Macrocollum

Macrocollum is a genus of unaysaurid sauropodomorph dinosaur that lived during the Late Triassic period (early Norian) in what is now Brazil. It is one of the oldest dinosaurs known.[1]

Macrocollum
Temporal range: Late Triassic, 225 Ma
Macrocollum NT
Restoration
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Family: Unaysauridae
Genus: Macrocollum
Müller et al., 2018
Species:
M. itaquii
Binomial name
Macrocollum itaquii
Müller et al., 2018

Discovery

Macrocollum was discovered in southern Brazil, in the Wachholz site,[2] in 2012, and announced in a press conference on Wednesday, November 21, 2018. The generic name combines the Greek word μακρός (long) and the Latin word collum (neck), referring to the animal's elongated neck. The specific epithet honours José Jerundino Machado Itaqui, one of the main persons behind the creation of CAPPA/UFSM.[1]

Description

Like most early dinosaurs, Macrocollum was relatively small, and walked on two legs. It was only 3.5 meters (11 feet) long, 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) tall, and weighed about 101.6 kilograms (224 lb).[1]

The known remains of Macrocollum are relatively well preserved. The holotype specimen consists of an almost complete and articulated skeleton. The two paratype specimens are both articulated skeletons with one missing a skull and its cervical series.[1]

Macrocollum itaquii differs from all other known sauropodomorphs based on a unique combination of characters such as those found on the skull, which include an antorbital fossa perforated by a promaxillary fenestra, and a medial margin of the supratemporal fossa with a simple smooth curve at the frontal/parietal suture.[1]

Classification

Macrocollum, alongside Jaklapallisaurus and Unaysaurus, was found to belong to the clade Unaysauridae.[1]

Paleoecology

Macrocollum lived between about 225.42 to 225 million years ago, in the Norian age of the late Triassic period. It was found in the south of Brazil, which at the time was connected to northwest Africa. At the time, most of the Earth's landmass was united into the supercontinent Pangaea, which was just starting to divide into Laurasia in the north, and Gondwana in the south.[3][4] U-Pb (Uranium decay) dating found that the Caturrita Formation dates to around 225.42 million years ago, making it fewer than 10 million years younger than the Santa Maria and Ischigualasto Formations, from where the earliest dinosaurs are known.[5]

Studies

The ilia of one of the paratypes of Macrocollum (CAPPA/UFSM 0001b) were used as a model in a study on the taphonomical effects of sedimentary compression on the iliac morphology of early sauropodomorphs.[6]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Rodrigo Temp Müller; Max Cardoso Langer; Sérgio Dias-da-Silva (2018). "An exceptionally preserved association of complete dinosaur skeletons reveals the oldest long-necked sauropodomorphs". Biology Letters. 14 (11): 20180633. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2018.0633.
  2. ^ Müller, Rodrigo Temp; da Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock; Roberto da Silva, Lúcio; Aires, Alex Sandro Schiller; Pacheco, Cristian Pereira; Pavanatto, Ane Elise Branco; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio (August 2015). "Wachholz, a new exquisite dinosaur-bearing fossiliferous site from the Upper Triassic of southern Brazil". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 61: 120–128. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2014.10.009.
  3. ^ Leal, L.A.; Azevodo, S.A.K.; Kellner, A.A.W.; da Rosa, A.A.S. (2004). "A new early dinosaur (Sauropodomorpha) from the Caturrita Formation (Late Triassic), Paraná Basin, Brazil" (PDF). Zootaxa. 690: 1–24.
  4. ^ Soares, M.B.; Schultz, C.L.; Horn, B.L.D. (2011). "New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Tritheledontidae) from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications". Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 83 (1): 329–354. doi:10.1590/S0001-37652011000100021. ISSN 0001-3765.
  5. ^ Langer, M.C.; Ramezani, J.; Da Rosa, Á.A.S. (2018). "U-Pb age constraints on dinosaur rise from south Brazil". Gondwana Research. X (18): 133–140. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2018.01.005.
  6. ^ Müller, Rodrigo Temp; Garcia, Maurício Silva; Da-Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio (December 2018). "Under pressure: Effect of sedimentary compression on the iliac morphology of early sauropodomorphs". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 88: 345–351. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2018.09.005.
Anchisauria

The Anchisauria were a clade of sauropodomorph dinosaurs that lived during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. The name Anchisauria was first used by Galton and Upchurch in the second edition of The Dinosauria. Galton and Upchurch assigned two families of dinosaurs to the Anchisauria: the Anchisauridae and the Melanorosauridae. The more common prosauropods Plateosaurus and Massospondylus were placed in the sister clade Plateosauria.

However, recent research indicates that Anchisaurus is closer to sauropods than traditional prosauropods; thus, Anchisauria would also include Sauropoda.The following cladogram simplified after an analysis presented by Blair McPhee and colleagues in 2014.

Averostra

Averostra, or "bird snouts", is a clade that includes most theropod dinosaurs that have a promaxillary fenestra (fenestra promaxillaris), an extra opening in the front outer side of the maxilla, the bone that makes up the upper jaw. Two groups of averostrans, the Ceratosauria and the Orionides, survived into the Cretaceous period. When the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event occurred, ceratosaurians and two groups of orionideans within the clade Coelurosauria, the Tyrannosauroidea and Maniraptoriformes, were still extant. Only one subgroup of maniraptoriformes, Aves, survived the extinction event and persisted to the present day.

Avetheropoda

Avetheropoda, or "bird theropods", is a clade that includes carnosaurians and coelurosaurs to the exclusion of other dinosaurs.

