Mackinaw City (/ˈmækɪnɔː/) is a village in Emmet and Cheboygan counties in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 806 at the 2010 census; the population surges during the summer tourist season, including an influx of tourists and seasonal workers who serve in the shops, hotels and other recreational facilities there and in the surrounding region. Mackinaw City is at the northern tip (headland) of the Michigan's Lower Peninsula along the southern shore of the Straits of Mackinac. Across the straits lies the state's Upper Peninsula. These two land masses are physically connected by the Mackinac Bridge, which runs from Mackinaw City north to St. Ignace. Mackinaw City is also the primary base for ferry service to Mackinac Island, located to the northeast in the straits.
According to AAA's 2009 TripTik requests, Mackinaw City is the most popular tourist city in the state of Michigan. Local attractions include Fort Michilimackinac, the Mackinac Bridge, the Mackinaw Crossings shopping mall, Mill Creek, the Old Mackinac Point Light, the Historic Village, the McGulpin Point Light, and the retired US Coast Guard Icebreaker Mackinaw.
The official name of the community is "The Village of Mackinaw City" and as that suggests, it is a village by state law. Mackinaw City is governed by the General Law Village Act, Public Act No. 3, of 1895, as amended. The downtown district and much of the development lie within Mackinaw Township, Cheboygan County, but the larger portion of the village by area is in Wawatam Township, Emmet County, which borders Mackinaw Township to the west.
Mackinaw City, Michigan
|Village of Mackinaw City|
Mackinaw City Hotel District
Location within the state of Michigan
|Counties||Cheboygan and Emmet|
|Townships||Mackinaw and Wawatam|
|• President||Jeff Hingston|
|• Total||7.65 sq mi (19.83 km2)|
|• Land||3.44 sq mi (8.90 km2)|
|• Water||4.22 sq mi (10.92 km2)|
|Elevation||594 ft (181 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||231.24/sq mi (89.29/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (EST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1620662|
The predominant historic tribes in this area were three Algonquian peoples, known collectively as the Council of Three Fires: Ojibwe (Chippewa), Ottawa (Odawa), and Potawatomi at the time of French contact in the 17th century. These peoples had long frequented the surrounding region, which they called Michilimackinac, to fish, hunt, trade, and worship. Mackinac Island in the straits appeared to have the shape of a turtle. The Native Americans here had a creation myth based on the sacred turtle. The Straits of Mackinac was the center of two routes vital to the fur trade: one to Montreal in the east, by way of Lake Nipissing and the Ottawa River valley; and the other to Detroit in the south via Lakes Huron and St. Clair.
The first European to pass the site of Mackinaw City was Jean Nicolet, sent out from Quebec City by Samuel Champlain in 1633 to explore and map the western Great Lakes, and to establish new contacts and trading partnerships with the Indian tribes of the region. His reports resulted in the French government providing funds to send settlers, missionaries, traders, and soldiers to the Great Lakes region. Father Jacques Marquette had established a mission on Mackinac Island in 1671 (which was shortly thereafter moved to St. Ignace on the Michigan peninsula, where it remained active until 1705). The construction of Fort de Buade at St. Ignace in 1681 was an attempt by the authorities of New France to establish a military presence at the Straits, but it closed in 1697.
Mackinaw City's first European settlement came in 1715 when the French built Fort Michilimackinac. They lost it to the British during the Seven Years' War, and the British abandoned the fort in 1783, after the American Revolutionary War resulted in independence of its Thirteen Colonies. The site of the fort in present-day Mackinaw City is a National Historic Landmark and is now preserved as an open-air historical museum. As with the forts at other settlements of the era and region such as Detroit, Michilimackinac was a fairly small post. It housed French civilians inside the fort, and allowed them to garden, hunt, and fish outside the walls. It was a trading post for the fur trade.
