M42 Duster

The M42 40 mm Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun, or "Duster," is an American armored light air-defense gun built for the United States Army from 1952 until December 1960, in service until 1988. Production of this vehicle was performed by the tank division of the General Motors Corporation. It used components from the M41 light tank and was constructed of all-welded steel.

A total of 3,700 M42s were built. The vehicle has a crew of six and weighs 22,500 kg (49,500 lb) fully loaded. Maximum speed is 45 mph (72 km/h) with a range of 100 miles (160 km). Armament consists of fully automatic twin 40 mm M2A1 Bofors, with a rate of fire of 2×120 rounds per minute (rpm) and either a .30 caliber Browning M1919A4 or 7.62mm M60 machine gun. The 500 hp, six-cylinder, Continental (or Lycoming Engines), air-cooled, gasoline engine is located in the rear of the vehicle. It was driven by a cross-drive, two-speed Allison transmission.

Although the M42 Duster was initially designed for an anti-aircraft role, it proved to be highly effective against unarmored ground forces in the Vietnam war.

M42 Duster
M42 Duster in 1968
M42 Duster used for road security along Route 9, Vietnam in 1968
TypeSelf-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Place of originUnited States
Service history
WarsVietnam War
Lebanese Civil War
Specifications
Mass24.8 t (loaded)
Length5.82 m (19 ft 1 in)
Width3.23 m (10 ft 7 in)
Height2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)
Crew4–6

Armor9–25 mm
Main
armament
M2A1 40 mm twin anti-aircraft gun with 336 rounds
Secondary
armament
1 × M1919A4 7.62 mm machine gun or 7.62mm M60 machine gun
Engine6-cylinder air-cooled gasoline
500 hp (375 kW)
Power/weight22.2 hp/t
Suspensiontorsion bar
Operational
range
160 km (99 mi)
Speed72 km/h (45 mph)
Talbot County (LST-1153)
USS Talbot County (LST-1153) offloads M42 Dusters of the 517th Artillery at the Río Hato training area in Panama during 1965 war games.

Development

During the course of the Korean War, the U.S. Army decided to phase out all vehicles based on the M24 Chaffee chassis, such as the M19 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage 40 mm Anti-Aircraft, in favor of designs that utilized the chassis of the M41. Since the 40 mm guns were still seen as an effective anti-aircraft weapon, a modified version of the gun mount used in the M19 was mounted in a redesigned turret to accommodate the larger turret ring of the M41 and designated as the M42.

Initially, the 40 mm guns were aimed with the assistance of a radar fire control system housed in a secondary vehicle of similar design but this idea was scrapped as development costs mounted.

Service history

Production of the M42 began in early 1952 at GM's Cleveland Tank Plant. It entered service in late 1953 and replaced a variety of different anti-aircraft systems in armored divisions. In 1956, the M42 received a new engine and other upgrades along with other M41 based vehicles, becoming the M42A1. Production was halted in December 1960 with 3,700 examples made during its production run.

Sometime in the late 50s, the U.S. Army reached the conclusion that anti-aircraft guns were no longer viable in the jet age and began fielding a self-propelled version of the HAWK SAM instead. Accordingly, the M42 was retired from front line service and passed to the National Guard with the last M42s leaving the regular Army by 1963, except for the 4th Battalion, 517th Air Defense Artillery Regiment in the Panama Canal Zone, which operated two batteries of M42s into the 1970s.[1]

Vietnam War

MACV Compound Duster Post-Tet Feb., 1968
M42 Duster, MACV compound at Quảng Trị City, February 1968.

The HAWK missile system performed poorly in low altitude defense. To ensure some low altitude anti-aircraft capability for the ever-increasing amount of forces fielded in Vietnam, the Army began recalling M42A1s back into active service and organizing them into air defense artillery (ADA) battalions. Starting in the fall of 1966, the U.S. Army deployed three battalions of Dusters to the Republic of Vietnam, each battalion consisting of a headquarters battery and four Duster batteries, and each augmented by one attached Quad-50 battery and an artillery searchlight battery.

