Magdalena Bay

Magdalena Bay (Spanish: Bahía Magdalena) is a 50 km long bay in Comondú Municipality along the western coast of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. It is protected from the Pacific Ocean by the unpopulated sandy barrier islands of Isla Magdalena and Isla Santa Margarita.

Magdalena Bay
Magdalena Bay is located in Mexico
Magdalena Bay
Magdalena Bay
Coordinates24°35′N 112°00′W / 24.583°N 112.000°WCoordinates: 24°35′N 112°00′W / 24.583°N 112.000°W
Native nameBahía Magdalena  (Spanish)
Ocean/sea sourcesPacific Ocean
Max. length50 km (31 mi)

Ecology

This bay is particularly noted for the seasonal migration of the California gray whales that come here during winter to mate. The bay is also popular for commercial and sports fishing. Nearby mangrove swamps provide sanctuaries for sea birds. The bay includes the small fishing port of San Carlos, as well as Puerto López Mateos, which provides a good place to observe the whales.

Islands

Sandy barrier islands Isla Magdalena and Isla Santa Margarita separate the bay from the Pacific Ocean. Magdalena, mostly to the north and facing northwest, is a long, slender, segmented island that rejoins the coast a few miles north. Its area is 231 km2 (89 sq mi).

Santa Margarita, to the south, parallels the southwest-facing coast and has an area of 314 km². On its inland side is Puerto Cortés, the only settlement on either island, the site of a naval base administered from the 2nd Military Naval Region in Ensenada, Baja California. It has a military-only airstrip and no official registered population.

History

Man of War Cove, Magdalena Bay, March 13, 1908 LCCN2007664327
"Man of War Cove", Magdalena Bay, March 1908

As early as 1837 American whaleships visited the bay to cooper their oil and hunt sperm whales outside the bay. Between 1845-46 and 1865–66, American, as well as a few French, Dutch, and Russian, whaleships hunted gray whales in the bay during their winter calving season.[1][2] They primarily caught cows and calves, but began catching bulls as the former became scarce. During the peak years from the winters of 1855-56 to 1864-65, an estimated 1,250 gray whales were caught in the bay, with a peak of about 250 whales taken by seventeen vessels in the winter of 1856-57.[1] They also visited the bay to obtain wood, catch fish and turtles, and harvest oysters.[3]

In 1908, an American fleet of sixteen battleships on a cruise around the world, the Great White Fleet, stopped in the Bay and carried out gunnery practice.

In 1912, there were rumors that Japan tried to purchase the harbor from Mexico.[4] Barbara Tuchman's book The Zimmerman Telegram mentions both the German kaiser and the Japanese Emperor as attempting to utilize this bay and perhaps Whale Bay for military naval purposes.

References

  1. ^ a b Henderson, David A. (1972). Men & Whales at Scammon's Lagoon. Los Angeles: Dawson’s Book Shop.
  2. ^ Storfursten Constantin, of Helsinki, winters of 1858-59 and 1859-60. In Lindholm, O. V., Haes, T. A., & Tyrtoff, D. N. (2008). Beyond the frontiers of imperial Russia: From the memoirs of Otto W. Lindholm. Javea, Spain: A. de Haes OWL Publishing.
  3. ^ Tiger, of Stonington, Nov. 19, 1846-Feb. 25, 1847, George Blunt White Library; Bowditch, of Warren, Oct. 14, 1847-Feb. 18, 1848, Nicholson Whaling Collection.
  4. ^ "Japan and International Coaling Stations," The Advocate of Peace (1894-1920), Vol. 73, No. 5 (May, 1911), p. 98.