At the end of the French and Indian War (1754–1763), the British took possession of the fort, but continued to allow the French civilians to live within the walls, as they had good relations with the Odawa and Ojibwe for the fur trade. As a part of Pontiac's Rebellion, Chippewa and Fox warriors captured the fort on June 2, 1763 in a surprise attack during a game of baggatiway or lacrosse; the British at the fort were taken prisoner and mostly killed.
Europeans, in the form of French and Scots-Irish traders from Detroit and elsewhere, did not return until the following spring, with the understanding that they would trade more fairly with the Native Americans. The British abandoned the vulnerable site on the mainland during the American Revolutionary War; from 1779 to 1781, the troops moved the fort, including its buildings, to Mackinac Island, where they established Fort Mackinac. What the British did not take with them, they burned; that way they could prevent the American rebels from using Michilimackinac as a base.
In 1857, two men by the names of Conkling and Searles platted what would become Mackinaw City. The original plan reserved the northern portion as a park, to preserve the area that was once Fort Michilimackinac and to accommodate a hoped-for lighthouse. This was not built for nearly a generation after the land was set aside.
During the second half of the 1800s, the Mackinaw area (and northern Michigan in general) saw an increase in summer resort tourism. In 1875, Mackinac National Park became the second National Park in the United States after Yellowstone National Park in the Rocky Mountains.
Old Mackinac Point Lighthouse was built in 1892. This lighthouse would eventually replace McGulpin Point Light, which was built in the 1870s in the far western end of the village limits.
The village became a vital port for train ferries crossing the Straits beginning in the 1890s, and later, for ferries for automobiles. In the 1890s, Mackinaw had one newspaper, the Mackinaw Witness, published weekly by Presbyterian missionary Rev. G. W. Wood, Jr.
Auto ferries began running in the early 1900s. Camping began in Michilimackinac State Park in 1907.
When the Mackinac Bridge was completed in 1957, the Old Mackinac Point Lighthouse was decommissioned immediately thereafter. At the same time, a grant was provided to the Mackinac Island State Park Commission, which owned the property at the Bridge's southern terminus, to begin archeological excavations of the Michilimackinac ruins. Ultimately, a reconstruction of the fort to its 1770s appearance would be constructed.
Auto ferries, which had been running since the early 1900s, ended in 1957 after the completion of the Mackinac Bridge.
Train ferries crossed the Straits until 1984. Mackinaw City remains an important port city for tourists traveling by passenger ferry boat to Mackinac Island using Shepler's ferry company, and Star Line services.
Through the course of time, the main industry of Mackinaw City became almost strictly tourist-oriented, with other major sources of employment being civic services such as mail, police, firefighting, schooling, and so on. Camping, which began in Michilimackinac State Park in 1907, was halted in 1971 as a Maritime Park was opened in 1972 around the lighthouse. This park was shut down in 1990, but Old Mackinac Point Lighthouse was opened to the public in 2004. Mill Creek State Park, which includes the area believed to be where Mill Creek's sawmill once flourished when Mackinac Island was being settled, is located about five miles (8 km) southeast of the village along U.S. Highway 23 (US 23).
The Mackinac or Mackinaw Trail is a historically important route to and from the community, both from the north and the south. The trail was long used by the Native American tribes of Michigan. In 1835 it was surveyed between Saginaw and Mackinac by Lieutenant Benjamin Poole of the 3rd U.S. Artillery. (In Saginaw, Mackinaw Street closely follows Poole's route, which continues in the general direction of present-day Midland. Mackinaw Street twists north, becoming Mackinaw Road and following a section line into Bay County.)
Two ferry companies operate out of Mackinaw City, connecting tourists and commuters to Mackinac Island: north and south Sheplers Ferry and the Star Line.
Indian Trails provides daily intercity bus service between St. Ignace and East Lansing, Michigan and between St. Ignace and Bay City, Michigan. Transfer between the lines is possible in Mackinaw City.