Despite a few early air kills, the air threat posed by North Vietnam never materialized and ADA crews found themselves increasingly involved in ground support missions. Most often the M42 was on point security, convoy escort, or perimeter defense. The "Duster" (as it was called by U.S. troops in Vietnam) was soon found to excel in ground support. The 40 mm guns proved to be effective against massed infantry attacks. According to an article appeared in Vietnam Magazine:

M-55s and M-42s were old pieces of equipment that needed a lot of maintenance and required hard-to-get spare parts. The gasoline-powered Dusters were particularly susceptible to fires in the engine compartment. Thus, despite its cross country capability, it was not wise to use the Duster in extended search and destroy operations in heavy jungle terrain because of excessive wear on engines, transmissions, and suspensions.

On the plus side, the Duster was essentially a fairly simple piece of machinery on which the crews could perform maintenance. Better yet, the Duster's high ground clearance and excellent suspension-system design gave it an ability to withstand land mine explosions with minimal crew casualties.

Although the Duster's 40mm shell had a terrific blast and fragmentation effect, it also had a highly sensitive point-detonating fuse that limited effectiveness in heavy vegetation. Under those conditions, the better weapon was the Quad, because the heavy .50-caliber projectile could easily punch through cover that would detonate the Duster's 40mm shell too early for it to be effective. At long ranges, however the 40mm shell was far more useful, particularly against field formations. The Duster also was able to deliver indirect fires by using data from field artillery fire-directions centers.

Soldiers of the 1/44th Artillery and their Marine counterparts in I Corps set the pattern of Quad and Duster operations. Because of an early scarcity of armored-combat vehicles, M-42s were first used as armor. Often thankful men quickly learned the value of high volumes of 40mm and .50-caliber fire, both in the field and perimeter defenses. Quads beefed up the defenses of remote fire bases, while Dusters accompanied both supply and tactical convoys along contested highways to break up ambushes. Dusters of Battery C, 1-44th Artillery, led the task force of Operations Pegasus that broke the siege of Khe Sanh in April 1968. Dusters and Quads provided critical final-protective fires throughout Vietnam during the Tet offensive and later took part in Operation Lam Son 719. Whenever fire support was needed, M-42s and M-55s could be found.[2]

Units

Most of the Duster crew members had their AIT training in the 1st Advanced Individual Training Brigade (Air Defense) at Fort Bliss, Texas. Some of the Duster NCOs had received training at the Non Commissioned Offices Candidate School which was also held at Fort Bliss, Texas.

The 1st Battalion, 44th Artillery was the first ADA battalion to arrive in Vietnam on November 1966. A self-propelled M42A1 Duster unit, the 1-44th supported the Marines at places like Con Thien and Khe Sanh Combat Base as well as Army divisions in South Vietnam's rugged I Corps region. The battalion was assigned to First Field Force Vietnam (IFFV) and was located at Đông Hà. In 1968 it was attached to the 108th Artillery Group (Field Artillery). Attached to the 1-44th was G Battery 65th Air Defense Artillery equipped with Quad-50s and G Battery 29th Artillery Searchlights. The 1-44th served alongside the 3rd Marine Division along the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) in I Corps thru December 1971.

Sergeant Mitchell W. Stout was a member of C Battery, 1-44th Artillery. He was awarded the Medal of Honor. Also killed in this action was SP-4 Terry Lee Moser, of Barto, Pennsylvania, also assigned to C Battery, 1-44th Artillery.

The second Duster battalion to arrive in Vietnam was the 5th Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery. Activated in June 1966 it arrived in Vietnam in November 1966 and was diverted to III Corps, Second Field Force (IIFFV) and set up around Bien Hoa Air Base. Attached units were D Battery71st Air Defense Artillery equipped with Quad-50s and I Battery, 29th Artillery Searchlights. The "Second First" served the southern Saigon region through mid 1971. D-71st Quads remained active through March 1972.

