Madagascar Plan

The Madagascar Plan was a proposal by the Nazi German government to relocate the Jewish population of Europe to the island of Madagascar. Franz Rademacher, head of the Jewish Department of the German Foreign Office, proposed the idea in June 1940, shortly before the Fall of France. The proposal called for the handing over of control of Madagascar, then a French colony, to Germany as part of the French surrender terms.

The idea of re-settling Polish Jews in Madagascar was investigated by the Polish government in 1937,[1][2] but the task force sent to evaluate the island's potential determined that only 5,000 to 7,000 families could be accommodated, or even as few as 500 families by some estimates.[a] Because efforts by the Nazis to encourage the emigration of the Jewish population of Germany before World War II were only partially successful, the idea of deporting Jews to Madagascar was revived by the Nazi government in 1940.

Rademacher recommended on 3 June 1940 that Madagascar should be made available as a destination for the Jews of Europe. With Adolf Hitler's approval, Adolf Eichmann released a memorandum on 15 August 1940 calling for the resettlement of a million Jews per year for four years, with the island being governed as a police state under the SS. They assumed that many Jews would succumb to its harsh conditions should the plan be implemented.[4] The plan was not viable due to the British naval blockade. It was postponed after the Nazis lost the Battle of Britain in September 1940, and it was permanently shelved in 1942 with the commencement of the Final Solution, towards which it had functioned as an important psychological step.[5]

Locator map of Madagascar in Africa
Madagascar lies off the east coast of Africa


Madagascar Plan (Franco-Polish)
Proposed sites under the 1937 French/Polish version of the plan

In the late 1800s and early 1900s there were a number of resettlement plans for European Jews that were precursors to the Madagascar Plan. Paul de Lagarde, an Orientalist scholar, first suggested evacuating the European Jews to Madagascar in his 1878 work Deutsche Schriften ("German Writings").[6][7] Members of the Zionist movement in 1904–1905 seriously debated the British Uganda Programme, by which Russian Jews, who were in immediate danger from ongoing pogroms, would be settled in what today is Kenya. The plan was later rejected as unworkable by the Zionist Congress.[8] Adherents of territorialism split off from the main Zionist movement and continued to search for a location where Jews might settle and create a state, or at least an autonomous area.[9] The idea of Jewish resettlement in Madagascar was promoted by British antisemites Henry Hamilton Beamish, Arnold Leese, and others.[10] With the cooperation of the French, the Polish government commissioned a task force in 1937 to examine the possibility of settling Polish Jews in the island.[2] The head of the commission, Mieczysław Lepecki, felt the island could accommodate 5,000 to 7,000 families, but Jewish members of the group estimated that, because of the climate and poor infrastructure, only 500 or even fewer families could safely be accommodated.[1][11][a]

In Nazi Germany

Racism and antisemitism were basic tenets of the Nazi Party and the Nazi government.[12] Discrimination and violent attacks against Jews began immediately after the seizure of power in 1933.[13] Violence and economic pressure were used by the Nazis to encourage Jews to voluntarily leave the country.[14] By 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's 437,000 Jews had emigrated to the United States, Argentina, the United Kingdom, Palestine, and other countries.[15][16]

The Nazi leadership seized on the idea of deporting the remaining German Jews overseas. Barren, unproductive lands were viewed as appropriate destinations as this would prevent the deportees from flourishing in their new location.[17] In his May 1940 memorandum to Hitler, Concerning the Treatment of the Alien Population in the East, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler declared that he hoped to see "the term 'Jew' [...] completely eliminated through the massive immigration of all Jews to Africa or some other colony".[18]