The New York Central's (NYC) Michigan Central subsidiary, the Pennsylvania Railroad's (PRR) Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad subsidiary, and other rail lines provided passenger traffic on trains such as the Northern Arrow to Mackinaw City. After the NYC and PRR merged to create the Penn Central in 1968, rail traffic diminished and the rail infrastructure deteriorated. The state invested greatly into the failing railways and established the Michigan Northern Railway to operate passenger and freight operations in the early 1980s. Despite sizable patronage, passenger services, as well as freight, operated in the red, prompting the state government to reassess its commitment to operations of the Michigan Northern Railway. All subsidies terminated in 1984, and the lines were sold to CSX Transportation in 1987. It dismantled the tracks shortly thereafter.
The former Michigan Central line to Mackinaw City was improved under the Rails to Trails program. It was rededicated in 2008 as the North Central State Trail, providing a public right-of-way from Mackinaw City to Gaylord, Michigan.
The nearest airports with scheduled passenger service are in Pellston Regional Airport, Traverse City Cherry Capital Airport and Alpena County Regional Airport in the Lower Peninsula and Chippewa County International Airport in Sault Ste. Marie, in the eastern Upper Peninsula.
This climatic region has large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Mackinaw City has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.
Mackinaw City's central shopping district is located along Central Avenue downtown. Many of the shops sell T-shirts, fudge, and toffee. Also located downtown is a small outdoor shopping mall called Mackinaw Crossings, which features a movie theater. As a tourist city, it has more numerous hotels than many other communities.
French Farm Lake, a publicly owned lake maintained for small-boat fishing, is 3 miles southwest.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 806 people, 413 households, and 206 families residing in the village. The population density was 238.5 inhabitants per square mile (92.1/km2). There were 814 housing units at an average density of 240.8 per square mile (93.0/km2). The racial makeup of the village was 87.8% White, 5.3% African American, 4.3% Native American, 0.1% from other races, and 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population.
There were 413 households of which 18.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 50.1% were non-families. 41.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.95 and the average family size was 2.62.
The median age in the village was 49.5 years. 16.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 4.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 23.5% were from 25 to 44; 31.1% were from 45 to 64; and 24.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the village was 45.2% male and 54.8% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 859 people, 404 households, and 244 families residing in the village. The population density was 255.3 people per square mile (98.7/km²). There were 630 housing units at an average density of 187.3 per square mile (72.4/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 93.02% White, 0.12% African American, 4.54% Native American, 0.12% Asian, and 2.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.81% of the population.
There were 404 households out of which 21.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.5% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.6% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.67.
In the village, the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 30.7% from 45 to 64, and 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $37,031, and the median income for a family was $43,125. Males had a median income of $31,771 versus $30,125 for females. The per capita income for the village was $18,725. About 7.5% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.5% of those under age 18 and 2.8% of those age 65 or over.
Mackinaw City Public Schools provides Mackinaw City students with education. There are two schools, the elementary school (K-5) and the high school (6-12).
Mackinaw City, Cheboygan County"... "WITNESS: Saturdays; four pages 16x22; subscription $1.50; established 1892; Rev. G. W. Wood, editor and publisher.
Newspaper -- Witness, Rev. G.w. Wood, editor
"[Mackinaw] has a weekly newspaper, The Mackinaw Witness" ... "George H. Wood, publr... Wood, Rev George W (Presbyterian)
CJQM-FM ("Country 104.3" FM) is a radio station in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. The station is owned and operated by Rogers Communications and broadcasts a country music format. With 100,000 watts power, CJQM's signal is one of the strongest in the Sault Ste. Marie area, and can be heard northward to Montreal River, Ontario and southward to Mackinaw City, Michigan and at times to Gaylord, Michigan.
