The motorway is dual three lanes except for junction 1A to junction 3 (which is dual four lanes) a short section past junction 4 (which is dual two lanes) and a short section past junction 9 (two lanes, southbound).
|Part of E05|
|Maintained by Highways England|
|Length||89 mi (143 km)|
|Northwest end||Tanworth in Arden|
|Counties||Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire, Warwickshire|
The motorway between London and Oxford was constructed in stages between 1967 and 1974. The first section opened in June 1967. It was from the Handy Cross roundabout, High Wycombe, to Stokenchurch (junctions 4–5). In 1969, extending in a southerly direction to Holtspur, Beaconsfield, a temporary junction 2 was opened,. The section bypassing Beaconsfield was built in 1971 and the section past Gerrards Cross to junction 1 was completed in 1973. In 1974, the motorway between junctions 5 to 8 was completed to Great Milton.
Between junctions 3 and 4, the beginnings of slip roads were built on both carriageways for a service area at Abbey Barns between Beaconsfield and High Wycombe. Beaconsfield services off junction 2 opened in 2009.
Late in the 1960s, not long after the first stretch opened, the Ministry of Transport announced the possibility of building a motorway to link London with Birmingham as an alternative to the M1-M6 route – as well as improving road links to the South Coast ports for The Midlands – but it was not until 1983 that the decision to extend the M40 from Oxford to the south of Birmingham was made.
The preferred route was altered to avoid Otmoor after a vigorous road protest, which included selling over 3,000 small squares of a field to people all over the world. The field had been renamed 'Alice's field' as a reference to Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll who lived in the area at the time he wrote the book.
Construction began at Warwick in October 1987, with work on the section around Banbury starting in February 1988, and finally the section north of Oxford in July 1989. The section between the M42 and Warwick opened in December 1989, and the remainder in January 1991.
It was originally planned that the section of the M42 between the M5 and the M40 (Junction 3A) would be renumbered as part of the M40, but this change did not take place.
By the time of the full opening, the original M40 had been widened, creating a dual three-lane motorway from start to finish.
The M40 had been expected to be the last major motorway, but in 1986 the Conservative government announced a major new road building scheme, Roads for Prosperity, much of which was cancelled in 1996 after major road protests.
Beginning in 1997, the motorway was widened to dual four lane between J1A and J3 (High Wycombe East) under a Private Finance Initiative. It was completed by a Carillion-John Laing joint venture in October 1998 – the original plan included widening between J3 and J4. Oxford services and Warwick Services opened in 1998.
Work to separate local and long distance traffic at J4 was completed in 2007, including a new dedicated left-turn slip lane between the A404 Marlow Bypass and the Oxford-bound M40; additional lanes on the slip roads entering the roundabout; an additional lane between the A404 Marlow Hill and the London-bound M40; and a five-lane cross link between the M40 and the A404(S).
In 2009 the Highways Agency extended the Active Traffic Management (ATM) system onto the northbound carriageway from J16 to the junction with the M42. Beaconsfield services opened in 2009, near the site of the service station proposed at Abbey Barns almost 40 years earlier.
In August 2010 work started on J9, upgrading the southbound exit slip road to three lanes, and similar widening on the connecting A34 and A41 junctions. This was the first part of the work at this busy junction. If there is funding, a second part will begin, upgrading the northbound entrance and the A41 southbound entrance.
|mile||km||Southbound exits (B carriageway)||Junction||Northbound exits (A carriageway)||Coordinates|
|18.1||29.2||End of motorway
Road continues as A40 to London
||Start of motorway
Road formed from main carriageways of A40 from London
Non motorway traffic
|Watford (M1) Heathrow Airport (M4) (M3, M23, M11) M25||J1a||Watford &(M1) Stansted Airport (M11) Heathrow Airport (M4)
Gatwick Airport (M23) M25
|Beaconsfield, Amersham, Slough A355, Beaconsfield services Extra||J2
|Beaconsfield, Amersham, Slough A355, Beaconsfield services Extra|
|No access||J3||Loudwater and High Wycombe (East) A40|
|High Wycombe, Marlow, Maidenhead A404 (M4)||J4||High Wycombe, Marlow A404 (M4)|
|High Wycombe (West), Stokenchurch A40||J5||Stokenchurch A40|
|Watlington, Princes Risborough B4009||J6||Thame, Watlington, Princes Risborough B4009|
|No access||J7||Thame, Wallingford, A329|
|No access||J8||Oxford, Cheltenham A40|
|Thame, Aylesbury A418
Oxford (A40), Oxford services Welcome Break
|Thame, Aylesbury A418
Oxford (A40), Oxford services Welcome Break
|Bicester, Aylesbury A41
Oxford, Newbury A34, Blenheim Palace
Oxford, Newbury A34, Blenheim Palace
|Northampton A43 (M1)
B430, Cherwell Valley services Moto, Silverstone
|Northampton A43 (M1)
B430, Cherwell Valley servicesMoto, Silverstone
Daventry A361, Paulerspury, Towcester
Chipping Norton A361, Paulerspury, Towcester
|Gaydon B4451||J12||Gaydon B4451|
|89.8||144.5||Warwick Services Welcome Break||Services||Warwick Services Welcome Break|
|No access||J13||Leamington, Warwick, Warwick Castle A452
|Leamington A452||J14||No access|
|Warwick, Warwick Castle A429
Stratford, William Shakespeare Coventry A46 Leicester (M69)
Stratford, Coventry A46 Leicester (M69)
|Henley-in-Arden A3400||J16||No access|
|Start of motorway
Motorway is formed by two sliproads from the M42
|End of motorway
Road continues as M42
The SOUTH WEST, Birmingham (South & West), Redditch & M5
The North, Birmingham (North, East) (M1, M6)
Junction 1 of the M40 is at the Denham Roundabout near Uxbridge just east of the M25. The motorway is carried over the top of the roundabout, which interchanges with the A40, the A412, the A4020 and links to the A413 off the A40 west-bound.