Planning begins

Initial discussions began to take place in 1938 among Nazi ideologues such as Julius Streicher, Hermann Göring, Alfred Rosenberg, and Joachim von Ribbentrop.[19] Ten percent of Jews under German jurisdiction by that date were Polish nationals. Józef Lipski, the Polish ambassador to Germany, expressed his country's reluctance to take them back, and the Polish government decreed that Polish passport holders would not be permitted to return except under specific conditions.[20] When Ribbentrop raised the matter with French foreign minister Georges Bonnet in December of that year, Bonnet expressed French reluctance to receive more German Jews and inquired if measures could be taken to prevent their arrival. France itself was contemplating how to deport some 10,000 Jews and considered whether Madagascar might be an appropriate destination.[21] Planning for German deportations to Madagascar formally began in 1940.[22] Franz Rademacher, recently appointed head of the Jewish Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, forwarded on 3 June to his superior, the diplomat Martin Luther, a memorandum on the fate of the Jews.[1] Rademacher said: "The desirable solution is: all Jews out of Europe".[18] He briefly considered Palestine as a destination, but deemed it unsuitable, as he considered it undesirable that a strong Jewish state should be created in the Middle East. As well, Palestine was at the time under British control.[23] Rademacher recommended that the French colony of Madagascar should be made available as a destination for the Jews of Europe as one of the terms of the surrender of France, which the Germans had invaded on 10 May 1940.[24] The resettled Jews, noted Rademacher, could be used as hostages to ensure "future good behaviour of their racial comrades in America".[18] The plan was developed by Referat D III of the Abteilung Deutschland.[25]

Luther broached the subject with Foreign Minister Ribbentrop, who was simultaneously developing a similar scheme. By 18 June, Hitler and Ribbentrop spoke of the Plan with Italian leader Benito Mussolini as a possibility that could be pursued after the defeat of France.[18][19] Once he learned of the plan, SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), insisted that Ribbentrop relinquish any future responsibility for the Plan to that office. As Heydrich had been appointed by Göring in January 1939 to oversee Jewish evacuation from German-occupied territory, the Jewish question was hence under his purview.[19] Adolf Eichmann, head of the RSHA Sub-Department IV-B4, which dealt with Jewish affairs and evacuation, soon became involved. On 15 August, he released a memorandum titled Reichssicherheitshauptamt: Madagaskar Projekt (Reich Main Security Office: Madagascar Project), calling for the resettlement of a million Jews per year for four years and abandoning the idea of retaining any Jews in Europe. The RSHA, he emphasized, would control all aspects of the program.[26] While Rademacher called for the colony to be under German control but self-governing under Jewish administration, Eichmann made it plain that he intended for the SS to control and oversee every aspect of life on the island, which they would govern as a police state.[27]

Most Nazi bureaux, including the Foreign Office, the Security Police, and the Generalgouvernement pinned their hopes on the plan as the last chance to "solve the Jewish problem" through emigration.[28] In particular, Hans Frank, governor of the General Government (the occupied portion of Poland), viewed the forced resettlement to Madagascar as being preferable to the heretofore piecemeal efforts at deportation into Poland. As of 10 July, deportations into Poland were cancelled and construction of the Warsaw ghetto was halted, since it appeared to be unnecessary.[19]

Planning continues

Rademacher envisioned the founding of a European bank that would ultimately liquidate all European Jewish assets to pay for the plan. This bank would then play an intermediary role between Madagascar and the rest of the world, as Jews would not be allowed to interact financially with outsiders. Göring's office of the Four Year Plan would oversee the administration of the plan's economics.[29]

Additionally, Rademacher foresaw roles for other government agencies. Ribbentrop's Foreign Affairs Ministry would negotiate terms with the French for the handover of Madagascar to Germany. It would also play a part in crafting other treaties to deal with Europe's Jews. Its Information Department, along with Joseph Goebbels and his Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, would control the flow of information at home and abroad. Viktor Brack, a division chief in the Chancellery of the Führer, would oversee transportation. The SS would undertake the expulsion of the Jews from Europe and govern the island as a police state.[30] The Nazis expected that after the invasion of the United Kingdom in Operation Sea Lion that they would commandeer the British merchant fleet to transport the Jews to Madagascar.[29] Many deportees were expected to perish in the harsh conditions or die at the hands of the SS.[31] The plan has been characterised by the historian Ian Kershaw as genocide by an alternative method.[32]

