Magnesia ad Sipylum

Magnesia ad Sipylum (Greek: Mαγνησία ἡ πρὸς Σιπύλῳ or Mαγνησία ἡ ἐπὶ Σιπύλου; modern Manisa, Turkey), was a city of Lydia, situated about 65 km northeast of Smyrna (now İzmir) on the river Hermus (now Gediz) at the foot of Mount Sipylus. The city should not be confused with its older neighbor, Magnesia on the Maeander, both founded by colonists from the Greek region of Magnesia.

The first famous mention of the city is in 190 BC, when Antiochus the Great was defeated in the battle of Magnesia by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus. It became a city of importance under Roman rule and, though nearly destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius,[1] was restored by that emperor and flourished through the Roman empire. It was an important regional centre through the Byzantine Empire, and during the 13th-century interregnum of the Empire of Nicea. Magnesia housed the Imperial mint, the Imperial treasury, and served as the functional capital of the empire until the recovery of Constantinople in 1261.[2] Magnesia was one of the few towns in this part of Anatolia which remained prosperous under the Turkish rule.

Magnesia ad Sipylum
Magnesia ad Sipylum is located in Turkey
Magnesia ad Sipylum
Shown within Turkey
LocationTurkey
RegionManisa Province
Coordinates38°37′N 27°26′E / 38.617°N 27.433°ECoordinates: 38°37′N 27°26′E / 38.617°N 27.433°E

Landmarks

KybeleStatue19thCenturyPostcardMountSipylusManisaTurkey
Early 20th century postcard image of the Hittite statue of the Mother Goddess Kybele in Mount Sipylus

There are two famous relics of antiquity. The first is the Niobe of Sipylus (Aglayan Kaya), a natural rock formation, on the lowest slopes of the mountains in the middle of town. The second is the Suratlu Tash, a colossal stone carving allegedly portraying Cybele, about 100 meters up the mountain about 6 km east of the town. This is a colossal seated image cut in a niche of the rock, of Hittite origin, and perhaps that called by Pausanias the very ancient statue of the Mother of the Gods, carved by Broteas, son of Tantalus, and sung by Homer. It can be seen by driving into a parking lot at a children's playground.

Near the carving lie many remains of a primitive city, and about a kilometer east is the rock-seat conjecturally identified with Pausanias's Throne of Pelops. There are also hot springs and a sacred grotto of Apollo. Parts of the major fortifications built during the Empire of Nicea remain evident.[2]

Magnetism

One of the regions colonized by the Magnetes was a primary source for mysterious stones that could attract or repel each other, possibly leading to the modern term for magnets and magnetism. Some suggest that it was Magnesia ad Sipylum, others that it was the Magnesia regional unit in Thessaly; this has been debated both in modern times and in antiquity without resolution.[3][4]

Bishopric

The town had a bishop in late antiquity, suffran to the bishop in Ephesus. Known bishops include:

  • Eusebius, at the Council of Ephesus (431)
  • Alexander, at the Council of Chalcedon (553)
  • Stephen at the Council of Constantinople (680)
  • Basil at the second council of Nicæa (787)
  • Athanasius at Constantinople (869);
  • Luke fl 879.

References

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Magnesia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 319.

Footnotes
  1. ^ Tacitus, The Annals 2.47
  2. ^ a b George Akropolites, "The History" (Ruth Macrides, ed), Oxford, University Press, 2007, p. 171.
  3. ^ Chamber's Encyclopedia, 1891: Magnesia and Magnetism
  4. ^ Language Hat blog on Magnet, May 28, 2005. Retrieved Jan 3, 2011.
1258

Year 1258 (MCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

190 BC

Year 190 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Asiaticus and Laelius (or, less frequently, year 564 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 190 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Alexander (grandson of Seleucus I Nicator)