The motorway carries on for another 1⁄2 mile (0.80 km) before it reaches J1a, the free-flow interchange with the M25 London Orbital. It is a partially unrolled cloverleaf, with the smoothest turns from the London-bound M40 (from Oxfordshire, Warwickshire and the wider West Midlands) to the anti-clockwise M25 (London Heathrow, Gatwick, The Channel Ports) and vice versa, since this is the largest exchange of traffic between the two motorways. The M40 passes over the interchange, with the M25 on the bottom. The clockwise M25 enters the junction with four lanes with a lane drop to accommodate traffic heading for the M40 westbound, leaving the junction with three lanes. The anti-clockwise M25 enters the junction with three lanes, and gains a lane from the London-bound M40 to accommodate the extra traffic. The London-bound M40 enters with four lanes, with a lane drop for the M25 exit, leaves with three lanes, and the westbound M40 enters with lanes and gains a lane from the anti-clockwise M25.
After J1a the motorway is four lanes, and carries on for 3 miles (4.8 km) until it reaches J2 for the A355 to Slough and the A40 to Beaconsfield and Gerrards Cross. J2 is the standard roundabout interchange over the M40. Beaconsfield services are off this junction.
J3 is 3 miles (4.8 km) further on, and serves the A40 for High Wycombe East and Loudwater. This is a restricted junction; the only flows are from the westbound M40 to the A40 and from the A40 to the London-bound M40. The westbound carriageway loses a lane, remaining three lanes for the rest of the route, and the London-bound carriageway gains a lane. The motorway then immediately crosses the valley on a large ramp-like bridge.
J4 is the interchange with the A404, for High Wycombe, Marlow, Maidenhead, Reading, Windsor and the M4. The motorway through the junction was not widened from the original two lanes when the rest of the motorway from J8 to London was, and so both carriageways experience a temporary lane drop. The junction used to be a straightforward roundabout interchange with exits for the M40 (west and east), High Wycombe (A404), the A4010, two local roads and the A404 dual carriageway to the south. During 2007, work was completed which included extra stacking space on the sliproads from the M40, provision for traffic from the A404 northbound to join the M40 westbound slip road without joining the roundabout and provision for the London-bound M40 to skip the section of the roundabout which serves the A4010, High Wycombe, and the A404 north.
J5 is for the A40 and Stokenchurch, a basic diamond interchange and the fourth junction of the M40 with the A40. 1 mile (1.6 km) farther on the motorway passes through a large cutting (Stokenchurch Gap), known locally as "The Canyon", enters Oxfordshire and reaches J6 with the B4009 for Lewknor, Watlington, and Chinnor. The junction is a variant on the diamond interchange, with the slip roads from the M40 south having sharp bends — upon leaving the M40 from the westbound carriageway there is an immediate turn of almost 90° to the left and shortly after a sharp 90° turn to the right before a junction with the B4009, and similarly when entering the London-bound M40.
On its completion in 1967, the M40 finished at junction 5. The route was expanded a few years later to reach junction 7 and come within a few miles of Oxford. It was designated as a motorway to link London with one of the country's leading university cities. A similar scenario explained the construction of the M11 motorway linking London with Cambridge a few years later.
Just over 1 mile (1.6 km) after junction 6 the motorway passes to within 100 metres of St Giles Church, Tetsworth and 2 miles (3.2 km) farther on meets the first of three junctions in close succession. Junction 7 is a restricted junction with the A329 serving Thame and the A40. Access is limited allowing exit for only northbound traffic and entry only for southbound traffic. The exiting slip road on the southbound M40 at J7 is for "Works Traffic Only" to a depot. A slip road exists to allow traffic from the A329 to join the M40 north but is closed to traffic by a gate: this traffic must therefore follow the A40 to Junction 8, 2 miles (3.2 km) to the north.