Plan abandoned

With the failure to defeat the Royal Air Force in the Battle of Britain, the proposed invasion of the UK was postponed indefinitely on 17 September 1940. This meant the British merchant fleet would not be at Germany's disposal for use in evacuations, and planning for the Madagascar proposal stalled.[29] In late August 1940, Rademacher entreated Ribbentrop to hold a meeting at his ministry to begin drawing up a panel of experts to consolidate the plan. Ribbentrop never responded. Likewise, Eichmann's memorandum languished with Heydrich, who never approved it.[29] Establishment of ghettos in Warsaw and other cities in Poland resumed in August 1940.[33] The plan was officially shelved within the Foreign Office in February 1942.[34] British forces took the island from Vichy France in the Battle of Madagascar in November 1942 and control was transferred to the Free French.

At the end of 1940, Hitler asked Himmler to draft a new plan for the elimination of the Jews of Europe, and Himmler passed along the task to Heydrich. His draft proposed the deportation of the Jews to the Soviet Union via Poland.[35] The later Generalplan Ost (General Plan for the East), prepared by Professor Konrad Meyer and others, called for deporting the entire population of occupied Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union to Siberia, either for use as slave labour or to be murdered after the Soviet defeat.[36] Since transporting masses of people into a combat zone would be impossible, Heydrich decided that the Jews would be killed in extermination camps set up in occupied areas of Poland.[37] The total number of Jews murdered during the resulting Holocaust is estimated at 5.5 to 6 million people.[38]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ a b The World Factbook estimates Madagascar's population as 23,812,681 as of July 2015.[3]


  1. ^ a b c Browning 2004, p. 82.
  2. ^ a b Nicosia 2008, p. 280.
  3. ^ World Factbook 2015.
  4. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 162.
  5. ^ Browning 1995, pp. 18–19,127–128.
  6. ^ Gerdmar 2009, p. 180.
  7. ^ Ehrlich 2009, p. 452.
  8. ^ Telushkin 2001, pp. 280–281.
  9. ^ Cesarani 1995, p. 101.
  10. ^ Browning 2004, p. 81.
  11. ^ Andrews 2015.
  12. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 31.
  13. ^ Shirer 1960, p. 203.
  14. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 67–69.
  15. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 127.
  16. ^ Evans 2005, pp. 555–558.
  17. ^ Kershaw 2008, pp. 452–453.
  18. ^ a b c d Longerich 2012, p. 508.
  19. ^ a b c d Kershaw 2000, pp. 320–322.
  20. ^ Hilberg 1973, p. 258.
  21. ^ Hilberg 1973, p. 259.
  22. ^ Hilberg 1973, p. 260.
  23. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 162.
  24. ^ Browning 2004, pp. 82–85.
  25. ^ Hilberg 1973, pp. 260–261.
  26. ^ Browning 2004, p. 87.
  27. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 577.
  28. ^ Hilberg 1973, p. 261.
  29. ^ a b c d Browning 2004, p. 88.
  30. ^ Browning 2004, pp. 87–88.
  31. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 509.
  32. ^ Kershaw 2015, p. 131.
  33. ^ Longerich 2010, p. 165.
  34. ^ Browning 2004, p. 415.
  35. ^ Longerich 2012, p. 511.
  36. ^ Snyder 2010, p. 416.
  37. ^ Longerich 2010, pp. 309–310.
  38. ^ Evans 2008, p. 318.