The station was launched on May 13, 1965 as CKCY-FM by Algonquin Broadcasting, the owners of the city's CKCY (AM). In 1976, both stations were acquired by Huron Broadcasting, who also launched CKCY-TV in 1978. Huron subsequently sold the radio stations to a new business consortium, CKCY 920 Ltd., in 1985. The station adopted its current callsign that year, as well as its longtime "Q104" branding. CKCY 920 Ltd. was subsequently acquired by Mid-Canada Radio in 1988, and Mid-Canada in turn was acquired by the Pelmorex Radio Network in 1990.Due to the economic circumstances of the Sault Ste. Marie market, with competition from stations in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan severely curtailing the profitability of the Ontario stations, Pelmorex shut down CKCY in 1992. The company then entered into a local management agreement with Telemedia, taking over management of that company's CHAS-FM and making CHAS and CJQM sister stations, an arrangement that continues to this day. Telemedia subsequently acquired the Pelmorex group in 1999.Telemedia was acquired by Standard Broadcasting in 2002, with Standard selling both CJQM and CHAS to their current owner, Rogers Media, the same year. Rogers Media would drop CJQM's longtime "Q104" branding on June 28, 2013, rebranding the station as "Country 104.3," part of an effort by Rogers to apply a unified "Country" branding to its roster of country music-formatted stations.The "Country 104.3" playlist emphasizes current country songs and artists, with a few classic country titles sprinkled in (the station has its own classic country show on Sunday mornings). The schedule also features a live local morning show hosted by Jeff McNiece, as well as syndicated weekly shows including American Country Countdown and Canadian Country Spotlight. CJQM was formerly radio home to the Ontario Hockey League's Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds, a relationship that ended after the 2008-2009 season; the Greyhounds are currently heard on Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan-based WSUE.Forrest J. Stimpson House
The Forrest J. Stimpson House, also known as the Mackinaw City Marine Recording Station, is a private house that was located at 516 N. Huron Boulevard in Mackinaw City, Michigan; it has been moved from its listed location on Trails End Road. It was designated a Michigan State Historic Site in 1978 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.French Farm Lake
French Farm Lake is a lake in Wawatam Township in Emmet County in the U.S. state of Michigan. 802 acres in size, it is located approximately 2.7 miles southwest of Mackinaw City, Michigan. It is the northernmost lake of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. It is served by the North Country Trail from Mackinaw City and by local dirt roads.
A typical shallow lake in the North Woods, the lake is partly surrounded by wetlands. Like much of the Mackinaw State Forest the region around the lake was cut over in the late 1800s for timber; exhausted land parcels were allowed to return to the public sector. The French Farm Lake State Flooding Wildlife Management Area, a unit within the State Forest that is owned and managed by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (M-DNR), is a parcel of land of 2,948 acres in extent. M-DNR maintains an earthen boat ramp close to the northern end of the lake, from which boaters can launch vessels and fish for bass and pike. The surrounding wetlands are breeding grounds for mallards and wood ducks.The lake's name may be derived from a frontier farm cultivated on the lakeshore in the 18th century. The farmstead, which supplied food to Fort Michilimackinac, was excavated by archaeologists in 1981-1982. A monograph was published.Historic Mill Creek Discovery Park
Historic Mill Creek Discovery Park, formerly known as Historic Mill Creek State Park is a state park, nature preserve, and historic site in the United States state of Michigan. It is run by Mackinac State Historic Parks, the operating arm of the Mackinac Island State Park. 625 acres (2.5 km²) in size, the park is located 5 miles (8 km) southeast of Mackinaw City, Michigan on U.S. Highway 23.List of Great Lakes museum and historic ships
This is a list of Great Lakes museum and historic ships, including surviving hulls, museum or historic ships at risk, other surviving historic hulls and notable partial ships.North Central State Trail
The North Central State Trail is a 62-mile (100 km) recreational rail trail serving a section of the northern quarter of the Lower Peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. Following a route generally parallel to Interstate 75, the trail goes northward from the Michigan town of Gaylord to the top of the Lower Peninsula at Mackinaw City and connects to the North Western State Trail. It serves the towns of Vanderbilt, Indian River, and Cheboygan which connects to the Northeastern State Trail.Northern Arrow