The third Duster battalion to arrive was the 4th Battalion, 60th Air Defense Artillery. Activated in June 1966 it arrived in Vietnam in June 1967 and set up operations in the Central Highlands, based out of An Khê (1967–70) and later Tuy Hoa (1970-71). Attached units were E Battery 41st Artillery equipped with Quad-50s and B Battery, 29th Artillery Searchlights (which were already in country since October 1965). Members of these units not only covered the entire Central Highlands, but also supported firebases and operations along the DMZ to the north and Saigon to the south.

Each Duster Battalion had four line batteries (A, B, C, D) and a headquarters battery. Each battery had two platoons (1st, 2nd), which contained four sections each with a pair of M42A1 Dusters. At full deployment there were roughly 200 M42 Dusters under command throughout the entire war. The Duster and Quads largely operated in pairs at firebases, strong points, and in support of engineers building roads and transportation groups protecting convoys. At night they protected the firebases from attack and were often the first targets of enemy sappers, rockets, and mortars. Searchlight jeeps operated singularly but often in support of a Duster or Quad section at a firebase.

Between the three Duster battalions and the attached Quad-50 and Searchlight batteries over 200 fatalities were recorded.[3]

Post Vietnam

The three M42A1 equipped ADA battalions (1-44th, 4-60th and 5-2d) deactivated and left Vietnam in late December 1971. Most if not all of the in-country Dusters were turned over to ARVN forces. Most of the training Dusters at Fort Bliss were returned to various National Guard units. The U.S. Army maintained multiple National Guard M42 battalions as a corps-level ADA asset. 2nd Battalion, 263 ADA, headquartered in Anderson, SC was the last unit to operate the M42 when the system was retired in 1988.

Operators

M42 DUSTER - AL POST 713 DEERFIELD OH 12MAY11 (RF)
M42 on display at American Legion Post 713 Deerfield, Ohio.
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F005978-0003, Manöver Heer, Flak-Panzer M-42
M42 used by German Bundeswehr.
M42 self propelled AA gun "Duster" in the Red Sea of Jordan
The sunken M42 in the Gulf of Aqaba on December 2017

Variants

  • M42A1: received the AOSI-895-5 engine (500 hp).
  • Type 64: Taiwanese light tank variant produced by combining turrets of decommissioned M18 tank destroyers with surplus M42 hulls. Compartments over the track guards for spare Bofors gun barrels were replaced with storage boxes of the stock M41 tank. One battalion worth (50+) of conversions were made.
  • AMX-13/M41E1 Ráfaga: Venezuelan self-propelled AA gun variant produced by combining turrets of decommissioned M42A1 Dusters towers (M41E1) with surplus AMX-13M51 hulls, with improvements in fire control for night operations and on original chassis. One anti-aircraft battery worth of +/−10 conversions was made.
  • GE Beetle

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Cole, Frederick (Bill) (30 April 2011). "4th Missile Bn (Hawk-AW) 517th Artillery Panama Canal Zone". www.517thartillery.org. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  2. ^ Charles E. Kirkpatrick, in "Arsenal", Vietnam magazine
  3. ^ Air Defense Artillery in Vietnam

References

  • Jim Mesko, Don Greer and Perry Manley, M41 Walker Bulldog in action – Armor Number 29, Squadron/Signal Publications, Carrolton, Texas 1991. ISBN 0-89747-262-4

External links

David Doyle (writer)

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Firebase Bastogne

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Flakpanzer

Flakpanzer is a German term for "anti-aircraft tanks" ("flak" is derived from Flugabwehrkanone, literally "aircraft defence cannon"; "panzer" is derived from Panzerkampfwagen, literally "armored fighting vehicle"). These vehicles are modified tanks whose armament was intended to engage aircraft, rather than targets on the ground.