  • Andrews, Evan (3 June 2015). "Remembering Nazi Germany's Madagascar Plan". History Channel. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  • Browning, Christopher R. (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution : The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942. Comprehensive History of the Holocaust. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1327-1.
  • Browning, Christopher R. (1995). The Path to Genocide: Essays on Launching the Final Solution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55878-5.
  • Cesarani, David (1995) [1995]. The "Jewish Chronicle" and Anglo-Jewry: 1841–1991. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43434-8.
  • "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  • Ehrlich, Mark Avrum (2009). Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-873-6.
  • Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3.
  • Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-311671-4.
  • Gerdmar, Anders (2009). Roots of Theological Anti-Semitism: German Biblical Interpretation and the Jews, from Herder and Semler to Kittel and Bultmann. Studies in Jewish History and Culture. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. ISBN 90-04-16851-6.
  • Hilberg, Raul (1973). The Destruction of the European Jews. New York: New Viewpoints.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2000). Hitler: 1936–1945: Nemesis. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04994-7.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2008) [2000]. Hitler: A Biography. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-06757-6.
  • Kershaw, Ian (2015) [1985]. The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation. London; New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4742-4095-6.
  • Longerich, Peter (2010). Holocaust: The Nazi Persecution and Murder of the Jews. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280436-5.
  • Longerich, Peter (2012). Heinrich Himmler: A Life. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-959232-6.
  • Nicosia, Francis R. (2008). Zionism and Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88392-4.
  • Shirer, William L. (1960). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-62420-0.
  • Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00239-9.
  • Telushkin, Joseph (2001) [1991]. Jewish Literacy: The Most Important Things to Know About the Jewish Religion, Its People, and Its History. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-688-08506-3.

Further reading

  • Ainsztein, Reuben (1974). Jewish Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe. London: Elek Books. ISBN 978-0-236-15490-6.
  • Brechtken, Magnus (1998). Madagaskar für die Juden: Antisemitische Idee und politische Praxis 1885–1945 (in German). Oldenbourg: Wissenschaftsverlag. ISBN 3-486-56384-X.
  • Rademacher, Franz (3 July 1940). "The Madagascar Plan: The Jewish Question in the Peace Treaty". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise.

External links


Analamanga is a region in central Madagascar, containing the capital Antananarivo and its surrounding metropolitan area. The region has an area of 16,911 square kilometres (6,529 square miles), and had an estimated population of 3,348,794 in 2013. The head of the region is Pierre Manganirina Randrianarisoa.

Christopher Browning

Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian, known best for his works on the Holocaust. Browning received his bachelor's degree from Oberlin College in 1968 and his doctorate from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1975. He taught at Pacific Lutheran University from 1974 to 1999, eventually becoming a Distinguished Professor. In 1999, he moved to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill to accept an appointment as Frank Porter Graham Professor of History. Browning was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2006. Browning retired from teaching in Spring 2014.

Final Solution

The Final Solution or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question was a Nazi plan for the genocide of Jews during World War II. The "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" was the official code name for the murder of all Jews within reach, which was not restricted to the European continent. This policy of deliberate and systematic genocide starting across German-occupied Europe was formulated in procedural and geopolitical terms by Nazi leadership in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference held near Berlin, and culminated in the Holocaust, which saw the killing of 90% of Polish Jews, and two thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.The nature and timing of the decisions that led to the Final Solution is an intensely researched and debated aspect of the Holocaust. The program evolved during the first 25 months of war leading to the attempt at "murdering every last Jew in the German grasp". Most historians agree, wrote Christopher Browning, that the Final Solution cannot be attributed to a single decision made at one particular point in time. "It is generally accepted the decision-making process was prolonged and incremental." In 1940, following the Fall of France, Adolf Eichmann devised the Madagascar Plan to move Europe's Jewish population to the French colony, but the plan was abandoned for logistical reasons, mainly a naval blockade. There were also preliminary plans to deport Jews to Palestine and Siberia. In 1941, wrote Raul Hilberg, in the first phase of the mass murder of Jews, the mobile killing units began to pursue their victims across occupied eastern territories; in the second phase, stretching across all of German-occupied Europe, the Jewish victims were sent on death trains to centralized extermination camps built for the purpose of systematic implementation of the Final Solution.

Franz Rademacher

Franz Rademacher (20 February 1906 – 17 March 1973) was an official in the Nazi government of the Third Reich during World War II, known for initiating action on the Madagascar Plan.

Functionalism versus intentionalism

Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. The debate on the origins of the Holocaust centres on essentially two questions:

Was there a master plan on the part of Adolf Hitler to launch the Holocaust? Intentionalists argue there was such a plan, while functionalists argue there was not.

