Magellanic plover

The Magellanic plover (Pluvianellus socialis) is a rare and unique wader found only in southernmost South America. It was long placed in with the other plovers in the family Charadriidae; however, behavioural evidence suggested they were distinct, and molecular studies confirmed this, suggesting that they are actually more closely related to the sheathbills, a uniquely Antarctic family.[2] As such it is now placed in its own family, Pluvianellidae. This species is not a long-distance migrant, although some birds move further north in southern Argentina in winter. The species breeds inland and then moves to the coast during the winter, particularly to estuaries.[3]

This species is in its structure and habits much like a turnstone, but it cannot be confused with any other wader species. Its upperparts and breast are pale grey, and the rest of the underparts are white. It has short red legs, a black bill and red eyes. In young birds, the eyes and legs are yellowish in colour, and the plumage is grey overall with scaling. The call is a dovelike coo.

This species breeds near water, usually saline lakes but there are reports of nests near rivers as well. Pairs defend territories, and both parents share incubation duties. It lays two large eggs on the ground, although usually only one chick survives. One unique aspect of its behaviour and physiology is its method of feeding its chicks. Chicks are fed by regurgitating food stored in the crop, this species being the only wader to do so.[3]

Magellanic plovers feed on small invertebrates, picked from the ground, or from under pebbles, again like a turnstone. They have been observed collecting worms in the bill in a similar fashion to a puffin.[4]

Magellanic plover
Magellanic Plover
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Suborder: Chionidi
Family: Pluvianellidae
Jehl, 1975
Genus: Pluvianellus
G.R. Gray, 1846
Species:
P. socialis
Binomial name
Pluvianellus socialis
G.R. Gray, 1846

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Pluvianellus socialis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Paton, Tara; Bakera, Allan J.; Groth, Jeff G.; Barrowclough, George F. (2003). "RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within charadriiform birds". Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution. 29 (2): 268–278. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00098-8. PMID 13678682.
  3. ^ a b Ferrari, Silvia; Imberti, Santiago; Albrieu, Carlos (2003). "Magellanic Plovers Pluvianellus socialis in southern Santa Cruz Province, Argentina" (PDF). Wader Study Group Bulletin. 101: 1–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-19.
  4. ^ Kampf, Ruud (1996). "A note on the feeding behaviour of Magellanic Plover Pluvianellus socialis". Wader Study Group Bulletin. 80: 78.

Bibliography

  • Shorebirds by Hayman, Marchant and Prater, ISBN 0-7099-2034-2
Bahía Lomas

Bahia Lomas (or Lomas Bay) is a bay in the eastern mouth of the Strait of Magellan in Southern Chile, on the north coast of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. The area is a large tidal plain, with a tidal variation up to 7 km. The wetlands of the bay are important sites for the red knot, the Hudsonian godwit and other shorebirds.

The wetlands are a Ramsar site of international importance and an Important Bird Area.

Charadriiformes

Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. It includes about 350 species and has members in all parts of the world. Most Charadriiformes live near water and eat invertebrates or other small animals; however, some are pelagic (seabirds), some occupy deserts and a few are found in thick forest.

List of Charadriiformes by population

This is a list of Charadriiformes species by global population. While numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts in their fields.

Charadriiformes (Charadrius being Latin for "plover") is the taxonomic order to which the waders, gulls, and auks belong. BirdLife International has assessed 352 species; 181 (51% of total species) have had their population estimated. Bird taxonomy is currently in a state of flux, much wider in scope than the complications arising from the realization that birds are dinosaurs, and a full scientific consensus on the division of orders has yet to be settled upon. The Charadriiformes, for example, are grouped with the Ciconiiformes in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy. In the interest of standardization this article, along with the rest of the Wikipedia Bird Population lists, is split along the taxonomic system used by BirdLife, which is both the Earth's largest partnership of conservation organizations, and the assessment team for birds on the IUCN Red List. This is not an endorsement of any one taxonomic system, and it may change in the future as new relationships are brought to light.

A variety of methods are used for counting Charadriiformes. For example, the piping plover is subject to the quinquennial Piping Plover International Census, which is carried out in 9 Canadian provinces, 32 US states, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. In the 2006 survey, Saskatchewan alone had 159 volunteers scour 294 waterbodies. The mountain plover has had its nests counted through the drive transect method. Once density has been calculated, the numbers are extrapolated over a bird's range. For more information on how these estimates were ascertained, see Wikipedia's articles on population biology and population ecology.