Northern Arrow was one of the named passenger trains of the Pennsylvania Railroad starting at Cincinnati, Ohio and ending at Mackinaw City, Michigan. It had merging branches originating from St. Louis, Missouri and Chicago, Illinois, converging in Fort Wayne, Indiana; and a Columbus, Ohio branch from the east converging at Richmond, Indiana. Carrying the number #519 northbound and #520 southbound, it used the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad, a leased subsidiary of the Pennsylvania system. The train was frequented by northbound travelers to popular Northern Michigan destinations north of Grand Rapids, Michigan, such as Petoskey, Mackinaw City and Mackinac Island. One section of the Northern Arrow was a seasonal summer weekly service between Chicago, and Mackinaw City, while another section ran between St. Louis, Fort Wayne, and Mackinaw City.During World War II and immediately after, 1942-1946, this was one of the named trains dropped from service.On May 26, 1950, the Northern Arrow was re-equipped with a lightweight lounge and sleeping cars plus a dining car decorated with Northern Michigan photomurals.Service was ended in 1961.SS Chief Wawatam
SS Chief Wawatam was a coal-fired train ferry and icebreaker that operated in the Straits of Mackinac between 1911–1984. Her home port was St. Ignace, Michigan, and she shuttled back and forth during her entire working life between that port and Mackinaw City, Michigan.The Headlands
The Headlands International Dark Sky Park is a 550-acre (220 ha) county park in the U.S. state of Michigan. The park preserves over two miles (3 km) of undeveloped Lake Michigan shoreline south and west of McGulpin Point Light in the Straits of Mackinac.
It is located in, and is operated by, Emmet County in Northern Michigan. The nearest town is Mackinaw City, Michigan. The park contains woodlands and many species of rare and endangered plant life. Park fauna include the black bear, whitetail deer, coyotes, bald eagles, osprey, and the wild turkey.Marked trails are provided for hiking, photography, bicycling and cross-country skiing. In May 2011, Headlands Park was awarded International Dark Sky Park designation by the International Dark-Sky Association. It was the 6th such park in the United States, and the 9th such park worldwide, to be awarded this designation. Park signage celebrates astronomy and the heritage of the Native Americans of Northern Michigan.U.S. Route 23
U.S. Route 23 or U.S. Highway 23 (US 23) is a north–south U.S. Highway between Jacksonville, Florida, and Mackinaw City, Michigan. It is an original 1926 route which originally reached only as far south as Portsmouth, Ohio, and has since been extended. It was formerly part of the major highway known as the Dixie Highway. The highway's southern terminus is in Jacksonville, Florida at US 1/US 17. The northern terminus is at I-75 in Mackinaw City, Michigan.U.S. Route 23 in Florida
U.S. Highway 23 (US 23) is a United States Numbered Highway that runs from Jacksonville, Florida to Mackinaw City, Michigan. In the U.S. state of Florida, US 23 is concurrent with US 1 south of Alma, Georgia, except in Downtown Jacksonville. US 23 is also concurrent with US 301 between Homeland, Georgia and Callahan. In the Jacksonville area, US 23 is the unsigned State Road 139 (SR 139), which also continues east from the south end of US 23 along SR 10A to SR 115 near the Mathews Bridge.U.S. Route 23 in Tennessee
U.S. Route 23 (US 23) is a part of the U.S. Highway System that travels from Jacksonville, Florida to Mackinaw City, Michigan. In the U.S. state of Tennessee, the U.S. Highway travels 57.5 miles (92.5 km) from the North Carolina state line, at Sam's Gap, north to the Virginia state line, in Kingsport. With a predominant concurrency with Interstate 26 (I-26), US 23 is a divided four-lane freeway that follows Corridor B of the Appalachian Development Highway System and serves as a major thoroughfare in the Tri-Cities. The entire route of US 23 in Tennessee is an interstate-grade freeway.U.S. Route 31 in Tennessee
U.S. Route 31 (US 31) is a part of the United States Numbered Highway System that runs from Spanish Fort, Alabama, to Mackinaw City, Michigan. In the U.S. state of Tennessee, it runs concurrently with Interstate 65 (I-65) for the first mile northward from the Tennessee state line. There US 31 parallels I-65 to downtown Nashville. At Pulaski US 31 meets the southern terminus of US 31A in Tennessee. US 31 continues due north through Lynnville, Columbia, Spring Hill, Franklin and Brentwood to Nashville. The route splits into US 31E and US 31W in Nashville and go into Kentucky.USCGC Mackinaw (WAGB-83)
USCGC Mackinaw (WAGB-83) is a 290-foot (88 m) vessel specifically designed for ice breaking duties on the Great Lakes. LR number: 6119534
Mackinaw was homeported in Cheboygan, Michigan during active service. Due to Mackinaw's age and expensive upkeep, the cutter was decommissioned and replaced with a smaller multipurpose cutter USCGC Mackinaw (WLBB-30), which was commissioned in Cheboygan the same day.