Alexander (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος; flourished 3rd century BC) was a Greek nobleman of Anatolia and served as a Seleucid official.Alexander was the first son born to Achaeus by an unnamed Greek mother. His father Achaeus was a wealthy nobleman who owned estates in Anatolia. His family had power in Anatolia with strong royal connections. Alexander had three siblings, two sisters, Antiochis and Laodice I, and a brother Andromachus. His father Achaeus was the second son of King Seleucus I Nicator and his first wife Apama I.According to surviving inscriptions, Alexander was already active and held high positions under his paternal uncle Antiochus I Soter. A surviving decree at Bargylia honoring a judge from Teos mentions Alexander as having been ‘left in charge’ by Antiochus I Soter, meaning that Alexander was some sort of governor in the Caria region. The surviving decree at Bargylia dates from 270–261 BC.During the reign of his paternal cousin and brother-in-law Antiochus II Theos, Alexander was a very powerful figure in Anatolia. Between 261–244 BC in Magnesia ad Sipylum, he is noted in writing a letter about land allotments granted to soldiers and he was honored at Tralles.In the year 240 BC Alexander was still loyal to his nephew Seleucus II Callinicus, as he was the governor of Lydia, based at Sardis. In the civil war between Seleucus II Callinicus and his brother Antiochus Hierax, Alexander supported his second nephew, and held Sardis against attacks by Seleucus II.After the end of the civil war, nothing is known on Alexander. His namesake was his great-nephew Seleucus III Ceraunus, whose name was Alexander until he succeeded his father Seleucus II Callinicus as King in 225 BC.

Ancient Magnesia

Anciently, Magnesia (Ancient Greek: Μαγνησία) was a region of Ancient Greece, eventually absorbed by ancient Thessaly. Originally inhabited by the Magnetes (Μάγνητες), Magnesia was the long and narrow slip of country between Mounts Ossa and Pelion on the west and the sea on the east, and extending from the mouth of the Peneius on the north to the Pagasaean Gulf on the south. The Magnetes were members of the Amphictyonic League, and were settled in this district in the Homeric times, and mentioned in the Iliad. The Thessalian Magnetes are said to have founded the Asiatic cities of Magnesia ad Sipylum and Magnesia on the Maeander. The towns of Magnesia were: Aesonis, Aphetae, Boebe, Casthanaea, Cercinium, Coracae, Demetrias, Eurymenae, Glaphyrae, Homole or Homolium, Iolcus, Magnesia, Meliboea, Methone, Mylae, Nelia, Olizon, Pagasae, Rhizus, Spalaethra, and Thaumacia.

Battle of Magnesia

The Battle of Magnesia was the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War, fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum on the plains of Lydia between Romans, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio and the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamum, and the army of Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire. A decisive Roman victory resulted in Roman domination over the internal affairs of a large part of the territory once controlled by the Seleucid Empire.The main historical sources for this battle are Livy and Appian.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Diocles of Magnesia

Diocles of Magnesia (Greek: Διοκλῆς ὁ Μάγνης) was an ancient Greek writer from Magnesia ad Sipylum, who probably lived in the 2nd or 1st century BC. The claim that he is the Diocles to whom Meleager of Gadara dedicated his anthology is questionable. He authored works entitled Ἐπιδρομὴ τῶν φιλοσόφων (Philosophers overview) and Περὶ βίων φιλοσόφων (On the lives of philosophers), both important sources for Diogenes Laërtius's work about the lives and opinions of eminent Greek philosophers, especially the Cynics and Stoics (see Diogenes Laërtius 2.82; 6.12, 13, 20, 36, 87, 91, 99, 103; 7.48, 162, 166, 179, 181; 9.61, 65; 10.12). Nothing more is known about his life and works.

Kandila, Arcadia

Kandila (Greek: Κανδήλα) is a village and a community in the municipal unit of Levidi, Arcadia, Greece. It is situated on the southern slope of the Oligyrtos mountain, at about 800 m elevation. In 2011, it had a population of 690 for the village and 714 for the community, which includes the village Diakopi. Kandila is near the tripoint of Arcadia, Corinthia and Argolis. It is 5 km southwest of Skoteini (Argolis), 12 km northeast of Levidi and 29 km north of Tripoli. The Greek National Road 66 (Levidi - Nemea) passes through the village.

The village is not visible from far away, with the exception of the Monastery of Virgin Mary, which is built inside a large rock, on the side of the mountain and can be seen as you enter the plateau.

Krokees

Krokees (Greek: Κροκεές, before 1927: Λεβέτσοβο - Levetsovo) is a village and a former municipality in Laconia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Evrotas, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 106.930 km2. The population of the community Krokees was 1,175 in 2011. The municipal unit Krokees (pop. 2,364) consists of the communities Krokees, Dafnio, Vasilaki and Lagi.