Several vehicles with this name were used by the German Army during World War II. After the war, others were used by both the West German Bundeswehr and the East German National People's Army.

GE Beetle

The Beetle was the nickname of a large mobile manipulator built by Jered Industries in Detroit for General Electric and ordered by the Air Force Special Weapons Center. It was designed to handle nuclear material for nuclear bombers. Work on the Beetle began in 1959 and it was completed in 1961. It was built on a chassis from a M42 Duster. The Beetle was 19 feet long, 12 feet wide, 11 feet high and weighed 77 tons. The top speed was 8 miles per hour.

LVTP-5

The LVTP-5 (Landing Vehicle, Tracked, Personnel) is a family of amphibious armored fighting vehicles used by the Philippine Marine Corps and formerly, the United States Marine Corps. It was designed by the BorgWarner company and built by FMC (Food Machinery Corporation) along with a few other companies. It was first accepted into service in 1956. Some 1,124 basic units were produced, plus the specialist variants, and many saw action in the Vietnam War.

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M41 Walker Bulldog

The M41 Walker Bulldog, officially 76-mm Gun Tank, M41, was an American light tank developed for armed reconnaissance purposes. It was produced by Cadillac between 1951 and 1954 and marketed successfully to the United States Army as a replacement for its aging fleet of World War II vintage M24 Chaffee tanks. Although engineered first and foremost as a reconnaissance vehicle, the M41's weight and armament also made it effective in the close infantry support role and for rapid airborne deployments. Upon entering US service, all M41s received the designation Little Bulldog and subsequently, Walker Bulldog after the late General Walton Walker, who was killed in a Jeep accident in 1950. The M41 was the first postwar American light tank to see worldwide service, and was exported in considerable numbers by the US, particularly to Asia.Development of the M41 proceeded slowly until the outbreak of the Korean War, when the US Army's renewed demands for more tanks resulted in its being rushed into production. The haste with which it was initially produced led to a number of technical problems, which, coupled with the relatively cramped dimensions of its hull interior, gave it a somewhat mediocre reputation among American tank crews. It was also considered too large in comparison to the Chaffee for a reconnaissance asset. Funding for the M41 program was slashed accordingly, and more emphasis placed on the development of new medium tanks such as the M47 Patton. Cadillac ceased production of the M41 in late 1954, and it was not in US service long before being replaced by the M551 Sheridan during the 1960s.

M42

M42 or M-42 may refer to:

In science:

Messier 42, a nebula also called the Orion Nebula

the 42nd Mersenne prime, 225964951-1, discovered in 2005

an Y-chromosomal mutation, see Haplogroup B-M42In transportation:

M42 motorway, a motorway in the United Kingdom

M-42 (Michigan highway), a state highway in Michigan

M42 (New York City bus), a New York City Bus route in Manhattan

BMW M42, a 1989 automobile piston engine

Dodge M42, ¾-ton command truck, 1950s

Grand Central Terminal level M42, a World War II era sub-basement and power stationIn photography:

M42 lens mount, a standard for camerasIn firearms and military equipment:

Ag m/42, a Swedish semi-automatic rifle which saw limited use by the Swedish Army from 1942 until the 1960s

M42 Duster, a United States Army self-propelled anti-aircraft gun

M42 (gas mask), a United States military gas mask

M/42 (bicycle), a Swedish military bicycle

45 mm anti-tank gun M1942 (M-42), a Soviet anti-tank gun (Motovilikha Plants)

Duperite M42 helmet, an Australian WWII helmet

M42 Stahlhelm, a type of German WWII helmet

M42, a Smith & Wesson hammerless revolver

M42 United Defense submachine gun, an American weapon used in World War IIIn manufacturing:

M42 is the Unified numbering system code ("miscellaneous nonferrous metals and alloys") for a grade of high speed steel with cobalt

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The Order of Battle of the Austrian Armed Forces in case of a Warsaw Pact attack in 1989 is given below.

