are used to produce refractory bricks.[5] MgCO3 is also used in flooring, fireproofing, fire extinguishing compositions, cosmetics, dusting powder, and toothpaste. Other applications are as filler material, smoke suppressant in plastics, a reinforcing agent in neoprene rubber, a drying agent, a laxative to loosen the bowels, and colour retention in foods. In addition, high purity magnesium carbonate is used as antacid and as an additive in table salt to keep it free flowing. Magnesium carbonate can do this because it doesn't dissolve in water, only acid, where it will effervesce (bubble).[12]

Hojer jan 0429
Climber Jan Hojer blows surplus chalk from his hand. Boulder World Cup 2015

Because of its low solubility in water and hygroscopic properties, MgCO3 was first added to salt in 1911 to make it flow more freely. The Morton Salt company adopted the slogan "When it rains it pours" with reference to the fact that its MgCO3-containing salt would not stick together in humid weather.[13] Magnesium carbonate, most often referred to as 'chalk', is also used as a drying agent on athletes' palms in rock climbing, gymnastics and weight lifting.

As a food additive magnesium carbonate is known as E504, for which the only known side effect is that it may work as a laxative in high concentrations.[14]

Magnesium carbonate is also used in taxidermy for whitening skulls. It can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide to create a paste, which is then spread on the skull to give it a white finish.

In addition, magnesium carbonate is used as a matte white coating for projection screens.[15]

Safety

Magnesium carbonate is non-toxic.

Compendial status

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=634
  2. ^ Bénézeth, Pascale; Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Dandurand, Jean-Louis; Schott, Jacques (2011). "Experimental determination of the solubility product of magnesite at 50 to 200 °C". Chemical Geology. 286 (1–2): 21–31. doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.04.016.
  3. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A22. ISBN 0-618-94690-X.
  4. ^ NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0373". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  5. ^ a b c d Margarete Seeger; Walter Otto; Wilhelm Flick; Friedrich Bickelhaupt; Otto S. Akkerman. "Magnesium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a15_595.pub2.
  6. ^ Botha, A.; Strydom, C.A. (2001). "Preparation of a magnesium hydroxy carbonate from magnesium hydroxide". Hydrometallurgy. 62 (3): 175. doi:10.1016/S0304-386X(01)00197-9.
  7. ^ Allf, Bradley (2018-05-21). "The Hidden Environmental Cost of Climbing Chalk". Climbing Magazine. Cruz Bay Publishing. Retrieved 2018-05-22. In fact, China produces 70 percent of the world’s magnesite. Most of that production—both mining and processing—is concentrated in a small corner of Liaoning, a hilly industrial province in northeast China between Beijing and North Korea.
  8. ^ "IAState MSDS".
  9. ^ Weast, Robert C.; et al. (1978). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (59th ed.). West Palm Beach, FL: CRC Press. p. B-133. ISBN 0-8493-0549-8.
  10. ^ "Conventional and Controlled Rate Thermal analysis of nesquehonite Mg(HCO3)(OH)·2(H2O)" (PDF).
  11. ^ "Conventional and Controlled Rate Thermal analysis of nesquehonite Mg(HCO3)(OH)•2(H2O)" (PDF).
  12. ^ "What Is Magnesium Carbonate?". Sciencing. Retrieved 2018-04-15.
  13. ^ "Her Debut - Morton Salt". Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  14. ^ "Food-Info.net : E-numbers : E504: Magnesium carbonates". 080419 food-info.net
  15. ^ Noronha, Shonan (2015). Certified Technology Specialist-Installation. McGraw Hill Education. p. 256. ISBN 978-0071835657.
  16. ^ British Pharmacopoeia Commission Secretariat (2009). "Index, BP 2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2010.
  17. ^ "Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Fifteenth Edition" (PDF). 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2010.

External links

Carbonates
H2CO3 He
Li2CO3,
LiHCO3
BeCO3 B C (NH4)2CO3,
NH4HCO3
O F Ne
Na2CO3,
NaHCO3,
Na3H(CO3)2
MgCO3,
Mg(HCO3)2
Al2(CO3)3 Si P S Cl Ar
K2CO3,
KHCO3
CaCO3,
Ca(HCO3)2
Sc Ti V Cr MnCO3 FeCO3 CoCO3 NiCO3 CuCO3 ZnCO3 Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb2CO3 SrCO3 Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag2CO3 CdCO3 In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs2CO3,
CsHCO3
BaCO3   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl2CO3 PbCO3 (BiO)2CO3 Po At Rn
Fr Ra   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og
La2(CO3)3 Ce2(CO3)3 Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Ac Th Pa UO2CO3 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Artinite

Artinite is a hydrated magnesium carbonate mineral with formula: Mg2(CO3)(OH)2·3H2O. It forms white silky monoclinic prismatic crystals that are often in radial arrays or encrustations. It has a Mohs hardness of 2.5 and a specific gravity of 2.

It occurs in low-temperature hydrothermal veins and in serpentinized ultramafic rocks. Associated minerals include brucite, hydromagnesite, pyroaurite, chrysotile, aragonite, calcite, dolomite and magnesite.It was first reported in 1902 in Lombardy, Italy. It was named for Italian mineralogist, Ettore Artini (1866–1928).

Brassite

Brassite is a rare arsenate mineral with the chemical formula Mg(AsO3OH)·4(H2O). It was named brassite, in 1973, to honor French chemist R`ejane Brasse, who first synthesized the compound. The type locality for brassite is Jáchymov of the Czech Republic.It occurs as an alteration of magnesium carbonate minerals by arsenic bearing solutions. It occurs associated with pharmacolite, picropharmacolite, weilite, haidingerite, rauenthalite, native arsenic, realgar and dolomite.

Calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate

Calcium acetate/magnesium carbonate is a fixed-dose combination drug that contains 110 mg calcium and 60 mg magnesium ions and is indicated as a phosphate binder for dialysis patients suffering from hyperphosphataemia (abnormal high serum phosphorus levels). It is registered by Fresenius Medical Care under the trade names Renepho (Belgium) and OsvaRen (a number of other European countries).

Carbonate

In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of CO2−3. The name may also refer to a carbonate ester, an organic compound containing the carbonate group C(=O)(O–)2.

The term is also used as a verb, to describe carbonation: the process of raising the concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in water to produce carbonated water and other carbonated beverages – either by the addition of carbon dioxide gas under pressure, or by dissolving carbonate or bicarbonate salts into the water.

In geology and mineralogy, the term "carbonate" can refer both to carbonate minerals and carbonate rock (which is made of chiefly carbonate minerals), and both are dominated by the carbonate ion, CO2−3. Carbonate minerals are extremely varied and ubiquitous in chemically precipitated sedimentary rock. The most common are calcite or calcium carbonate, CaCO3, the chief constituent of limestone (as well as the main component of mollusc shells and coral skeletons); dolomite, a calcium-magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2; and siderite, or iron(II) carbonate, FeCO3, an important iron ore. Sodium carbonate ("soda" or "natron") and potassium carbonate ("potash") have been used since antiquity for cleaning and preservation, as well as for the manufacture of glass. Carbonates are widely used in industry, e.g. in iron smelting, as a raw material for Portland cement and lime manufacture, in the composition of ceramic glazes, and more.

DKH

Degrees of carbonate hardness (dKH or °KH; the K is from the German Karbonathärte) is a unit of water hardness, specifically for temporary or carbonate hardness. Carbonate hardness is a measure of the concentration of carbonates such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) per volume of water. Specifically, 1 dKH is defined as 17.86 milligrams (mg) of calcium carbonate per litre of water, i.e. 17.86 ppm. Since a mole of calcium carbonate weighs 100.09 grams, 1 dKH is equivalent to 0.17832 mmol per litre.

dKH are the same as °fH, degrees of French hardness.

Dolomite (mineral)

Dolomite ( ) is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite. An alternative name sometimes used for the dolomitic rock type is dolostone.

Dypingite

Dypingite is a hydrated magnesium carbonate mineral with the formula: Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·5H2O. Its type locality is the Dypingdal serpentine-magnesite deposit, Snarum, Norway.

Grip (gymnastics)

Grips are devices that are worn on the hands of artistic gymnasts when performing on various apparatus. They are worn by female gymnasts on the uneven bars, and by male gymnasts on the high bar and still rings; it is rare to wear them on the parallel bars. Grips are used to enhance the gymnast's grip on the apparatus and to reduce friction, which can cause painful blisters and rips, in which outer layers of skin separate and tear away from the hand.

Grips are optional and are not used by all gymnasts. Some athletes substitute sports tape or gauze for grips, while others use bare hands. Most gymnasts apply powdered chalk (typically magnesium carbonate) to their grips, or to their hands if not using grips so that they do not slip.

Hydromagnesite

Hydromagnesite is a hydrated magnesium carbonate mineral with the formula Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O.

It generally occurs associated with the weathering products of magnesium containing minerals such as serpentine or brucite. It occurs as incrustations and vein or fracture fillings in ultramafic rocks and serpentinites. It occurs in hydrothermally altered dolomite and marble. It commonly appears in caves as speleothems and "moonmilk", deposited from water that has seeped through magnesium rich rocks. It is the most common cave carbonate after calcite and aragonite. It thermally decomposes, over a temperature range of approximately 220 °C to 550 °C, releasing water and carbon dioxide leaving a magnesium oxide residue.

It was first described in 1836 for an occurrence in Hoboken, New Jersey.Stromatolites in an alkaline (pH greater than 9) freshwater lake (Salda Gölü) in southern Turkey are made of hydromagnesite precipitated by diatoms and cyanobacteria.

Microbial deposition of hydromagnesite is also reported from playas in British Columbia. The hydromagnesite-magnesite playas near Atlin, British Columbia are some of the most studied deposits of hydromagnesite. These deposits have been characterized in the context of a biogeochemical model for CO2 sequestration.One of the largest deposits of hydromagnesite exists in Greece. It consists of a natural mixture with huntite. Local people have used the white mineral as a source of material for whitewashing buildings for centuries. In the mid 20th century the minerals, ground to a fine powder, found use as a filler for rubber shoe soles. The locals used the granite mills designed for grinding wheat. Commercial exploitation of the minerals began in the late 70s and early 80s with the mineral being exported worldwide. The Greek deposit is still operated commercially, although the world's largest commercially operated reserves are in Turkey.

Isidis Planitia

Isidis Planitia is a plain located inside a giant impact basin on Mars, centered at 12.9°N 87.0°E / 12.9; 87.0; Isidis Planitia is partly in the Syrtis Major quadrangle and partly in the Amenthes quadrangle. It is the third biggest obvious impact structure on the planet after the Hellas and Argyre basins – it is about 1,500 km (930 mi) in diameter.

Isidis was likely the last major basin to be formed on Mars, having formed approximately 3.9 billion years ago during the Noachian Period. Due to dust coverage, it typically appears bright in telescopic views, and was mapped as a classical albedo feature, Isidis Regio, visible by telescope in the pre-spacecraft era.

A study reported in Icarus described the complex geologic history of parts of Isidis, especially areas near the Deuteronilus contact. This contact is the supposed edge of a vast Martian ocean. The researchers found evidence of a Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian Sea in the area. The sea would have quickly frozen over. Eskers formed under the ice.Just to the west of Isidis is Syrtis Major Planum, a low-relief shield volcano that is a prominent dark albedo feature of Mars, which formed after the basin. The westernmost extent s bounded by a subregion, Northeast Syrtis with diverse geology.

Around the Isidis basin magnesium carbonate was found by MRO. This mineral indicates that water was present and that it was not acidic, pH conditions more favorable for the evolution of life.The name "Isidis Planitia" follows the earlier name Isidis Regio ("Isis' Region"). Isis is the Egyptian goddess of heaven and fertility.

Lansfordite

Lansfordite is a hydrated magnesium carbonate mineral with composition: MgCO3·5H2O. Landsfordite was discovered in 1888 in a coal mine in Lansford, Pennsylvania. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system and typically occurs as colorless to white prismatic crystals and stalactitic masses. It is a soft mineral, Mohs hardness of 2.5, with a low specific gravity of 1.7. It is transparent to translucent with refractive indices of 1.46 to 1.52.

Liquid chalk

The term liquid chalk refers to several different kinds of chalk:

liquid-chalk marking pens (with water-soluble ink);

liquid-chalk mixtures (for athletic use: rock climbing, weightlifting, gymnastics);

liquid-chalk hobby-craft paints made of cornstarch and food coloring (some with small amounts of flour).Despite the term, some forms of "liquid chalk" contain no actual chalk.

Magnesian Limestone

The Magnesian Limestone is a suite of carbonate rocks in north-east England dating from the Permian period. The outcrop stretches from Nottingham northwards through Yorkshire and into County Durham where it is exposed along the coast between Hartlepool and South Shields. The term has now been discontinued in formal use though it appears widely in popular and scientific literature on the geology of northern England.

The Magnesian Limestone is now incorporated within the Zechstein Group. In the southern part of its outcrop, the former 'Lower Magnesian Limestone' is now referred to as the 'Cadeby Formation'. Overlying this it is the 'Edlington Formation' (formerly the 'Middle Permian Marl') and above this the Brotherton Formation (formerly the 'Upper Magnesian Limestone'). In the north, the Lower Magnesian Limestone is now referred to as the Raisby Formation and the middle Magnesian Limestone as the Ford Formation. The Upper Magnesian Limestone is replaced by the Roker Formation (in its lower part) and the Seaham Formation (in its upper part) with the Edlington formation between them, though in the Durham area this last is replaced by the Fordham Evaporite Formation and the Seaham Residue.

Much of the Magnesian Limestone is dolomite, i.e. calcium magnesium carbonate, and has been for many years the main source of dolomite-rock in Britain. It is used in connection with the production of refractory bricks but also for aggregate for road-building and other construction purposes. It is also used in the production of agricultural lime. This type of limestone was used for statues in antiquity because of its resistance to acid. Many pieces of dolomite were found in the ruins of Rome, though they are thought to have been brought from Magnesia in Greece.

Magnesite

Magnesite is a mineral with the chemical formula MgCO3 (magnesium carbonate). Iron, manganese, cobalt and nickel may occur as admixtures, but only in small amounts.

Magnesium bicarbonate

Magnesium bicarbonate or magnesium hydrogen carbonate, Mg(HCO3)2, is the bicarbonate salt of magnesium. It can be formed through the reaction of dilute solutions of carbonic acid (such as seltzer water) and magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia).

It can be prepared through the synthesis of Magnesium acetate and Sodium bicarbonate

Mg(CH3COO)2 + 2NaHCO3 = Mg(HCO3)2 + 2CH3COONa

Magnesium bicarbonate exists only in aqueous solution. Magnesium does not form solid bicarbonate as like Lithium. To produce it, a suspension of magnesium hydroxide is treated with pressurized carbon dioxide, producing a solution of magnesium bicarbonate:

Mg(OH)2 + 2 CO2 → Mg(HCO3)2Drying the resulting solution causes the magnesium bicarbonate to decompose, yielding magnesium carbonate, carbon dioxide, and water:

Mg2+ + 2 HCO3− → MgCO3 + CO2 + H2O

Mesoporous magnesium carbonate

Mesoporous magnesium carbonates (MMCs) constitute a family of magnesium carbonate materials with high specific surface areas. It was first reported in July 2013 by a group of researchers in nanotechnology at Uppsala University. The highest reported surface area of any MMC is 800 m² per gram, which is the highest surface area ever measured for an alkali earth metal carbonate. The average pore size of MMCs can be adjusted by tuning the synthesis conditions. So far, all reported forms of MMCs are anhydrous and X-ray amorphous.

As with other types of mesoporous materials, the large surface area and the nanometer sized pores in makes MMCs interesting in a number of applications. In addition, MMC has excellent hygroscopic properties.The pores are formed via expanding CO2 gas during synthesis, no other templating molecules are needed to form the mesoporous network in the material. The first patent on MMCs was granted in 2017, and it is now being commercialized by the spin-out company Disruptive Materials AB in Uppsala, Sweden, for applications within cosmetics, sport products and other technical areas. MMCs is also being investigated within pharmaceutical applications.

Periclase

Periclase is a magnesium mineral that occurs naturally in contact metamorphic rocks and is a major component of most basic refractory bricks. It is a cubic form of magnesium oxide (MgO). In nature it usually forms a solid solution with wüstite (FeO) and is then referred to as ferropericlase or magnesiowüstite.It was first described in 1840 and named from the Greek περικλάω (to break around) in allusion to its cleavage. The type locality is Monte Somma, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy.The old term for the mineral is magnesia. Stones from the Magnesia region in ancient Anatolia contained both magnesium oxide and hydrated magnesium carbonate as well as iron oxides (such as magnetite). Thus these stones, called Stones from Magnesia in antiquity, with their unusual magnetic properties were the reason the terms magnet and magnetism were coined.

Periclase is usually found in marble produced by metamorphism of dolomitic limestones. It readily alters to brucite under near surface conditions.In addition to its type locality, it is reported from Predazzo, Tyrol, Austria; Carlingford, County Louth, Ireland; Broadford, Skye and the island of Muck, Scotland; León, Spain; the Bellerberg Volcano, Eifel district, Germany; Nordmark and Långban, Varmland, Sweden; and Kopeysk, southern Ural Mountains, Russia. In the US it occurs at the Crestmore quarry, Riverside County, California; Tombstone, Arizona; Gabbs district, Nye County, Nevada. In Canada, it occurs at Oka, Quebec and in Australia, west of Cowell, Eyre Peninsula, South Australia.The crystal structure of periclase corresponds to that of halite and has been studied extensively due to its simplicity. As a consequence, the physical properties of periclase are well known, which makes the mineral a popular standard in experimental work. The mineral has been shown to remain stable at pressures up to at least 360 GPa.

Pocari Sweat

Pocari Sweat (ポカリスエット, Pokari Suetto) is a Japanese sports drink, manufactured by Otsuka Pharmaceutical. It was launched in 1980, and is now also available in East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Australia.

Pocari Sweat is a mild-tasting, relatively light, non-carbonated sweet beverage and is advertised as an "ion supply drink", "refreshment water" (1992), "body request" (1999), and "electrolyte beverage" in Thailand. It has a mild grapefruit flavor with little aftertaste. Ingredients listed are water, sugar, citric acid, trisodium citrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium lactate, magnesium carbonate, and flavoring. It is sold in aluminium cans, PET bottles, and as a powder for mixing with water. An artificially sweetened version with reduced sugar called Pocari Sweat Ion Water (ポカリスエット イオンウォーター, Pokari Suetto Ion Wōtā) is also sold.

Randan, Puy-de-Dôme

Randan is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne in central France.

The place gives its name to Randanite, a soluble silica that occurs as fine earth near Randan and near Algiers.

In the late 19th century the official composition of the dynamite at the Poudrerie nationale de Vonges and other French powder works was 75% nitroglycerin, 20.8% randanite, 3.8% Vierzon silica and 0.4% magnesium carbonate.

Magnesium compounds
Magnesium (increases motility)
Aluminium (decreases motility)
Calcium
Sodium
Combinations and complexes
of aluminium, calcium and magnesium
Drugs for constipation (laxatives and cathartics) (A06)
Stool softeners
Stimulant laxatives
Bulk-forming laxatives
Lubricant laxatives
Osmotic laxatives
Enemas
Opioid antagonists
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