At Junction 8 a spur off the M40 with two-lane carriageways leaves the mainline of the motorway and continues for a few miles before ending (motorway restrictions ending) at a trumpet junction for Wheatley and the A418(A40) (the old junction 8), with the road continuing as a two lane dual carriageway as the A40 towards Oxford and farther on to Cheltenham and Wales. The spur can be accessed via the M40 northbound or by leaving the M40 at Junction 8a southbound and crossing the M40 via the A418, and traffic heading towards the M40 can only join the southbound carriageway. Traffic going in the other direction has to use the trumpet junction, and follow the A418 past Wheatley services. This short spur is the end of the original M40, prior to the building of the current Junction 8 and extension to Birmingham.
After Junction 8, the M40 – the mainline – begins to head north and in less than 1 mile (1.6 km), reaches Junction 8A, for the A418, east to Thame and Aylesbury, as well as the single carriageway A40, south to London. It also serves Wheatley, via the A418(A40) via the dumbbell junction with the M40 spur. The junction allows traffic from the southbound M40 to enter Oxford, via the A40 dual-carriageway, and traffic from the A40 from Oxford to enter the northbound M40, via the linking road. The Oxford Services are also located on J8A, making the motorway accessible from the M40, A40 (Oxford), A418, A40 (London) and the A329. Leaving J8A, the M40 north has a sharp northerly turn, and prior to the extension of the motorway opening, local police patrol cars were used to check the turn could be safely navigated at and above the national speed limit, such was the abrupt change of direction.
The road travels for 12 miles (19 km) before reaching junction 9 for the A34 (E05) and the A41. The A34 dual carriageway serves Oxford and is a trunk route for Newbury, Winchester and Southampton (via the M3) as well as the rest of the South Coast — for this the reason it is part of the unsigned European route E05. The A41 dual carriageway serves Bicester and Aylesbury, and both roads meet the motorway at Wendelbury roundabout junction. This junction design is very inefficient and cannot cope with a very large volume of traffic using the junction. To try to alleviate this problem, there is a temporary lane drop for the London-bound carriageway. The largest exchange of traffic is between the A34 and the M40 north, and traffic on those roads backs up and causes congestion on both roads (going north and south), as well as on the interchange itself. North of the junction, the existing A34 becomes the A3400. This means the A34 is now technically in two halves (it regains status farther up the road at J16, although signs on the motorway do not mention this). Instead, the first signs for the A34 from a motorway are on the M42 at J4, as with the A41. The road also becomes part of the E05 north of J9.
The M40 follows a course of almost due north for 5 miles (8.0 km) before reaching Junction 10, for the Cherwell Valley services, the A43 and the village of Ardley. The A43 terminates at J10, although originally it carried on to Kidlington, the southern part of the old route now used by the re-routed A34. The A43 serves Brackley, Silverstone and its racing circuit, home to the British Grand Prix. Farther on, the A43 leads to Northampton and the M1. Junction 10 was originally a dumbbell junction. The capacity of both the junction and the single carriageway A43 proved too small when the road was used as a freight thoroughfare from the congested M1 to the M40 to London, and the A34 at J9 to the south coast — in fact the 5 miles (8.0 km) stretch between these junctions is the busiest on the motorway in both directions. When the A43 (between the M1 and M40) was upgraded to dual carriageway, the junction was redesigned and rebuilt by the Highways Agency to cope with the extra traffic. A third roundabout was added to the junction, to the north, with the slips for the southbound M40 and the A43, with the slip roads for the northbound M40 remodelled as well, and the roundabout in the middle now serving the services.
The slip road for the London-bound carriageway which used to be accessed from the roundabout is now reached only via the services. The design and execution of the revised design of new junction is greatly derided, mostly because of the three roundabouts giving no priority to the main flow of traffic, (A43-M40 London), and the slip roads off and onto the motorway (except the one accessed via the services) have sharp turns and adverse cambers, which results lorries frequently tipping over and spilling their loads especially on the roundabout at the end of the northern carriageway. The junction fails to perform its function as an effective traffic junction. As well, the slip roads onto the motorway give little manoeuvring space as both join the motorway under (the same) bridge built for the old junction.
The motorway then follows a winding route north for 10 miles (16 km) until Junction 11, the A422 and A361, serving Banbury. The motorway does not follow the straight route to the east of Middleton Cheney, meeting with the A422, as it had once been planned, due to a major landowner refusing his land to be cut in two. If built as planned, J11 would be east of Middleton Cheney, meeting with the A422, and probably would have fuelled major growth in the village as well as Banbury, the primary destination of the junction. As it is, the junction was built 1.5 miles (2.4 km) west along the A422, with the motorway skirting Banbury. The junction itself is a regular roundabout interchange, and has the single carriageway A361 from Daventry the dual-carriageway A422 from Brackley and the A43 from the west, and the dual-carriageway A422 (A361) toward Banbury feeding to/from it.
