Macedonian phalanx

The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Achaemenid Empire and other armies. Phalanxes remained dominant on battlefields throughout the Ancient Macedonian Period, although wars had developed into more protracted operations generally involving sieges and naval combat as much as pitched battles, until they were ultimately displaced by the Roman legions.


Philip II spent much of his youth as a hostage at Thebes, where he studied under the renowned general Epaminondas, whose reforms were the basis for the phalanx. Phalangites were professional soldiers, and were among the first troops ever to be drilled, thereby allowing them to execute complex maneuvers well beyond the reach of most other armies. They fought packed in a close rectangular formation, usually eight men deep, with a leader at the head of each column and a secondary leader in the middle, so that the back rows could move off to the sides if more frontage was needed.


Each phalangite carried as his primary weapon a sarissa, a double-pointed pike over 6 m (18 ft) in length. Before a battle the sarissa were carried in two pieces and then slid together when they were being used. At close range such large weapons were of little use, but an intact phalanx could easily keep its enemies at a distance; the weapons of the first five rows of men all projected beyond the front of the formation, so that there were more spearpoints than available targets at any given time. Men in rows behind the initial five angled their spears at a 45 degree angle in an attempt to ward off arrows or other projectiles.[1] The secondary weapon was a shortsword called a kopis, which had a heavy curved section at the end.


The phalanx consisted of a line-up of several battalion blocks called syntagmata, each of its 16 files (lochoi) numbering 16 men, for a total of 256 in each unit. Each syntagma was commanded by a syntagmatarch, who - together with his subordinate officers - would form the first row of each block.[2]

Neither Philip nor Alexander actually used the phalanx as their arm of choice, but instead used it to hold the enemy in place while their heavy cavalry broke through their ranks. The Macedonian cavalry fought in wedge formation and was almost always stationed on the far right; after these broke through the enemy lines they were followed by the hypaspists, elite infantrymen who served as the king's bodyguard, and then the phalanx proper. The left flank was generally covered by allied cavalry supplied by the Thessalians, which fought in rhomboid formation and served mainly in a defensive role. Other forces—skirmishers, range troops, reserves of allied hoplites, archers, and artillery—were also employed.

See also


  1. ^ Polybius. The Histories. Chapters 28–32. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  2. ^ Connolly, Peter: The Greek Armies, pp. 58-59: "The Macedonian Phalanx". MacDonald & Co. Ltd, London, 1982. ISBN 0 356 05580 9.
Ancient Macedonian battle tactics

Ancient Macedonia employed a range of tactics and formations in their military campaigns, the most notable of these is the Macedonian phalanx, Developed by Philip II and used extensively on campaign by his son Alexander the Great.

Antigonid Macedonian army

The Antigonid Macedonian army was the army that evolved from the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia in the period when it was ruled by the Antigonid dynasty from 276 BC to 168 BC. It was seen as one of the principal Hellenistic fighting forces until its ultimate defeat at Roman hands at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC. However, there was a brief resurgence in 150-148 during the revolt of Andriscus, a supposed heir to Perseus.

Starting as just a mere handful of mercenary troops under Antigonus Gonatas in the 270s BC, the Antigonid army eventually became the dominant force in Hellenistic Greece, fighting campaigns against Epirus, the Achaean League, Sparta, Athens, Rhodes and Pergamon, not to mention the numerous Thracian and Celtic tribes that threatened Macedon from the north.

The Antigonid army, as with the army of Philip II and Alexander the Great that came before it, was based principally around the Macedonian phalanx, which was a solid formation of men armed with small shields and long pikes called sarissae. The majority of Macedonian troops serving in the army would have made up the numbers of the phalanx, which took up to one-third to two-thirds of the entire army on campaign. Alongside the phalanx, the Antigonid army had its elite corps, the Peltasts, numerous Macedonian and allied cavalry and always a considerable amount of allied and mercenary infantry and auxiliary troops.

Battle of Cynoscephalae

For the earlier battle fought here, see Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC).

The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V.

Battle of Sellasia

The Battle of Sellasia took place during the summer of 222 BC between Macedon and the Achaean League, led by Antigonus III Doson, and Sparta under the command of King Cleomenes III. The battle was fought at Sellasia on the northern frontier of Laconia and ended in a Macedonian-Achaean victory.