In 2002 the crew of this cutter painted and refurbished the Fourteen Foot Shoal Light.The old Mackinaw moved under its own power on 21 June 2006 from the port of its decommissioning to a permanent berth at the SS Chief Wawatam dock at the ship's namesake port, Mackinaw City, Michigan where she now serves as a museum ship known as Icebreaker Mackinaw Maritime Museum.WHAK (AM)
WHAK (960 AM) is a radio station airing a news-talk format, licensed to Rogers City, Michigan. The station is owned by Edwards Communications, and is part of a simulcast with 1110 WJML in Petoskey, Michigan, WJNL 1210 in Kingsley, Michigan, WWMN 106.3 in Thompsonville, Michigan, and WYPV 94.5 in Mackinaw City, Michigan.WIAB
WIAB (88.5 FM) is a radio station in Mackinaw City, Michigan. The station is owned by Interlochen Center for the Arts, and is an affiliate of the Interlochen Public Radio's "Classical IPR" network, consisting of classical music.WJML
WJML (1110 AM) is a radio station licensed to Petoskey, Michigan, which is owned by John Yob, through licensee Mitten News LLC. The station airs a mixture of liberal and conservative talk, and is simulcast on WJNL 1210 in Kingsley, Michigan, WHAK 960 in Rogers City, Michigan, and FM stations WWMN 106.3 in Thompsonville, Michigan and WYPV 94.5 in Mackinaw City, Michigan, as well as a translator on 101.1 FM in Traverse City, Michigan.
During the 1970s and 1980s, WJML was one of the most successful AM/FM radio combos in northern Michigan. The FM station has long since been sold off, but WJML/WJNL remains one of the most-popular talk stations in northern Michigan.WJNL
WJNL (1210 AM) is a radio station airing a news-talk format, licensed to Kingsley, Michigan and serving the Traverse City area. The station is owned by Mitten News LLC, and is part of a simulcast with 1110 WJML in Petoskey, Michigan, WHAK 960 in Rogers City, Michigan, WWMN 106.3 in Thompsonville, Michigan, and WYPV 94.5 in Mackinaw City, Michigan. The station is also rebroadcast on 101.1 FM, through a translator in Traverse City, Michigan.WYPV
WYPV is an FM radio station at 94.5 MHz based in Mackinaw City, Michigan, which airs a news-talk format. Programming is simulcasted on 1110 WJML in Petoskey, Michigan, 1210 WJNL in Kingsley, Michigan, WHAK 960 in Rogers City, Michigan, WWMN 106.3 in Thompsonville, Michigan, and FM translator W266CS 101.1 licensed to Traverse City, Michigan.
|Climate data for Mackinaw City, Michigan|
|Average high °C (°F)||−3
|Average low °C (°F)||−15
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||46
|Source: Weatherbase |
Municipalities and communities of Cheboygan County, Michigan, United States
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties
Municipalities and communities of Emmet County, Michigan, United States
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties