Magazine (artillery)

Magazine is the name for an item or place within which ammunition or other explosive material is stored. It is taken originally from the Arabic word "makhāzin" (مخازن), meaning storehouses, via Italian and Middle French.[1][2][3]

The term is also used for a place where large quantities of ammunition are stored for later distribution, or an ammunition dump. This usage is less common.

Colonial magazine
Colonial Williamsburg magazine of the eighteenth century in Virginia

Field magazines

Shell lift, Les Landes, Jersey
A shell hoist within a fixed gun emplacement at Battery Moltke, used to lift ordnance from a room below

In the early history of tube artillery drawn by horses (and later by mechanized vehicles), ammunition was carried in separate unarmored wagons or vehicles. These soft-skinned vehicles were extremely vulnerable to enemy fire and to explosions caused by a weapons malfunction.

Therefore, as part of setting up an artillery battery, a designated place would be used to shelter the ready ammunition. In the case of batteries of towed artillery the temporary magazine would be placed, if possible, in a pit, or natural declivity, or surrounded by sandbags or earthworks. Circumstances might require the establishment of multiple field magazines so that one lucky hit or accident would not disable the entire battery.

Naval magazines

Animated gun turret with labels
Animated naval gun operations.

The ammunition storage area aboard a warship is referred to as a magazine or the "ship's magazine" by sailors.

Historically, when artillery was fired with gunpowder, a warship's magazines were built below the water line—especially since the magazines could then be readily flooded in case of fire or other dangerous emergencies on board the ship. An open flame was never allowed inside the magazine.

More modern warships use semi-automated or automated ammunition hoists. The path through which the naval artillery's ammunition passed typically has blast-resistant airlocks and other safety devices, including provisions to flood the compartment with seawater in an emergency.

The separation of shell and propellant gave the storage of the former the name "shell room" and the latter "powder room".

US Navy 030327-N-1328C-519 Aviation Ordnancemen assemble bombs aboard USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71)
Weapons magazine aboard USS Theodore Roosevelt in 2003

Surface warships that have carried torpedoes, and ones that still do (such as the Mark 46 torpedo for antisubmarine warfare), have had torpedo magazines for carrying these dangerous antiship and antisubmarine weapons in well-defended compartments.

With the advent of missile-equipped warships, the term missile "magazine" has also been applied to the storage area for guided missiles on the ship, usually carried below the main decks of the warships. For ships with both forward and aft surface-to-air missile launchers, there are at least two missile magazines. Sometimes the magazines of guided-missile frigates and guided-missile destroyers have carried or do carry a mixture of various types of missiles: surface-to-air missiles, antisubmarine missiles such as the ASROC missile, and antiship missiles such as the Harpoon missile. See especially the Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates, owned by several different navies around the world, in which one 40-missile magazine carries a mixture of all three types of missiles: surface-to-air, surface-to-surface, and surface-to-underwater.

In aircraft carriers, the magazines are required to store not only the aircraft carrier's own defensive weapons, but all of the weapons for her warplanes, including rapid-fire gun ammunition, air-to-air missiles such as the Sidewinder missile, air-to-surface missiles such as the Maverick missile, Mk 46 ASW torpedoes, Joint Direct Attack Munitions, "dumb bombs", HARM missiles, and antiship missiles such as the Harpoon missile and the Exocet missile.

Nuclear weapons storage

Nearly every detail of nuclear weapons storage is classified, although many of the same principles of an ammunition dump would apply. The one consistent factor is the greatly increased security compared to that afforded to the storage of other weapons.

In naval usage, most nuclear weapons are stored fitted to launch vehicles in the launch position. Their vertical launching system tubes (for nuclear armed cruise missiles) and missile tubes (for submarine-launched ballistic missiles) could technically be described as magazines. Nuclear weapon magazines also exist for other nuclear weapons such as nuclear gravity bombs and air-launched cruise missiles aboard aircraft carriers, and on other surface ships armed with nuclear depth charges though it is believed that since the end of the Cold War that most nations have progressively retired these weapons or chosen to store these weapons on land.[4]

The United States employs the Weapons Storage and Security System (WS3) for storing its tactical nuclear weapons in Europe.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Magazine". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved 2018-07-12. Origin of magazine: 1575–85; < French magasin < Italian magazzino storehouse < Arabic makhāzin, plural of makhzan storehouse
  2. ^ "magazine". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fifth ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2011. Retrieved 2018-07-12. French magasin, storehouse, from Old French magazin (possibly via Old Italian magazzino), from Arabic maḫāzin, pl. of maḫzan, from ḫazana, to store[...]
  3. ^ "magazine". Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged (12th ed.). HarperCollins Publishers. 2014. Retrieved 2018-07-12. via French magasin from Italian magazzino, from Arabic makhāzin, plural of makhzan storehouse, from khazana to store away
  4. ^ Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons. Amy F. Woolf. Congressional Research Service. 2016. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/nuke/RL32572.pdf
  5. ^ U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe - Review of Post-Cold War Policy, Force Levels, and War Planning. Hans M. Kristensen. Natural Resources Defense Council. 2005. https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/euro.pdf

External links

2018 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2018.

Ana Serrano

Ana Serrano (b. 1983) is an American artist working primarily with cardboard.

Arsenal

An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made, maintained and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned. Arsenal and armoury (British English) or armory (American English) are mostly regarded as synonyms, although subtle differences in usage exist.

A sub-armory is a place of temporary storage or carrying of weapons and ammunition, such as any temporary post or patrol vehicle that is only operational in certain times of the day.

Audrey Wollen

Audrey Wollen is a feminist theorist and visual artist based in Los Angeles. Wollen uses social media, primarily Instagram, where she has over 25,000 followers, as a platform for her work on Sad Girl Theory, a theory which includes the notion of sadness as a form of power, and the idea that female sadness and self-loathing might include elements of empowerment. According to Wollen, this empowerment may ultimately lead to women uniting.

Wollen uses her Instagram feed as an art gallery where she uses her body in her art by objectifying it and putting herself into famous paintings, among other methods. Wollen describes her work as a methodology of survival, a method for rethinking "looking" and "being." Wollen is inspired by feminist philosopher Judith Butler and Butler's theory of gender performativity. In her artwork, Wollen makes visible the performative aspects of online existence and activity and how identity is constructed. According to Wollen there is no distinct binary between "the real" or authentic and performance; instead, the artist makes visible how performance is an inevitable aspect of online activities (as well as "everyday life"), and how subjects are mediated through technology and language.

Bettina Hubby

Bettina Hubby is a multi-media conceptual artist currently residing in Los Angeles, CA (United States).

Charles Rappleye

Charles (McMillan) Rappleye (January 22, 1956 – September 15, 2018) was an American writer and editor. He is the co-founder, along with his wife Tulsa Kinney, of the art magazine Artillery. His work appeared in Virginia Quarterly Review, American Journalism Review, Columbia Journalism Review, LA Weekly, LA CityBeat, and OC Weekly.

Corbetta

Corbetta may refer to:

Corbetta, Lombardy, a commune in the province of Milan, Italy

Corbetta (mountain), a mountain of the canton of Fribourg, in Switzerland

Corbetta, a type of magazine (artillery). A Corbetta magazine is of concrete construction and is shaped like a beehive or dome. The domed shape is used for only the Corbetta ECM design. The interior wall is approximately three times the height of the magazine. There are currently no Dome designs approved for new construction.

Francesco Corbetta, a guitarist and composer of the seventeenth century

Marco Corbetta, a game programmer

Gunpowder magazine

A gunpowder magazine is a magazine (building) designed to store the explosive gunpowder in wooden barrels for safety. Gunpowder, until superseded, was a universal explosive used in the military and for civil engineering: both applications required storage magazines. Most magazines were purely functional and tended to be in remote and secure locations. They are the successor to the earlier powder towers and powder houses.

Jonathan Gold

Jonathan Gold (July 28, 1960 – July 21, 2018) was an American food and music critic. He wrote for the Los Angeles Times and had previously written for LA Weekly and Gourmet, as well as being a regular on KCRW's Good Food radio program. Gold often chose small, traditional immigrant restaurants for his reviews, although he covered all types of cuisine. In 2007, he became the first food critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism.