External links

A. nobilis

A. nobilis may refer to:

Achillea nobilis, the noble yarrow, a flowering plant species

Amherstia nobilis, the pride of Burma, a tropical tree species with exceptionally beautiful flowers

Anthemis nobilis, the Roman Camomile, Chamomile, garden camomile, ground apple, low chamomile, English chamomile or whig plant, a low perennial plant species found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds

Artocarpus nobilis, a plant species endemic to Sri Lanka

Atractoscion nobilis, the white seabass, a croaker species occurring from Magdalena Bay, Baja California, to Juneau, Alaska

California halibut

The California halibut or California flounder (Paralichthys californicus) is a large-tooth flounder native to the waters of the Pacific Coast of North America from the Quillayute River in Washington to Magdalena Bay in Baja California. It feeds near shore and is free swimming. It typically weighs 6 to 30 pounds (3 to 23 kg). It is much smaller than the larger and more northern-ranging Pacific halibut that can reach 300 pounds (140 kg).

This is an unusual fish in that one eye has to migrate around from one side to the other as it grows from an upright fry or baby fish into an adult fish that lies on its side. The adult has two eyes on the up-side as it lies on the bottom. Most flatfish are generally either right-eyed or left-eyed, but the California halibut is unusual in having a roughly even number of each type. Like other flatfish, the halibut hides under sand or loose gravel and blends into the bottom.

Charles Melville Scammon

Charles Melville Scammon (1825-1911) was a 19th-century whaleman, naturalist, and author. He was the first to hunt the gray whales of both Laguna Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio Lagoon, the former once being called "Scammon's Lagoon" after him. In 1874 he wrote the book The Marine Mammals of the North-western Coast of North America, which was a financial failure. It is now considered a classic.Scammon was born in Pittston, Maine, on May 28, 1825. In 1850 he sailed for California. On April 1, 1852 he left San Francisco in command of the brig Mary Helen (160 tons) on a combined sealing and whaling voyage. He returned on August 26 with 350 barrels of oil obtained from elephant seals. During the winter of 1855-56 he was among the vessels hunting gray whales in Magdalena Bay, when he was commanding the ship Leonore. In December 1857, commanding the brig Boston, with the schooner-tender Marin, he first hunted the gray whales of Laguna Ojo de Liebre, catching twenty. The following winter (1858–59), commanding the bark Ocean Bird and accompanied by the schooner tenders A.M. Simpson and Kate, he returned to the lagoon, catching forty-seven cows. In the winter of 1859-60 he first exploited another lagoon to the south, San Ignacio. Within a few seasons it had been swept clean of whales.In 1860-61 he returned to Laguna Ojo de Liebre in the bark Ocean Bird, taking a paltry 245 barrels of oil – about seven whales. In the summer of 1862 he sailed to the Sea of Okhotsk in the San Francisco ship William C. Nye. He cruised around Iony Island and Shantar Bay until September, catching only three bowhead whales. In the winter of 1862-63 he hunted gray whales in Magdalena Bay, his last whaling cruise. He spent the following three decades in the Revenue Service, before retiring from disability in 1895.

In October 1870, Scammon collected the 27-foot-long type specimen of the Davidson piked whale (Balaenoptera davidsoni, Scammon, 1872); it had been found dead on the shores of Admiralty Inlet by Italian fishermen, who towed it to Port Townsend Bay, where they flensed it.He is the brother of J. Young Scammon and Eliakim P. Scammon.

Citharichthys gordae

Citharichthys gordae, the mimic sanddab, is a species of sanddab in the large-tooth flounder family Paralichthyidae. It is native to the eastern Pacific Ocean, found off the coast of Mexico. It has a limited distribution, found in the Magdalena Bay and along the Baja California peninsula, as well as part of the Gulf of California.

It is a demersal fish that lives in sandy or muddy bottoms of tropical waters, at depths of between 73 and 146 metres (240 and 479 ft). Like the rest of the large-tooth flounders, the mimic sanddab has both eyes on the left side of its head. It grows to a maximum length of around 14 centimetres (5.5 in). It is a brownish color, mottled with darker patches.