In 229 BC, Cleomenes initiated hostilities against the Achaean League, the dominant power of the Peloponnese. In a series of campaigns, Cleomenes was successful in defeating the Achaeans, making Sparta the main regional power. This prompted the chief figure of the Achaean League, Aratus, to approach the King of Macedon, Antigonus III Doson, for military assistance. The Macedonians acquiesced on the terms that the Achaean surrender the formidable fortress of Acrocorinth to them. The Macedonians invaded the Peloponnese in 224 BC at the head of a Greek alliance and by 222 BC managed to hem Cleomenes in Laconia.

In the summer of 222 BC, the Macedonian and Achaean army advanced to Sellasia on the northern border of Laconia, where they encountered the awaiting army of Cleomenes. After a brief impasse, Antigonus launched an offensive against the Spartan positions on the fortified mountains of Olympus and Evas. While the Macedonian right flank routed the Spartan left wing on Evas, the battle on the other flank was heavily contested. After initially pushing back the Macedonian phalanx, the Spartans were driven from the field by the superior numbers of the Macedonians. Cleomenes was compelled to leave for exile in Alexandria and Antigonus became the first non-Spartan general to occupy Sparta.

Battle of the Aous (274 BC)

The Battle of the Aous was fought in 274 BC between the invading Epirote army of Pyrrhus of Epirus and the army of Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedon near the Aous (or Aoös, Greek Αώος) river.

In 275 BC Pyrrhus retreated from Italy and returned to Epirus. He came with a large army but had little money left to pay them. Pyrrhus planned a campaign into Macedonia and the next year with 8,000 infantry and 500 cavalry to which he added Gallic mercenaries. The expedition originally planned as a limited raid turned into a full-scale invasion when Pyrrhus met with more success than he expected. Pyrrhus captured a number of Macedonian towns and over 2,000 Macedonian soldiers had switched sides and joined the Epirote ranks.While Pyrrhus was fighting in Italy, Antigonus had recovered the throne of Macedon in 277 BC and he benefited from Pyrrhus' absence to secure his hold over Macedon.

Antigonus marched against the invaders and met them in battle in a narrow gorges near the Aous River. Pyrrhus' attack threw the Macedonian army into disorder. He began by destroying Antigonus' rearguard and after a hard fight with the Gauls guarding the Macedonian elephants they surrendered themselves and the elephants. He attacked the Macedonian phalanx. Demoralized by the loss of the elephants, the Macedonians agreed to Pyrrhus' offer to switch sides. Antigonus escaped by concealing his identity. Pyrrhus now took control of upper Macedonia and Thessaly while Antigonus held onto the coastal towns.

But Pyrrhus now wasted his victory. Taking possession of Aegae, the ancient capital of Macedonia, he installed a garrison of Gauls, who greatly offended the Macedonians by digging up the tombs of their kings and leaving the bones scattered about as they searched for gold. He also neglected to finish off his enemy. Leaving him in control of the coastal cities, he contented himself with insults. He called Antigonus a shameless man for still wearing the purple, but he did little to destroy the remnants of his power.


The Chalkaspides (Greek: Χαλκάσπιδες "Bronze Shields") made up one of the two probable corps of the Antigonid-era Macedonian phalanx in the Hellenistic period, with the Leukaspides ("White Shields") forming the other.

Chalkaspides were found in other armies, too. The majority of the Seleucid phalanx was probably formed by the two corps that are mentioned in the Daphne Parade of 166 BC, namely the 10,000 Chrysaspides (Greek: Χρυσάσπιδες "Golden Shields") and the 5,000 Chalkaspides. Little else is known specifically about them, although they may have been present at the battle of Beth Zachariah in 162. Antigonus Doson armed the citizens of Megalopolis as Bronze Shields for the Sellasia campaign in 222 BC. These units are mentioned by classical writers when describing the Antigonid army in battle, although these units most probably ceased to exist after the battle of Pydna in 168 BC, when the Antigonid kingdom was crushed by Rome. These names were not only limited to the Antigonid (or Achaean) phalanx though. Plutarch tells of Mithridates VI of Pontus fielding a corps of Chalkaspides against Sulla at the Battle of Chaeronea.

Cleomenean War

The Cleomenean War (229/228–222 BC) was fought by Sparta and its ally, Elis, against the Achaean League and Macedon. The war ended in a Macedonian and Achaean victory.