Lucius Statius Quadratus

Lucius Statius Quadratus was a Senator of the Roman Empire. Besides being consul ordinarius with Lucius Cuspius Pactumeius Rufinus in AD 142, he was proconsul of Asia during the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Statius Quadratus is best known for presiding over the trial and execution of Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna.

Magnes the shepherd

Magnes the shepherd, sometimes described as Magnes the shepherd boy, is a mythological figure, possibly based on a real person, who was cited by Pliny the Elder (23 CE – 79 CE) as discovering natural magnetism. His name, "Magnes", the Latin word for magnetite, has been attributed as the origin of the Latin root that has passed into English, giving its speakers the words magnet, magnetism, the mentioned ore, and related formulations. Other authorities have attributed the word origin to other sources.

As set out in Pliny's Naturalis Historia ("Natural History"), an early encyclopedia published c. 77 CE – c. 79 CE, and as translated from the Latin in Robert Jacobus Forbes' Studies in Ancient Technology, Pliny wrote the following (attributing the source of his information, in turn, to Nicander of Colophon):

Nicander is our authority that it [magnetite ore] was called Magnes from the man who first discovered it on Mount Ida and he is said to have found it when the nails of his shoes and the ferrule of his staff adhered to it, as he was pasturing his herds.

The passage appears at Book XXXVI of Naturalis Historia, covering "The Natural History of Stones", at chapter 25 entitled "The Magnet: Three Remedies". Although Pliny's description is often cited, the story of Magnes the shepherd is postulated by physicist Gillian Turner to be much older, dating from approximately 900 BCE.

Any writings Nicander may have made on the subject have since been lost.Written in approximately 600 CE, book XVI of Etymologiae by Isidore of Seville tells the same story as Pliny, but places Magnes in India. This is repeated in Vincent of Beauvais' Miroir du Monde (c. 1250 CE) and in Thomas Nicols' 1652 work, Lapidary, or, the History of Pretious Stones, wherein he describes Magnes as a "shepherd of India, who was wont to keep his flocks about those mountains in India, where there was an abundance of lodestones".Following from Pliny's account, the shepherd's name has been often cited as giving rise to the Latin root word and etymological source of the English word for magnet and the coterie of its related word forms such as magnetite, magnet, magnetism, magnesium, manganese and others. Other authorities, including the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BCE – c. 55 BCE), have attributed the etymology of magnet, and progeny, to the name of the Lydian city, Magnesia ad Sipylum (Manisa, Turkey in modern times), where magnetic ore may have first been discovered or recognized. Other ancient locations have been attributed as the origin, including the Greek province Thracian Magnesia, and the Ionian city of Magnesia ad Maeandrum.

The idea that the legend of Magnes the shepherd could be the origin of magnet, et al., and the legend itself has been criticized. Pliny's story is characterized in Gillian Turner's book North Pole, South Pole: The Epic Quest to Solve the Great Mystery of Earth’s Magnetism (2011) as "no doubt embellished by centuries of retelling." In the 1896 treatise Coil and Current; or the Triumphs of Electricity, the authors write: 'Magnet' is derived from the legend of Magnes, or from the territory of Magnesia. Pliny states that Magnes, the shepherd, discovered it, and the legend told of him is that while carrying a message over Mount Ida he felt his feet clinging to the earth, to the iron ore which lay thickly upon the hill. Hence the name of the Magnet. But Magnesia was a territory whence this native iron was for hundreds of years exported, and the name "Magnet" is, no doubt, due to this place.

Magnesia

Magnesia may refer to:

Magnesia (regional unit), the southeastern area of Thessaly in central Greece

Ancient Magnesia, a historical region of Greece with borders different to the modern regional unit

Magnesia ad Sipylum, a city of Lydia, now Manisa in Turkey

Battle of Magnesia, 190 BC, the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War