Species which can no longer be included in a list of this nature include the Tahiti sandpiper, which was only recorded in 1777, and is suspected to have fallen prey to introduced egg-eating rats. The same fate awaited the white-winged sandpiper. The Canarian oystercatcher was reported vanished by 1940, believed to have been the result of overfishing of its sustenance. The feathers of the great auk made excellent pillows, and egg collectors were so successful in their hobby that the last specimen in Britain was seen in 1840 on Stac an Armin, Scotland. This was beaten to death by three men believing it to be a witch.The continued existence of some species has yet to be confirmed either way. The Javan lapwing, for example, has not had a confirmed sighting since 1940, but unconfirmed reports continue to give hope that the last individual has yet to die. The last confirmed sightings of the Eskimo curlew were in the early 1980s, but scientists would rather not issue a former declaration of extinction until surveying of all potential breeding locations is completed. The slender-billed curlew (included in the list below) was considered "very common" in the early 1800s, rare by the early 1900s. The bird was recorded 103 times between 1980 and 1990, and 74 times between 1990 and 1999. The last confirmed recording of the slender-billed curlew was in April 2001.Critically Endangered means a species has experienced a decline of at least 80% in the past ten years or three generations, or is projected to decline that much over the same period of time. A species's continued existence does not necessarily mean the bird can be salvaged, as it may have already passed the minimum viable population.

List of bird genera

List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.

List of birds

This page lists living orders and families of birds. The links below should then lead to family accounts and hence to individual species.

The passerines (perching birds) alone account for well over 5000 species. In total there are about 10,000 species of birds described worldwide, though one estimate of the real number places it at almost twice that.

Taxonomy is very fluid in the age of DNA analysis, so comments are made where appropriate, and all numbers are approximate. In particular see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for a very different classification.

List of birds by common name

In this list of birds by common name, a total of 9,722 extant and recently extinct bird species are recognised, belonging to a total of 204 families.

List of birds of Argentina

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Argentina. The avifauna of Argentina has 1006 confirmed species, of which 16 are endemic, eight have been introduced by humans, 41 are rare or vagrants, and four are extinct or extirpated. An additional 58 species are hypothetical (see below).

Except as an entry is cited otherwise, the list of species is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Argentina

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Argentina

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Argentina as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of Chile

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Chile. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society. The SACC list includes species recorded in mainland Chile, on the Chilean islands of the Cape Horn area, on other islands and waters near the mainland, and on and around the Juan Fernández Islands. The list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are also those of the SACC.The avifauna of Chile has 498 confirmed species, of which 12 are endemic, 107 are rare or vagrants, five have been introduced by humans, and two are extinct or extirpated. An additional seven species are hypothetical (see below). Thirty-five of the species on the Chilean SACC list are globally threatened.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Chile

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Chile

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Chile as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of birds of the Falkland Islands

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Falkland Islands. The avifauna of the Falkland Islands include a total of 227 confirmed species, of which two are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, four have been extirpated, and 140 are rare or vagrants. Three additional species are hypothetical (see below).

The entries on this list and the list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are those of the South American Classification Committee (SACC) of the American Ornithological Society.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence in addition to non-endemic resident species and regular visitors.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Falklands

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to the Falklands

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Falklands as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species which formerly occurred in the Falklands

(H) Hypothetical - a species recorded in the Falklands but with "no tangible evidence" according to the SACC

List of near threatened birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 1012 near threatened avian species. 9.3% of all evaluated avian species are listed as near threatened.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of near threatened avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

List of tetrapod families

The page lists all of the families in the clade Tetrapoda, organized by taxonomic ranks. This list does not include families that are extinct.

Magellanic

Magellanic may refer to:

Magellanic Steppe, 7th largest desert in the world, see Patagonian Desert

Magellanic Straits, a sea passageway at the tip of South America, see Strait of Magellan

Magellanic subpolar forests, an ecoregion of southernmost Chile and Argentina

Magellanic Premium, a major prize established in 1786 regarding navigation

Patagonian grasslands

The Patagonian grasslands (NT0804) is an ecoregion in the south of Chile, Argentina and the Falkland Islands. The grasslands are home to diverse fauna, including several rare or endemic species of birds. There are few protected areas. The grasslands are threatened by overgrazing by sheep, which supply high-quality merino wool. Efforts are being made to develop sustainable grazing practices to avoid desertification.