In 235 BC, Cleomenes III (r. 235–222 BC) ascended the throne of Sparta and began a program of reform aimed at restoring traditional Spartan discipline while weakening the influence of the ephors, elected officials who, though sworn to uphold the rule of Sparta's kings, had by the time of Cleomenes come to wield extraordinary political power in the Spartan system. When, in 229 BC, the ephors sent Cleomenes to seize a town on the border with Megalopolis, the Achaeans declared war. Cleomenes responded by ravaging Achaea. At Mount Lycaeum he defeated an army under Aratus of Sicyon, the strategos of the Achaean League, that had been sent to attack Elis, and then routed a second army near Megalopolis.

In quick succession, Cleomenes cleared the cities of Arcadia of their Achaean garrisons, before crushing another Achaean force at Dyme. Facing Spartan domination, Aratus was forced to turn to Antigonus III Doson (r. 229–221 BC) of Macedon. In return for Macedonian assistance, the Achaeans were obliged to surrender the citadel overlooking Corinth to Antigonus. Cleomenes eventually invaded Achaea, seizing control of Corinth and Argos, but was forced to retreat to Laconia when Antigonus arrived in the Peloponnese. Cleomenes fought the Achaeans and the Macedonians at Sellasia, where the Spartans were routed. He then fled to the court of his ally, Ptolemy III of Egypt (r. 246–222 BC), where he ultimately committed suicide in the wake of a failed revolt against the new Pharaoh, Ptolemy IV (r. 221–205 BC).

Defeat of Leonnatus by Antiphilus

The Defeat of Leonnatus by Antiphilus occurred during the Lamian War (323-322 BC) fought between the Greek allies who had rebelled against the Macedonian Empire, and Leonnatus, the Macedonian satrap of Phrygia who had come to aid the regent Antipater who was being besieged by the Greeks in Lamia. The Greeks defeated the Macedonians.

The Greeks, hearing news of Leonnatus's advance, lifted the siege of Lamia and detached their baggage train and camp followers to Melitia and advanced with their army hurried to defeat Leonnatus before Antipater's forces could join him. The Greeks and Macedonian armies were equal in number but the Greeks' 3,500 horsemen, including an elite 2,000 Thessalians commanded by Menon, against the Macedonians' 1,500 horse gave the advantage of mobility to the Greeks.

When the battle began, although the Macedonian phalanx gained the advantage everywhere, the Thessalians was drived off the Macedonian cavalry and Leonnatus was carried from the battlefield already mortally wounded. After their cavalry was driven back the unsupported Macedonian Phalanx retreated from the plain to difficult terrain where the enemy cavalry couldn't pursue them.The next day Antipater arrived at the field and joined with the defeated army. He decided not to fight the Greeks yet, in view of their superior cavalry, and instead retreated through the rough terrain.


A discens (Latin: discens, -entis) was a soldier of the military of ancient Rome who was in training to become an immunis, or specialist within the army.

Immunes took up the trades and skills of engineers, field medics, carpenters, and craftsmen. However, they were also fully trained and would be expected to fight in the infantry or cavalry if necessary. The discentes were probably exempted, like the immunes, from standard combat and camp duties since their main occupation would have been time-consuming technical training.

Some known classes include:

Discens Architecti - Trainee engineer or artillerist.

Discens Armaturae - Trainee weapons instructor.

Discens Aquiliferum (or Aquiliferorum) - Trainee eagle standard-bearer.

Discens Bucinatorem - Trainee trumpeter.

Discens Capsariorum - Trainee medical orderly.

Discens Epibatae - Trainee marine.

Discens Equitum - Trainee cavalryman.

Discens Lanchiariorum - Trainee javelin-thrower.

Discens Mensorem - Trainee surveyor.

Discens Phalangarium - A soldier training as a phalangarius during the 3rd century AD several experiments were conducted with Macedonian phalanx tactics, apparently requiring special training in weapons handling and drill.

Discens Signiferorum (or discentes signiferorum) - Trainee standard-bearer.

Fourth Macedonian War

The Fourth Macedonian War (150 BC to 148 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and a Greek uprising led by the Macedonian pretender to the throne Andriscus. Pretending to be the son of former king Perseus, who had been deposed by the Romans after the Third Macedonian War in 168 BC, Andriscus sought to re-establish the old Macedonian Kingdom. In the process he destabilised Macedonia and much of the Greek world. Andriscus, after some early successes, was eventually defeated by the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus at the Second Battle of Pydna in 148 BC, and the uprising subsequently collapsed. Two years later Macedonia became a Roman province.