Did the initiative for the Holocaust come from above with orders from Adolf Hitler or from below within the ranks of the German bureaucracy? Although neither side disputes the reality of the Holocaust, nor is there serious dispute over the premise that Hitler (as Führer) was personally responsible for encouraging the anti-Semitism that allowed the Holocaust to take place, intentionalists argue the initiative came from above, while functionalists contend it came from lower ranks within the bureaucracy.The terms were coined in a 1981 essay by the British Marxist historian Timothy Mason. Notable functionalists have included Raul Hilberg, Christopher Browning, Hans Mommsen, Martin Broszat, and Zygmunt Bauman. Notable intentionalists have included Andreas Hillgruber, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Klaus Hildebrand, Eberhard Jäckel, Richard Breitman, Lucy Dawidowicz and Daniel Jonah Goldhagen.

Haavara Agreement

The Haavara Agreement (Hebrew: הסכם העברה Translit.: heskem haavara Translated: "transfer agreement") was an agreement between Nazi Germany and Zionist German Jews signed on 25 August 1933. The agreement was finalized after three months of talks by the Zionist Federation of Germany, the Anglo-Palestine Bank (under the directive of the Jewish Agency) and the economic authorities of Nazi Germany. It was a major factor in making possible the migration of approximately 60,000 German Jews to Palestine in 1933–1939.The agreement enabled Jews fleeing persecution under the new Nazi regime to transfer some portion of their assets to British Mandatory Palestine. Emigrants sold their assets in Germany to pay for essential goods (manufactured in Germany) to be shipped to Mandatory Palestine.

The agreement was controversial at the time, and was criticised by many Jewish leaders both within the Zionist movement (such as the Revisionist Zionist leader Ze'ev Jabotinsky) and outside it, as well as by members of the NSDAP and members of the German public.

For German Jews, the agreement offered a way to leave an increasingly hostile environment in Germany; for the Yishuv, the new Jewish community in Palestine, it offered access to both immigrant labor and economic support; for the Germans it facilitated the emigration of German Jews while breaking the anti-Nazi boycott of 1933, which had mass support among European Jews and was thought by the German state to be a potential threat to the German economy.

Henry Hamilton Beamish

Henry Hamilton Beamish (2 June 1873 – 27 March 1948) was a leading British antisemite and the founder of The Britons.

The son of Rear-Admiral Henry Hamilton Beamish, who had served as an A.D.C. to Queen Victoria, Beamish was born in London. He served in the Second Boer War as Captain and settled in South Africa afterwards. However he left the country having decided that the Jews held too much influence there.Returning to London in 1918, Beamish set up The Britons as a specifically antisemitic propaganda organisation and also became involved with the Silver Badge Party. He ran as an independent in a 1918 by-election in Clapham on an anti-immigrant platform, supported by right-wing MP Noel Pemberton Billing, but did not win, receiving 43% of the votes cast. Along with Lieutenant-Commander E.M. Frazer, Beamish produced a poster in 1919 denouncing Commissioner of Works Sir Alfred Mond (Alfred Mond, 1st Baron Melchett) as a traitor. This poster resulted in a libel suit filed by Mond, who was successful and was awarded £5000, although Beamish left Britain without paying.Following his departure from Britain, Beamish travelled the world preaching anti-Semitism. He was one of the earliest developers of the Madagascar Plan for Jewish deportation. He spoke in Germany where he claimed, rather dubiously, to have taught Adolf Hitler. In the early 1920s Beamish announced that "Bolshevism was Judaism." He served as Vice-President of the Imperial Fascist League for a time and was a member of the Nordic League. In 1932 he addressed a meeting of the New Party alongside Arnold Leese on the subject of "The Blindness of British Politics under the Jew Money-Power", although he otherwise had little involvement with the initiatives of Oswald Mosley.Described by a judge in South Africa in 1934 as an "anti-Jewish fanatic"., Beamish travelled to the United States in 1935 where he was actively working as a representative of the German government as a Nazi agent. In September 1936 he visited Japan, and then spoke at a meeting of the Canadian Nationalist Party in Winnipeg in 1936. before embarking on a major lecture tour of Nazi Germany as a guest of Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. He met fellow fanatical anti-Semite Julius Streicher in Nuremberg in January 1937. In the same year he spoke at several meetings in North America with Canadian fascist leader Adrien Arcand including some organized by the German American Bund.Eventually he settled in 1938 in Southern Rhodesia, where he served as an independent MP and was interned in 1940 for his pro-Nazi sentiments. He remained President of The Britons until his death in Southern Rhodesia in 1948.