Ciudad Constitución

Ciudad Constitución is a city in the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. It is the seat of Comondú Municipality. As of 2015, the city had a total population of 44,918 inhabitants.. Ciudad Constitución is a small city which serves as a gateway to Magdalena Bay.

Hornyhead turbot

The hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. It is a demersal fish that lives on soft sand and mud bottoms at depths of between 9 and 200 metres (30 and 656 ft). Its native habitat is the subtropical waters of the Eastern Pacific, from Point Reyes in California to Magdalena Bay in Baja California, and the northern and central eastern parts of the Gulf of California. It can grow up to 37 centimetres (15 in) in length.

Hurricane Pauline (1968)

Hurricane Pauline was the deadliest hurricane of the 1968 Pacific hurricane season. Forming from a disturbance in the Intertropical Convergence Zone on September 26 and becoming a tropical storm on September 29, the hurricane strengthened to a peak of 85 mph (137 km/h) as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale on September 30 before making landfall just east of La Paz, Baja California Sur, near Ciudad Constitución in Mexico, exiting over the Gulf of California. Before making a second landfall on the state of Sonora on October 3, Pauline lost tropical characteristics. The storm continued inland, passing directly over Ciudad Obregón before dissipating south-southeast of Sierra Vista, Arizona.

There is very little information as to the effects of Pauline on Mexico, but during the passage of the hurricane over Magdalena Bay, a boat disappeared with its five occupants. Despite a large-scale search for the boat or any possible remnants, no trace was ever found. The remnants of Pauline triggered showers over the southwest United States and may have been responsible for a damaging tornado which occurred near Glendale, Arizona.

Lodge Corollary

The Lodge Corollary was a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind from acquiring sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in "practical power of control". As Lodge argued, the corollary reaffirmed the basic right of nations to provide for their safety, extending the principles behind the Monroe Doctrine beyond colonialism to include corporate territorial acquisitions as well.

The proposal was a reaction to negotiations between a Japanese syndicate and Mexico for the purchase of a considerable portion of Baja California including a harbor considered to be of strategic value, Magdalena Bay. After the ratification of the Lodge Corollary, Japan disavowed any connection to the syndicate and the deal was never completed.

Magdalena Island

Magdalena Island may refer to:

Magdalena Island, Magallanes Region, Chile, situated in the Strait of Magellan, forming part of The Penguins Natural Monument

Magdalena Island, Aysén Region, Chile, located between the Moraleda Channel and the Puyuhuapi Channel, which belongs partially to the Isla Magdalena National Park

Magdalena Island, Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico

Margarita Island kangaroo rat

The Margarita Island kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami margaritae) is a subspecies of rodent in the family Heteromyidae.It is endemic to Mexico, where it is found only on Isla Santa Margarita of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur. The natural habitat of the species is hot deserts. It is threatened by predation by feral cats and dogs.

Ocellated turbot

The ocellated turbot (Pleuronichthys ocellatus) is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. It is a demersal fish that lives on bottoms at depths of between 1 and 140 metres (3.3 and 459.3 ft). Its native habitat is the subtropical waters of the Eastern Pacific, specifically southern Baja California (Magdalena Bay area) and the upper Gulf of California (northern Sinaloa); it is the only member of the genus to prefer subtropical waters. It can grow up to 24 centimetres (9.4 in) in length.

Paraclinus magdalenae

Paraclinus magdalenae, the Magdalena blenny, is a species of labrisomid blenny only known from around Isla Margarita in Magdalena Bay on the coast of Baja California Sur, where it is found at depths of around 18 to 21 metres (59 to 69 ft).

San Carlos, Baja California Sur

San Carlos, also known as Puerto San Carlos, is a fishing community facing the Pacific Ocean, in Magdalena Bay of Baja California Sur, Mexico. It is located in Comondú Municipality and had a 2010 census population of 5,538.