In response, the Achaean League in 146 BC mobilized for a new war against Rome. This is sometimes referred to as the Achaean War, and was noted for its short duration and its timing right after the fall of Macedonia. Until this time, Rome had only campaigned in Greece in order to fight Macedonian forces, allies or clients. Rome's military supremacy was well established, having defeated Macedonia and its vaunted Phalanx already on three occasions, and defeating superior numbers against the Seleucids in Asia. The Achaean leaders almost certainly knew that this declaration of war against Rome was hopeless, as Rome had triumphed against far stronger and larger opponents, the Roman legion having proved its supremacy over the Macedonian phalanx.Polybius blames the demagogues of the cities of the league for inspiring the population into a suicidal war. Nationalist stirrings and the idea of triumphing against superior odds motivated the league into this rash decision. The Achaean League was swiftly defeated, and, as an object lesson, Rome utterly destroyed the city of Corinth in 146 BC, the same year that Carthage was destroyed. After nearly a century of constant crisis management in Greece, which always led back to internal instability and war when Rome pulled out, Rome decided to divide Macedonia into two new Roman provinces, Achaea and Epirus.


Hoplites (HOP-lytes) (Ancient Greek: Ὁπλιτης) were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields. Hoplite soldiers utilized the phalanx formation in order to be effective in war with fewer soldiers. The formation discouraged the soldiers from acting alone, for this would compromise the formation and minimize its strengths. The hoplites were primarily represented by free citizens—propertied farmers and artisans—who were able to afford the bronze armour suit and weapons (estimated at a third to a half of its able-bodied adult male population). Hoplites were not professional soldiers and often lacked sufficient military training. However, some states did maintain a small elite professional unit, known as the epilektoi ("chosen") since they were picked from the regular citizen infantry. These existed at times in Athens, Argos, Thebes (Greece), and Syracuse, among others. Hoplite soldiers made up the bulk of ancient Greek armies.In the 8th or 7th century BC, Greek armies adopted the phalanx formation. The formation proved successful in defeating the Persians when employed by the Athenians at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC during the First Greco-Persian War. The Persian archers and light troops who fought in the Battle of Marathon failed, because their bows were too weak for their arrows to penetrate the wall of Greek shields that made up the phalanx formation. The phalanx was also employed by the Greeks at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC and at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC during the Second Greco-Persian War.

The word hoplite (Greek: ὁπλίτης hoplitēs; pl. ὁπλῖται hoplitai) derives from hoplon (ὅπλον, plural hopla ὅπλα), the name for the type of shield used by the soldiers. However, the shield was more commonly known as an aspis, so the word hopla may refer to the soldiers' weapons or even their full armament. In the modern Hellenic Army, the word hoplite (Greek: oπλίτης) is used to refer to an infantryman.


A hypaspist (Greek: Ὑπασπιστής "shield bearer" or "shield covered") is a squire, man at arms, or "shield carrier". In Homer, Deiphobos advances "ὑπασπίδια" or under cover of his shield. By the time of Herodotus (426 BC), the word had come to mean a high status soldier as is strongly suggested by Herodotus in one of the earliest known uses:

"Now the horse which Artybius rode was trained to fight with infantrymen by rearing up. Hearing this, Onesilus said to his hypaspist, a Carian of great renown in war and a valiant man..."A similar usage occurs in Euripides's play "Rhesus" and another in his "Phoenissae". Xenophon was deserted by his horse in a particularly sticky situation. A hypaspist would differ from a skeuophoros in most cases because the "shield bearer" is a free warrior and the "baggage carrier" was probably usually a slave. The word may have had Homeric and heroic connotations that led Philip II of Macedon to use it for an elite military unit.

This unit, known as the Hypaspistai, or hypaspists, was probably armed like hoplites rather than as phalangites (pikemen) in Philip's Macedonian army. In battle, they were probably armed with the Greek aspis shield, spolas or linothorax body-armor, Hoplite's helmet, greaves, dory spear and a xiphos or kopis sword (though their equipment was likely more ornate than main-line soldiers). In set piece battles, the Macedonian Hypaspists were positioned on the flanks of the phalangite's phalanx; in turn, their own flanks were protected by light infantry and cavalry. Their job was to guard the flanks of the large and unwieldy pike phalanx, an armored soldier with an 18–22 ft. pike, the sarissa. The Phalangites were not particularly agile or able to turn quickly, so hypaspists would prevent attacks on the vulnerable sides of the formation. Their role was vital to the success of Philip's tactics because the Macedonian Phalanx was all but invulnerable from the front, and was, with five layers of iron spikes moving in unison, used as the anvil in a hammer and anvil tactic, where the Companion cavalry was the hammer that smashed the enemy against an anvil of thousands of iron spikes. As such an important yet vulnerable part of the Macedonian Army, it needed protection for its main vulnerability, the flanks. The protection/remedy for this vulnerability was the Hypaspists, who were able to conduct maneuvers and use tactics, which, owing to their hoplite panoply of weapons and armor, would have been impossible (or at least much less effective) if performed by the Phalangites.