History of the Jews during World War II

The history of the Jews during World War II is almost synonymous with the Jewish persecution and murder of unprecedented scale in modern times in political Europe inclusive of European North Africa (pro-Nazi Vichy-North Africa and Italian Libya). The massive scale of the Holocaust which happened during World War II heavily affected the Jewish nation and world public opinion, which only understood the dimensions of the Final Solution after the war. The genocide, known as HaShoah in Hebrew, aimed at the elimination of the Jewish people on the European continent. It was a broadly organized operation led by Nazi Germany, in which approximately six million Jews were murdered methodically and with horrifying cruelty. During the Holocaust in occupied Poland, more than one million Jews were murdered in gas chambers of the Auschwitz concentration camp alone. The murder of the Jews of Europe affected Jewish communities in Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Channel Islands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine.Leading to World War II, nearly all Jewish firms in Nazi Germany had either collapsed under financial pressure and declining profits, or had been forced to sell out to the Nazi German government as part of the "Aryanization" policy inaugurated in 1937. As the war started, massacres of Jews took place originally as part of Operation Tannenberg against the Polish nation. The much larger and methodical mass killings of Jews began with the onset of Operation Barbarossa. Led by Einsatzkommandos and the Orpo battalions, the destruction of European Jews took place with the active participation of local Auxiliary Police including Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, and Ukrainian Schutzmannschaften.

History of the Jews in Madagascar

Madagascar has a small Jewish population, but has never been home to a significant Jewish presence. According to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, a vast majority of Malagasies believe they are descended from Jews. Genetic research hasn’t been able to corroborate their stories, instead showing that the first people to settle on the island were of Malayo-Indonesian origin, explained Nathan Devir, an associate professor of Jewish studies at the University of Utah, who has studied the group since 2012. Later, African Bantu migrants also settled on the island. Communities have been forming in Madagascar in recent years and have been slowly growing throughout the region.After France colonized the island and Europeans began settling there in the 19th century, a small number of Jewish families settled in Madagascar, but did not establish a Jewish community.

In the summer of 1940, the Madagascar Plan was proposed by the Nazis, under which 4 million European Jews would be forcibly relocated there. The plan ultimately became unfeasible, and was scrapped.

When Madagascar gained independence as the Malagasy Republic in 1960, Israel was one of the first countries to recognize its independence and send an ambassador. Relations between both countries are close and friendly.

The country continues to be home to a tiny Jewish population, and there is a small trickle of aliyah to Israel from Madagascar. A small community of Malagasies began practicing Judaism in 2010, and three separate communities formed, each embracing a different wave of Jewish spiritual practice. Many of those who converted previously belonged to Messianic Jewish congregations, which incorporate elements of rabbinic Judaism but retain belief in Jesus. Community members searched for religious resources about Judaism online and ultimately came in contact with Kulanu, a Jewish outreach group that has organized group conversions elsewhere. In May 2016, 121 members of the Malagasy Jewish community were converted in accordance with traditional Jewish rituals; appearing before a beit din and submerged in a mikvah. The conversion, organized with the help of Kulanu, was presided over by three Orthodox rabbis.

Josep Alsina

Josep Alsina Calvés (born in Ripoll, 1954), is an activist for Spanish Nationalism. Former president of far-right organisation Somatemps and director of the magazine Nihil Obstat. He also was one of the founders of Catalan Civil Society (SCC, Societat Civil Catalana).He has graduated in Biology at University of Barcelona, did a Master degree in History of Sciences and obtained a PhD in Philosophy at Autonomous University of Barcelona. He has worked as a secondary school teacher of Natural Sciences. Other intellectual work involves publications related to Natural History, biotechnology, philosophy and politics.In 2015 Josep Alsina participated in a debate at Catalunya Ràdio with Jordi Borràs. In the debate Josep Alsina ideology and activism are discussed as well as Borràs investigation tasks. Alsina claimed that Borràs does tabloid journalism, while Borràs showed photographs of Alsina participating in events with people aligned with the far-right. Alsina's political past was also explained, talking about his membership to different far-right political parties. Nihil Obstat Holocaust denial was also discussed. Alsina defends that the magazine recognises it existed, but that it has been mystified because it has not been a unique event. Alsina stated that in history have existed many genocides. He also said that Hitler had the intention of creating a Jew State in Madagascar, that nazism did not think at first to commit extermination, but total migration (Madagascar Plan), extermination was not a must. During the debate Alsina denied that Juan Antonio Llopart, administrator of the publisher of Nihil Obstat, had been guilty of making Holocaust apology. Alsina alleged that after Llopart's condemn to two and half years by the Barcelona Court, he was absolved by the Supreme court of Spain. However, the supreme court alleged that the diffusion of ideas by Nihil Obstat justifying the Holocaust is only punishable if the text encouraged to commit them.In 2016 he received the award Ramiro de Maeztu.In May 2018 he received the award Pascual Tamburri Bariain to the best short essay, given by the publication Revista Razón Española and Asociación Cultural Ruta Norte.

Madagascar in World War II

Madagascar, then officially known as French Madagascar, was still a French colony at the outbreak of the Second World War, having been under French administration since 1885. It played an important role in the war due to the presence of critically important harbors, the contribution of Malagasy troops, and was also the scene of fighting between Allied and Vichy French forces in 1942. After the fall of France in 1940, Madagascar became a crucial flashpoint in contention between the Free French movement and Vichy France. The island was also consequential in the Pacific theater of the war as Imperial Japanese naval forces operated unopposed off the island for some time.

In 1942, the British and several other Allied forces launched an invasion of Madagascar, seeking to protect its position as an important juncture in Allied shipping and deny its use to the Axis. In addition to its role as a key link in the Allied supply lines and major provider of troops, Madagascar was also briefly considered as the solution to the Jewish Question by the government of Nazi Germany who openly floated deporting Europe's Jewish population to the island in 1940. This scheme known as the Madagascar Plan never came to fruition for a variety of reasons. The island was officially handed over from the British to Free France in 1943 under whose control it remained for the remainder of the war.

Mass murders in Tykocin

The Mass murders in Tykocin occurred in August 25, 1941, during World War II, where the local Jewish population of Tykocin (Poland) was killed by German Einsatzkommando.

Nuremberg Laws

The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany. They were enacted by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935, at a special meeting convened during the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). The two laws were the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews and Germans and the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens; the remainder were classed as state subjects, without citizenship rights. A supplementary decree outlining the definition of who was Jewish was passed on 14 November, and the Reich Citizenship Law officially came into force on that date. The laws were expanded on 26 November 1935 to include Romani people. This supplementary decree defined Romanis as "enemies of the race-based state", the same category as Jews.Out of foreign policy concerns, prosecutions under the two laws did not commence until after the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin. After the Nazis seized power in 1933, they began to implement their policies, which included the formation of a Volksgemeinschaft (people's community) based on race. Chancellor and Führer (leader) Adolf Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses on 1 April 1933, and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April, excluded non-Aryans from the legal profession and civil service. Books considered un-German, including those by Jewish authors, were destroyed in a nationwide book burning on 10 May. Jewish citizens were harassed and subjected to violent attacks. They were actively suppressed, stripped of their citizenship and civil rights, and eventually completely removed from German society.

The Nuremberg Laws had a crippling economic and social impact on the Jewish community. Persons convicted of violating the marriage laws were imprisoned, and (subsequent to 8 March 1938) upon completing their sentences were re-arrested by the Gestapo and sent to Nazi concentration camps. Non-Jews gradually stopped socialising with Jews or shopping in Jewish-owned stores, many of which closed due to lack of customers. As Jews were no longer permitted to work in the civil service or government-regulated professions such as medicine and education, many middle class business owners and professionals were forced to take menial employment. Emigration was problematic, as Jews were required to remit up to 90% of their wealth as a tax upon leaving the country. By 1938 it was almost impossible for potential Jewish emigrants to find a country willing to take them. Mass deportation schemes such as the Madagascar Plan proved to be impossible for the Nazis to carry out, and starting in mid-1941, the German government started mass exterminations of the Jews of Europe.

Proposals for a Jewish state

There were several proposals for a Jewish state in the course of Jewish history between the destruction of ancient Israel and the founding of the modern State of Israel. While some of those have come into existence, others were never implemented. The Jewish national homeland usually refers to the State of Israel or the Land of Israel, depending on political and religious beliefs. Jews and their supporters, as well as their detractors and anti-Semites have put forth plans for Jewish states.

The Holocaust in Luxembourg

The Holocaust in Luxembourg refers to the persecution and near-annihilation of the 3,500-strong Jewish population of Luxembourg begun shortly after the start of the German occupation during World War II, when the country was officially incorporated into Nazi Germany. The persecution lasted until October 1941, when the Germans declared the territory to be free of Jews who had been deported to extermination camps and ghettos in Eastern Europe.

The Madagaskar Plan

The Madagaskar Plan is a 2015 alternate history adventure novel by Guy Saville. In this world Britain and the Third Reich have negotiated a peace treaty allowing Nazi Germany to conquer much of Africa. There has been no Holocaust. Instead, the Nazis have implemented their Madagascar Plan, a scheme to deport the Jewish population of Europe to Madagascar. In the novel, five million Jews have been sent to the island.

Uckermark concentration camp

The Uckermark concentration camp was a small German concentration camp for girls near the Ravensbrück concentration camp in Fürstenberg/Havel, Germany and then an "emergency" extermination camp.

Waldemar Schön

Standartenführer Waldemar Schön, or Karl Alexander Waldemar Schön, also Schoen, (born August 3, 1904 in Merseburg) joined NSDAP and SA in 1930. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939 he was appointed head of the newly created Ressettlement Division of the Warsaw District within General Government territory of the German occupied Poland. He was named Abteilungsleiter in 1940 by the World War II Governor of the District Ludwig Fischer.

In early 1940 Schön was a 36-year-old Nazi party official, who came up with the idea of erecting not one, but two suburban Jewish ghettos in occupied Warsaw; not to disrupt the city traffic and overall economy; one in Koło, and the second one in Wola. He took part in the General Government (GG) conference of June 6–7, 1940 where the ghetto idea – as a staging point for Polish Jews on the other side of the Vistula River – was first discussed in order to curtail their presence in the city.

We want to show the world that in the framework of our colonial work, we are able to cope with the Jewish problem even when it emerges as a problem of masses... The development of the Jewish district in Warsaw represents in practice a preliminary step to the exploitation of Jewish labor in Madagascar planned by the Führer. — Waldemar Schön

After the Madagascar Plan was abolished, the ghettoization plan went ahead, and on September 12, 1940 the Warsaw Ghetto was formally approved by Gauleiter Hans Frank in occupied Kraków.Waldemar Schön was an attritionist who along with Karl Naumann advocated for the elimination of virtually all food supplies to the Warsaw Ghetto. He established an office called Transferstelle in order to extract money and valuables from the Jews by means of "artificial famine" (künstliche Hungersnot) and stopped food deliveries to the Ghetto in mid-January 1941. The ensuing crisis he created was so extreme that on April 19, 1941 Schön was moved by Frank to another position in the district, and replaced by Heinz Auerswald who restored order. Schön survived the war and went on to establish a successful career for himself in West Germany. He died on 9 October 1969 in Freising.

Yizkor books

Yizkor books are memorial books commemorating a Jewish community destroyed during the Holocaust. The books are published by former residents or landsmanshaft societies as remembrances of homes, people and ways of life lost during World War II. Yizkor books usually focus on a town but may include sections on neighboring smaller communities. Most of these books are written in Yiddish or Hebrew, some also include sections in English or other languages, depending on where they were published. Since the 1990s, many of these books, or sections of them have been translated into English.

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