Cerapoda

Cerapoda ("ceratopsians and ornithopods") is a clade of the dinosaur order Ornithischia.

Dinosauriformes

Dinosauriformes is a clade of archosaurian reptiles that include the dinosaurs and their most immediate relatives. All dinosauriformes are distinguished by several features, such as shortened forelimbs and a partially to fully perforated acetabulum, the hole in the hip socket traditionally used to define dinosaurs. The oldest known member is Asilisaurus, dating to about 245 million years ago in the Anisian age of the middle Triassic period.

Haya griva

Haya is an extinct genus of basal neornithischian dinosaur known from Mongolia.

Jaklapallisaurus

Jaklapallisaurus is a genus of unaysaurid sauropodomorph dinosaur. It lived during the Late Triassic period (late Norian to earliest Rhaetian) in what is now Andhra Pradesh, central India. It is known from the holotype ISI R274, postcranial material which was collected from the Upper Maleri Formation (late Norian–earliest Rhaetian) of the Pranhita–Godavari Basin and from the referred material ISI R279, partially complete right femur which was collected from the Lower Dharmaram Formation (latest Norian–Rhaetian). It was first named by Fernando E. Novas, Martin D. Ezcurra, Sankar Chatterjee and Tharavat S. Kutty in 2011 and the type species is Jaklapallisaurus asymmetrica. The generic name is derived from the Indian town of Jaklapalli which is close to the type locality. The specific name refers to the highly asymmetrical astragalus of this species in distal view. A cladistic analysis by Novas et al. found that all valid plateosaurid species form a large polytomy. Jaklapallisaurus was found along with the basal sauropodomorph Nambalia, a guaibasaurid, and two basal dinosauriforms.

Jeholosauridae

Jeholosaurids were herbivorous neornithischian dinosaurs from the Cretaceous Period (Aptian - Santonian, with a possible Campanian record) of Asia. The family was first proposed by Han et al. in 2012. The jeholosaurids were defined as those ornithischians more closely related to Jeholosaurus shangyuanensis than to Hypsilophodon foxii, Iguanodon bernissartensis, Protoceratops andrewsi, Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis, or Thescelosaurus neglectus. The Jeholosauridae includes the type genus Jeholosaurus and Yueosaurus.

Jingshanosaurus

Jingshanosaurus (meaning "Jingshan lizard") is a genus of sauropodomorph dinosaurs from the early Jurassic period.

Melanorosauridae

The Melanorosauridae were a family of sauropodomorph dinosaurs which lived during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. The name Melanorosauridae was first coined by Friedrich von Huene in 1929. Huene assigned several families of dinosaurs to the infraorder "Prosauropoda": the Anchisauridae, the Plateosauridae, the Thecodontosauridae, and the Melanorosauridae. Since then, these families have undergone numerous revisions. Galton and Upchurch (2004) considered Camelotia, Lessemsaurus, and Melanorosaurus members of the family Melanorosauridae. A more recent study by Yates (2007) indicates that the melanorosaurids were instead early sauropods.

Neotheropoda

Neotheropoda (meaning "new theropods") is a clade that includes coelophysoids and more advanced theropod dinosaurs, and the only group of theropods who survived the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Yet all of the neotheropods became extinct during the early Jurassic period except for Averostra.

Orionides

Orionides is a clade of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs from the Middle Jurassic to the Present. The clade includes most theropod dinosaurs, including birds.

Orodrominae

Orodrominae is a subfamily of parksosaurid dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia.

Raeticodactylidae

Raeticodactylidae is a family of eudimorphodontoid eopterosaurian pterosaurs that lived in Switzerland during the Late Triassic. The family includes Caviramus, and the type genus Raeticodactylus, which are both known from the Kössen Formation, around 205 mya. Raeticodactylidae was first used in 2014 by Andres et al., as a group of all pterosaurs closer to Raeticodactylus than Eudimorphodon. The following phylogenetic analysis follows the topology of Andres et al. (2014).

Riojasauridae

Riojasauridae is a family of sauropod-like dinosaurs from the Upper Triassic. It is known primarily from the genera Riojasaurus and Eucnemesaurus. Sites containing Riojasauridae include the Lower Elliot Formation of Orange Free State, South Africa (where fossils of Eucnemesaurus have been found), and Ischigualasto, in La Rioja Province, Argentina ( where fossils of Riojasaurus have been recovered).

Unaysauridae

Unaysauridae is a family of basal sauropodomorphs from the Late Triassic of India and Brazil.

Unaysaurus

Unaysaurus is a genus of unaysaurid sauropodomorph herbivore dinosaur. Discovered in southern Brazil, in the geopark of Paleorrota, in 1998, and announced in a press conference on Thursday, December 3, 2004, it is one of the oldest dinosaurs known. It is closely related to plateosaurid dinosaurs found in Germany, which indicates that it was relatively easy for species to spread across the giant landmass of the time, the supercontinent of Pangaea.The fossils of Unaysaurus are well preserved. They consist of an almost complete skull, complete with a lower jaw, and partial skeleton with many of the bones still connected to each other in their natural positions. It is one of the most complete dinosaur skeletons (including complete skull) ever recovered in Brazil.

Xixiposaurus

Xixiposaurus is a genus of prosauropod dinosaur which existed in what is now Lower Lufeng Formation, China during the lower Jurassic period. It was first named by Sekiya Toru in 2010 and the type species is Xixiposaurus suni.

Yueosaurus

Yueosaurus is an extinct genus of basal ornithopod dinosaur known from Zhejiang Province, China.

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