It is worth noting that all the references to a unit called "Hypaspists" are much later than the period of Philip, and modern historians have to assume that later sources, like Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC) and Arrian, had access to earlier records.

Arrian's phrase tous kouphotatous te kai ama euoplotatous ) has frequently been rendered as 'lightest armed', although Brunt concedes it is more properly translated as 'nimblest' or 'most agile'.

There has been a great deal of speculation by military historians ever since the late Hellenistic period about the elite units of Philip's army. The hypaspists may have been raised from the whole kingdom rather than on a cantonal basis; if so, they were the King's Army rather than the army of the kingdom.

In the Hellenistic period, hypaspists apparently continued to exist, albeit in different capacities and under different names. The name lived on in the Seleucid, Ptolemaic and Antigonid kingdoms, yet they were now seen as royal bodyguards and military administrators. Polybius mentions a hypaspist being sent by Philip V of Macedon, after his defeat at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC, to Larissa to burn state papers.The actual fighting unit of hypaspists seems to have lived on in Macedonia as the corps of 'Peltasts', whose status, equipment and role seems to have been almost exactly the same as that of the hypaspist under Philip. Originally consisting of 3,000 men, by the Third Macedonian War there were 5,000, most likely to accommodate their elite formation, the Agema.


The Leukaspides (Greek: Λευκάσπιδες "White Shields"), may have made up one of the two probable corps of the Antigonid Macedonian phalanx in the Hellenistic period, with the Chalkaspides ("Bronze Shields") forming the other. However, this conclusion is contested, as the Thracians at Pydna also had white shields (as did many other Hellenistic thureophoroi or auxiliary infantry from the period) so the reference may simply refer to these and there may not have been a corps of "white shields" within the phalanx at all. If this theory is correct, then it is likely that the term "bronze shields" applied only to the phalanx part of the Antigonid army. Possible supporting evidence for this claim can be drawn from the fact that the latter term in the 1st century BC Mithridatic army of Pontus is used by Plutarch to define its phalanx component against the other infantry.

The Leukaspides were notably used by Antigonus Doson in his campaign against Cleomenes III of Sparta in the 220's BC (Plutarch, Cleom. 23.11), and the shields of the Leukaspides are mentioned as spoils of war after the battle of Pydna in 168 BC (Diodorus Siculus, 31.10).


The pezhetairoi (Greek and Ancient Macedonian: πεζέταιροι, singular: pezhetairos) were the backbone of the Macedonian army and Diadochi kingdoms. They were literally "foot companions" (in Greek, pezos means "pedestrian" and hetairos means "companion" or "friend").

The Macedonian phalanxes were made up almost entirely of pezhetairoi. Pezhetairoi were very effective against both enemy cavalry and infantry, as their long pikes could be used to impale enemies charging on horse-back or to keep enemy infantry with shorter weapons at bay.


The phalanx (Ancient Greek: φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, φάλαγγες, phalanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar pole weapons. The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greek warfare, although the ancient Greek writers used it to also describe any massed infantry formation, regardless of its equipment. Arrian uses the term in his Array against the Alans when he refers to his legions. In Greek texts, the phalanx may be deployed for battle, on the march, or even camped, thus describing the mass of infantry or cavalry that would deploy in line during battle. They marched forward as one entity.

The term itself, as used today, does not refer to a distinctive military unit or division (e.g., the Roman legion or the contemporary Western-type battalion), but to the type of formation of an army's troops. Therefore, this term does not indicate a standard combat strength or composition but includes the total number of infantry, which is deployed in a single formation known as a "phalanx".

Many spear-armed troops historically fought in what might be termed phalanx-like formations. This article focuses on the use of the military phalanx formation in Ancient Greece, the Hellenistic world, and other ancient states heavily influenced by Greek civilization.