San Pedro Nolasco Island

San Pedro Nolasco Island, sometimes called Seal Island, is a small and rugged Mexican island in the Gulf of California. It is 4.2 km long by 1 km wide, and lies 15 km from the nearest point of the Mexican coast and about 28 km west of the resort town of San Carlos on the coast of the Sonoran Desert. The island is protected as a nature reserve and its coastal waters are well known as a sport fishing and diving site.

Santa Margarita

Santa Margarita ("Saint Margaret") may refer to:

Santa Margarita (shipwreck), a shipwreck off the coast of Florida near Key WestPlacesSanta Margarita, Mosta, Malta

Santa Margarita Island, Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico

Santa Margarita, Samar, Philippines

Santa Margarita, Trinidad and Tobago

Santa Margarita, California, United States

Rancho Santa Margarita, California, United States

Santa Margarita Catholic High School, a private, Catholic high school in Rancho Santa Margarita

USS Davis (TB-12)

USS Davis (Torpedo Boat No. 12/TB-12) was launched 4 June 1898 by Wolff and Zwicker, Portland, Oregon; sponsored by Miss H. Wolff; and commissioned 10 May 1899, Lieutenant Commander R. F. Nicholson in command.

After trials Davis was placed out of commission 5 June 1899 and laid up at Mare Island Navy Yard in reserve. She was recommissioned 23 March 1908 and assigned to Pacific Torpedo Fleet. She participated in the review for the Secretary of the Navy 8 May 1908, then cruised along the west coast as far north as the Columbia River and south as far as Magdalena Bay, Mexico, until placed in reserve at Mare Island 28 October 1909.

Davis was recommissioned 1 November 1910 for service in the San Diego area until 10 May 1911 when she again went into reserve at Mare Island. In May 1912 she was towed to Puget Sound for assignment to the Pacific Reserve Fleet. She was decommissioned there 28 March 1913 and sold for scrap 21 April 1920.

USS Rowan (TB-8)

The first USS Rowan (Torpedo Boat No. 8/TB-8) was a torpedo boat in the United States Navy during the Spanish–American War. She was named for Vice Admiral Stephen Rowan.

Rowan was laid down on 22 June 1896 by Moran Brothers Company, Seattle, Washington; launched 8 April 1898; sponsored by Mrs. Edward Moale, Jr.; and commissioned on 1 April 1899, Lieutenant Reginald F. Nicholson in command. After trials in Puget Sound, Rowan was decommissioned on 1 May 1899.

Rowan was recommissioned on 23 April 1908 and on 21 June she departed Bremerton, Washington, for Mare Island Navy Yard in Vallejo, California. For the next year she cruised off the United States West Coast, from the Canada–US border to Magdalena Bay, Mexico, as a unit of the 3rd Torpedo Flotilla. Then assigned to the Reserve Torpedo Group at Mare Island, she resumed operations with the torpedo flotilla in December 1909 and continued that duty until 1912.

Rowan was decommissioned at Mare Island on 28 October 1912. Her name was struck from the Navy list the following day and her hulk was sold for scrap on 3 June 1918.

White croaker

White croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) is a species of croaker occurring in the Eastern Pacific. White croakers have been taken from Magdalena Bay, Baja California, to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, but are not abundant north of San Francisco. White croakers swim in loose schools at or near the bottom of sandy areas. Sometimes they aggregate in the surf zone or in shallow bays and lagoons. Most of the time they are found in offshore areas at depths of 3 to 30 meters (9.8 to 98.4 ft). On rare occasions they are fairly abundant at depths as great as 200 meters (660 feet).

The white croaker is the only species of in the genus Genyonemus. Other common names for the fish include Pasadena trout, tommy croaker, and little bass.

White seabass

White seabass or white weakfish, Atractoscion nobilis, is a species of croaker occurring from Magdalena Bay, Baja California, to Juneau, Alaska. They usually travel in schools over deep rocky bottoms (0–122 m) and in and out of kelp beds.

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