Magnesia on the Maeander, an ancient Greek city in Anatolia

Magnesia Prefecture, a former prefecture of Greece

Magnesia, a mythical city-state in Plato's Laws

Magnesia on the Maeander

Magnesia or Magnesia on the Maeander (Ancient Greek: Μαγνησία ἡ πρὸς Μαιάνδρῳ or Μαγνησία ἡ ἐπὶ Μαιάνδρῳ; Latin: Magnḗsĭa ad Mæándrum) was an ancient Greek city in Ionia, considerable in size, at an important location commercially and strategically in the triangle of Priene, Ephesus and Tralles. The city was named Magnesia, after the Magnetes from Thessaly who settled the area along with some Cretans. It was later called "on the Meander" to distinguish it from the nearby Lydian city Magnesia ad Sipylum. It was earlier the site of Leucophrys mentioned by several ancient writers.The territory around Magnesia was extremely fertile, and produced excellent wine, figs, and cucumbers. It was built on the slope of Mount Thorax, on the banks of the small river Lethacus, a tributary of the Maeander river upstream from Ephesus. It was 15 miles from the city of Miletus. The ruins of the city are located west of the modern village Tekin in the Germencik district of Aydın Province, Turkey.

Magnesia lay within Ionia, but because it had been settled by Aeolians from Greece, was not accepted into the Ionian League. Magnesia may have been ruled for a time by the Lydians, and was for some time under the control of the Persians, and subject to Cimmerian raids. In later years, Magnesia supported the Romans in the Second Mithridatic War.

Magnetes

The Magnetes (Greek: Μάγνητες) were an ancient Greek tribe. In book 2 of the Iliad Homer includes them in the Greek Army that is besieging Troy, and identifies their homeland in Thessaly, in part of what is still known as Magnesia. They later also contributed to the Greek colonisation by founding two prosperous cities in Western Anatolia, Magnesia on the Maeander and Magnesia ad Sipylum.

Manisa relief

The Manisa relief, also known as the Akpınar relief and the Cybele relief (Turkish: 'Taş Suret' (Cliff image) or Sipil Heykeli (Sipylos Monument)), is a Hittite rock relief at Akpınar, about 5 km east of the Turkish provincial capital of Manisa above an amusement park on the road to Salihli. It depicts a Hittite divinity. Rock reliefs are a prominent aspect of Hittite art.

Metropolis of Ephesus

The Metropolis of Ephesus (Greek: Μητρόπολις Εφέσου) was an ecclesiastical territory (metropolis) of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in western Asia Minor, modern Turkey. Christianity was introduced already in the city of Ephesus in the 1st century AD by Paul the Apostle. The local Christian community comprised one of the seven churches of Asia mentioned at the Book of Revelation, written by John the Apostle. The metropolis remained active until 1922-1923.

Molaoi

Molaoi (Greek: Μολάοι) is a town and a former municipality in Laconia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Monemvasia, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 193.167 km2. The population in 2011 was 4,980, of which 2,534 lived in the town itself.

Niobe

In Greek mythology, Niobe (; Greek: Νιόβη [ni.óbɛː]) was a daughter of Tantalus and of either Dione, the most frequently cited, or of Eurythemista or Euryanassa, and the sister of Pelops and Broteas.

Her father was the ruler of a city located near Manisa in today's Aegean Turkey that was called "Tantalis" or "the city of Tantalus", or "Sipylus". The city was located at the foot of Mount Sipylus and its ruins were reported to be still visible in the beginning of the 1st century AD, although few traces remain today. Pliny reports that Tantalis was destroyed by an earthquake and the city of Sipylus (Magnesia ad Sipylum) was built in its place.Niobe's father is referred to as "Phrygian" and sometimes even as "King of Phrygia", although his city was located in the western extremity of Anatolia where Lydia was to emerge as a state before the beginning of the first millennium BC, and not in the traditional heartland of Phrygia, situated more inland. References to his son and Niobe's brother as "Pelops the Lydian" led some scholars to the conclusion that there would be good grounds for believing that she belonged to a primordial house of Lydia.

She was already mentioned in Homer's Iliad which relates her proud hubris, for which she was punished by Leto, who sent Apollo and Artemis to slay all of her children, after which her children lay unburied for nine days while she abstained from food. Once the gods interred them, she retreated to her native Sipylus, "where Nymphs dance around the River Acheloos, and though turned to stone, she broods over the sorrows sent by the Gods". Later writers asserted that Niobe was wedded to Amphion, one of the twin founders of Thebes, where there was a single sanctuary where the twin founders were venerated, but in fact no shrine to Niobe.

Skala, Laconia

Skala (Greek: Σκάλα) is a town and a former municipality in Laconia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Evrotas, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 143.945 km2. Population 5,933 (2011). Skala is known for organic food production and the organic wholesaler Stavros Darmos with his company Silver Leaf.

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