Pike (weapon)

A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry. Pikes were used regularly in European warfare from the Late Middle Ages to the early 18th century, and were wielded by foot soldiers deployed in close quarters, until their replacement by the bayonet. The pike found extensive use with Landsknecht armies and Swiss mercenaries, who employed it as their main weapon and used it in pike square formations. A similar weapon, the sarissa, was also used by Alexander the Great's Macedonian phalanx infantry to great effect. Generally, a spear becomes a pike when it is too long to be wielded with one hand in combat.

Roman infantry tactics

Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation, and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

The focus below is primarily on Roman tactics – the "how" of their approach to battle, and how it stacked up against a variety of opponents over time. It does not attempt detailed coverage of things like army structure or equipment. Various battles are summarized to illustrate Roman methods with links to detailed articles on individual encounters.


The sarisa or sarissa (Greek: σάρισα) was a long spear or pike about 4–6 metres (13–20 ft) in length. It was introduced by Philip II of Macedon and was used in his Macedonian phalanxes as a replacement for the earlier dory, which was considerably shorter. These longer spears improved the strength of the phalanx by extending the rows of overlapping weapons projecting towards the enemy, and the word remained in use throughout the Byzantine years to sometimes describe the long spears of their own infantry.

Titus Quinctius Flamininus

Titus Quinctius Flamininus ( FLAM-i-NY-nəs; c. 229–174 BC) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece.A member of the patrician gens Quinctia, and brother to Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, he served as a military tribune in the Second Punic war and in 205 BC he was appointed propraetor in Tarentum. He was a quaestor in 199 BC. He became consul in 198 BC, despite being only about thirty years old, younger than the constitutional age required to serve in that position. As Livy records, two tribunes, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius, publicly opposed his candidacy for consulship, as he was just a quaestor, but the Senate overrode the opposition and he was elected along with Sextus Aelius Paetus.After his election to the consulship he was chosen to replace Publius Sulpicius Galba who was consul with Gaius Aurelius in 200 BC, according to Livy, as general during the Second Macedonian War. He chased Philip V of Macedon out of most of Greece, except for a few fortresses, defeating him at the Battle of the Aous, but as his term as consul was coming to an end he attempted to establish a peace with the Macedonian king. During the negotiations, Flamininus was made proconsul, giving him the authority to continue the war rather than finishing the negotiations. In 197 BC he defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in Thessaly, the Roman legions making the Macedonian phalanx obsolete in the process. Philip was forced to surrender, give up all the Greek cities he had conquered, and pay Rome 1,000 talents, but his kingdom was left intact to serve as a buffer state between Greece and Illyria. This displeased the Achaean League, Rome's allies in Greece, who wanted Macedon to be dismantled completely.In 198 BC he occupied Anticyra in Phocis and made it his naval yard and his main provisioning port. During the period from 197 to 194 BC, from his seat in Elateia, Flamininus directed the political affairs of the Greek states. In 196 BC Flamininus appeared at the Isthmian Games in Corinth and proclaimed the freedom of the Greek states. He was fluent in Greek and was a great admirer of Greek culture, and the Greeks hailed him as their liberator; they minted coins with his portrait, and in some cities he was deified. According to Livy, this was the act of an unselfish Philhellene, although it seems more likely that Flamininus understood freedom as liberty for the aristocracy of Greece, who would then become clients of Rome, as opposed to being subjected to Macedonian hegemony. With his Greek allies, Flamininus plundered Sparta, before returning to Rome in triumph along with thousands of freed slaves, 1,200 of whom were freed from Achaea, having been taken captive and sold in Greece during the Second Punic War.Meanwhile, Eumenes II of Pergamum appealed to Rome for help against the Seleucid king Antiochus III. Flamininus was sent to negotiate with him in 192 BC, and warned him not to interfere with the Greek states. Antiochus did not believe Flamininus had the authority to speak for the Greeks, and promised to leave Greece alone only if the Romans did the same. These negotiations came to nothing and Rome was soon at war with Antiochus. Flamininus was present at the Battle of Thermopylae in 191 BC, in which Antiochus was defeated.In 189 BC he was elected censor along with Marcus Claudius Marcellus, defeating among others Cato the Elder.In 183 BC he was sent to negotiate with Prusias I of Bithynia in an attempt to capture Hannibal, who had been exiled there from Carthage, but Hannibal committed suicide to avoid being taken prisoner. According to Plutarch, many senators reproached Flamininus for having cruelly caused the death of an enemy who had now become harmless. Although nothing is known of him after this, Flamininus seems to have died around 174.

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