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Landwehr regiments were to defend key areas (Schlüsselzonen) which the enemy would not be allowed to pass through.

Landwehr battalions (Landwehrbataillone) were static battalions tasked with defending their area of operations.

Blocking battalions and companies (Sperrbataillone and Sperrkompanien) were to defend fortified positions.

Light Infantry battalions and companies (Jagdkampfbataillone and Jagdkampfkompanien) were meant to fight behind enemy lines and disrupt logistic supply lines.

River-blocking companies (Flusssperrkompanien) would have had to prevent the enemy from crossing rivers at fords.

Guard companies (Wachkompanien) were to guard key infrastructure.

Guard-blocking companies (Wachsperrkompanien) would have guarded transport infrastructure (i.e. bridges, tunnels) and had to prevent the enemy from using the infrastructure.

Fortification Artillery batteries (Artilleriebatterie ortsfest) would have employed M2 155mm howitzers in bunkers to lay suppressing fire on enemy approach routes.

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The T249 Vigilante was a prototype 37 mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG) designed as a replacement for the Bofors 40 mm gun and M42 Duster in US Army service. The system consisted of a 37 mm T250 six-barrel Gatling gun mounted on a lengthened M113 armored personnel carrier platform.

In the early 1960s, the Army decided that gun-based systems were outdated, and canceled further development in favor of the MIM-46 Mauler missile system that also failed to enter service. The designer, the Sperry Utah Engineering Laboratory, later revived the Vigilante, rechambering it for NATO-standard 35x228mm rounds and mounting it on a M48 tank chassis for the DIVADs contest. However, it ultimately lost to Ford's M247 Sergeant York that also failed to enter service.

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Type 63 anti-aircraft gun

The Type 63 is a Chinese self-propelled anti-aircraft gun based on the Type 58 medium tank (itself a Chinese copy of the Soviet T-34/85).

Type 64 (tank)

The Type 64 (TL64, Chinese: 六四式) is the designation of two distinct Cold War-era light tank projects of the Republic of China Armed Forces, in service from 1975. One being a hybrid of the M42 Duster and M18 Hellcat and the other an indigenous copy of the M41 Walker Bulldog, both Type 64s were intended as a cavalry tank to complement the existing M41 light tanks and to support the heavier and more-powerful M48 Patton medium tanks already in service with the ROCA.

Type 87 self-propelled anti-aircraft gun

The Type 87 Self-propelled Anti-aircraft Gun) (87式自走高射機関砲, hachi-nana-shiki-jisou-kousya-kikan-hou) is a Japanese air defense weapon built around the Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon system as used on the Gepard self-propelled anti-aircraft gun. The system uses a modified Type 74 tank chassis. It is also nicknamed by field officers as "Guntank" after the similar-looking mobile suit in the Mobile Suit Gundam series.

Yad La-Shiryon

Yad La-Shiryon (officially: The Armored Corps Memorial Site and Museum at Latrun; Hebrew: יד לשריון‎) is Israel's official memorial site for fallen soldiers from the armored corps, as well as one of the most diverse tank museums in the world. The cornerstone for Yad La-Shiryon was laid on December 14, 1982 (1982-12-14).

The site was created through the initiative of veteran officers of the armored corps. The outdoor display includes 110 tanks and other armored fighting vehicles, both Israeli and captured enemy examples including the Merkava and T-34, T-54, T-55, T-62 tanks, as well as vehicles obtained or purchased from allied nations specifically for diversifying the collection like the German Leopard tank or the only T-72 on display in Israel. Other notable items include: an M4 Sherman tank mounted high atop a former British water tower; a collection of mobile bridges constructed by the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) which can be carried by tanks and erected while under fire; captured enemy vehicles, most of which Israel has modified and updated; a tank with a blown up gun; and a long, engraved commemorative wall bearing the names of Armored Corps soldiers killed in defense of the country.

ZSU-57-2

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