Sheathbill

The sheathbills are a family of birds, Chionidae. Classified in the wader order Charadriiformes, the family contains one genus, Chionis, with only two species. They breed on subantarctic islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, and the snowy sheathbill migrates to the Falkland Islands and coastal southern South America in the southern winter; they are the only bird family endemic as breeders to the Antarctic region. They are also the only Antarctic birds without webbed feet.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 8

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Wader

Waders are birds commonly found along shorelines and mudflats that wade in order to forage for food (such as insects or crustaceans) in the mud or sand. They are called shorebirds in North America, where the term "wader" is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons. Waders are members of the order Charadriiformes, which includes gulls, auks and their allies.

There are about 210 species of wader, most of which live in wetland or coastal environments. Many species of Arctic and temperate regions are strongly migratory, but tropical birds are often resident, or move only in response to rainfall patterns. Some of the Arctic species, such as the little stint, are amongst the longest distance migrants, spending the non-breeding season in the southern hemisphere.

Many of the smaller species found in coastal habitats, particularly but not exclusively the calidrids, are often named as "sandpipers", but this term does not have a strict meaning, since the upland sandpiper is a grassland species.

The smallest member of this group is the least sandpiper, small adults of which can weigh as little as 15.5 grams and measure just over 13 cm (5.1 in). The largest species is believed to be the Far Eastern curlew, at about 63 cm (25 in) and 860 grams (1.90 pounds), although the beach thick-knee is the heaviest at about 1 kg (2.2 lb).

In the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, waders and many other groups are subsumed into a greatly enlarged Ciconiiformes order. However, the classification of the Charadriiformes is one of the weakest points of the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, as DNA–DNA hybridization has turned out to be incapable of properly resolving the interrelationships of the group. Formerly, the waders were united in a single suborder Charadrii, but this has turned out to be a "wastebasket taxon", uniting no less than four charadriiform lineages in a paraphyletic assemblage. However, it indicated that the plains wanderer actually belonged into one of them. Following recent studies (Ericson et al., 2003; Paton et al., 2003; Thomas et al., 2004a, b; van Tuinen et al., 2004; Paton & Baker, 2006), the waders may be more accurately subdivided as follows:

Suborder Scolopaci

Family Scolopacidae: snipe, sandpipers, phalaropes, and allies

Suborder Thinocori

Family Rostratulidae: painted snipe

Family Jacanidae: jacanas

Family Thinocoridae: seedsnipe

Family Pedionomidae: plains wanderer

Suborder Chionidi

Family Burhinidae: thick-knees

Family Chionididae: sheathbills

Family Pluvianellidae: Magellanic plover

Suborder Charadrii

Family Ibidorhynchidae: ibisbill

Family Recurvirostridae: avocets and stilts

Family Haematopodidae: oystercatchers

Family Charadriidae: plovers and lapwingsIn keeping more in line with the traditional grouping, the Thinocori could be included in the Scolopaci, and the Chionidi in the Charadrii. However, the increasing knowledge about the early evolutionary history of modern birds suggests that the assumption of Paton et al. (2003) and Thomas et al. (2004b) of 4 distinct "wader" lineages (= suborders) already being present around the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary is correct.

Wildlife of Chile

The wildlife of Chile encompasses a diverse range of animals and plants, a condition is attributed to the country's slender and elongated shape, which spans a wide range of latitude, and also its altitude, ranging from the windswept coastline of the Pacific coast on the west to northern Andes to the sub-Antarctic, high Andes mountains in the east. There are many distinct ecosystems.

Chile, often called "The spine of South America", has 100 protected areas covering a total area of 14.5 million hectares (20% of the country) in 36 National parks, 49 National Reserves, and 15 National Monuments. In the southern part of Chile, 50 percent of the flora (part of temperate rain forest called the Valdivian forests) is endemic which is a unique feature in the world. Lapageria rosea (Chilean bellflower) is the national flower, Andean condor, (Vultur gryphus) (NT), is the national bird, and taruca or South Andean huemul, is the national animal of Chile. Legally, wildlife in Chile is res nullius.

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