Lisa Soto

Lisa C Soto is a visual artist based in Los Angeles, California. The themes of her work are informed by both "her Caribbean heritage and her continuous movements between continents and islands." Soto's drawings, installations and sculptures embody the struggle between connections and disconnections. Supporting the belief that all things, seen and unseen are essentially linked. There is a conversation that includes a personal and a universal situation, an interplay between the micro and the macro. Questioning the endless conflicts, the creation of artificial differences, and the establishment of borders. While exploring the essence of the forces at work in the macrocosm. Shaping what those energies, frequencies, and vibrations might look like.

List of accidents and disasters by death toll

This is a list of accidents and disasters by death toll. It shows the number of fatalities associated with various explosions, structural fires, flood disasters, coal mine disasters, and other notable accidents. Purposeful disasters, such as terrorist attacks, are omitted; those events can be found at List of battles and other violent events by death toll.

Maureen Selwood

Maureen Selwood (born 1946 in Dublin, Ireland) is an Irish-born American filmmaker and visual artist whose works employ simple line drawings, marriages between animation and live footage, digital projections and installations. She is a pioneer in the field of independent and experimental animation. She has received numerous awards, including a Guggenheim Fellowship, and is the first animation artist to be awarded the Rome Prize in Visual Arts from the American Academy in Rome.

Powder Magazine

Powder Magazine, Powder House, or Powderworks may refer to:

Gunpowder magazine, a magazine (building) designed to store the explosive gunpowder in wooden barrels for safety

Magazine (artillery), the general term

Powder Magazine (skiing), snow-skiing magazine in the US; focused on stories about great skiers skiing great terrain, 40 years old (in 2014).

Rocío Rodríguez

Rocío Rodríguez was born in Cuba in 1952 and came to the United States in 1961. She is an abstract artist. whose work relies heavily on expressive, gestural line and color. Her family first settled in Florida, then Kansas and finally in Georgia where she studied at the Lamar Dodd School of Art at the University of Georgia (BFA 1976, MFA, 1979). Artillery Magazine featured Rodríguez's artwork in 2015. Her work was described as "a language of scrapes, squiggles and large blemishes to express her perceptions of the environment." Rodríguez commented on the article to clear up some statements that were made regarding the landscapes of her work. Rodríguez was one of the 2018 Anonymous Was A Woman Award recipients.

Roper's Knob Fortifications

Roper's Knob Fortifications were constructed by Union Army forces between February and May 1863 in Franklin, Tennessee. According to Tennessee Archaeology, "Roper's Knob served as part of a chain of signal stations that provided a communications link from Franklin to Murfreesboro. Additionally the knob had a large redoubt capable of holding four large artillery pieces, a blockhouse, cisterns, and a magazine. ... "Artillery at Fort Granger, another fortification in Franklin, played a role in the November 1864 Battle of Franklin, but it is believed that Roper's Knob was not then occupied. It is nonetheless believed that artillery had at some point been hoisted into the fortification, in part on the archeological evidence of an artillery fuse found there, but was removed in 1864 when the battlefronts moved south.

The area was investigated by an archeological dig in 2000.

A letter written by a 22nd Wisconsin soldier - Herman L. Cunningham - on June 28, 1863, from atop Roper's Knob, reveals in part, "Company H, K, & G occupy a Knob about three hundred feet high, with breastworks, stockade, and 125 pounder (cannon). The rest of the Regiment is over to the other fort [Fort Granger] 3/4 of a mile from here, that and the 85th Indiana command this post." The letter header says "Roper's Knob, Franklin."In a study of Civil War Historic and Historic Archeological Resources in Tennessee, it is noted that Winstead Hill, Fort Granger, the Carter House, and Carnton comprise the Franklin Battlefield National Historic Landmark area, but Roper's Knob is not included. The document describes criteria for listing of fortifications on the National Register of Historic Places which applied to the later Roper's Knob nomination. The property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. The listing was for an area of 58.4 acres (23.6 ha).

Shulamit Nazarian

Shulamit Nazarian is a contemporary art gallery located in Los Angeles, California.

Tabor Robak

Tabor Robak (born May 31, 1986) is an American artist, working in New Media. He is represented by Team Gallery in New York.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.