Another 12 miles (19 km) north-west along the motorway is Junction 12, serving Gaydon and the Heritage Motor Centre via the B4451. The junction is a box-standard diamond interchange. Farther along the motorway is Warwick Services, the last on the motorway, before it reaches the restricted access Junction 13. This serves Leamington Spa and Warwick via the A452, and Gaydon via the B4100. The junction is incomplete as a half-diamond interchange, with access only from the northbound carriageway and access to the southbound M40.
The junction is completed 2 miles (3.2 km) farther on at Junction 14, another restricted access junction, with access to the A452 from the southbound M40, and the access on to the motorway is in a northbound direction. The slip roads join at a roundabout and carry on as the single carriageway A452 to meet with the A452 to Leamington Spa, A425 to Warwick, and the A452 to J13. A few hundred yards further up is junction 15, known as Longbridge island. This is a large, regular roundabout interchange, and is always busy during peak times due to the various destinations it serves, including The Cotswolds, Stratford-upon-Avon, Coventry, and Warwick. Farther north, Henley-in-Arden (J16) is again 'incomplete' to discourage local traffic.
The motorway joins the M42 in both directions, with northbound traffic taking the left lane to exit eastbound, eventually forming the outer lanes of the M42 via a tight-bending two lane connecting road, and the right lanes being taken eastbound. Similarly, southbound, eastbound traffic from the M42 splits off from the outer two lanes, whereas westbound traffic of the M42 has a single lane, widening to a two lane slip road, which merges with the middle lane and forms the outer lane of the southbound M40.
The motorway has four service areas:
More than 100 vehicles were involved in a pile-up on the M40 southbound in Oxfordshire, in which two people were killed
At least two people died in a 100-car pile-up on the London-bound section of the M40 today when fog cut visibility to 10 metres.
The A4010 is an important primary north-south road in Buckinghamshire, Southern England. It runs from High Wycombe at Junction 4 of the M40 motorway to Stoke Mandeville, near Aylesbury on the A413.A40 road in London
The A40 is a major trunk road connecting London to Fishguard, Wales. The A40 in London passes through seven London Boroughs: the City of London, Camden, Westminster, Kensington & Chelsea, Hammersmith & Fulham, Ealing and Hillingdon, to meet the M40 motorway junction 1 at Denham, Buckinghamshire.
The road has been re-routed several times in the last 100 years – part of the route of the London section of the A40 was laid out in the 1920s and 1930s when Western Avenue was built – now most of it is grade-separated, dual carriageway (divided highway). In the 1960s Westway was constructed, easing traffic access to and from the centre of the city. The A40 links the City of London and the West End to the M40 motorway and M25 motorway. The route is called The London to Fishguard Trunk Road (A40) in legal documents and acts.A452 road
The A452 is a road in England, which runs from Leamington Spa, Warwickshire to Brownhills in West Midlands. It is the major link to the M6 motorway for both Leamington and Warwick in addition to serving as Leamington's link to the M40 motorway and to Coventry.
Between Brownhills and Kenilworth it follows the line of the ancient drover's road called the Welsh Road, which probably has pre-Roman origins.Barford, Warwickshire
Barford is a village and civil parish in the Warwick district of Warwickshire, England, about three miles south of Warwick.
As at the 2001 census the parish had a population of 1,171, that increased to 1,336 at the 2011 census. The Joint Parish Council also runs the villages of Sherbourne and Wasperton. In March 2014 "The Sunday Times" listed the village as one of the Top 10 places to live in The Midlands. In the village there are two pubs, a hotel with swimming pool, and a village shop owned and run by the community. The Church of England primary school that is in the village is called "Barford St. Peters". The University of Warwick Boat Club trains on the River Avon at Barford.
Barford is served by Stagecoach bus routes X18 and 18A which link it with Coventry, Leamington Spa, Warwick and Stratford Upon Avon. The M40 motorway is just 1.5 miles from the village, with Warwick and Warwick Parkway railway stations just over 4 miles away.Beaconsfield services
Beaconsfield services is a motorway service station on the M40 motorway in Beaconsfield in Buckinghamshire, England. It is operated by Extra, and opened on 17 March 2009. It is the fourth and most recent of the service areas to be built on the 89-mile motorway which links London, Oxford and Birmingham. At its opening, it was the largest motorway service area in the United Kingdom. The petrol station, with 36 pumps is also the largest filling station in the country. Petrol stations are provided by Shell and a hotel is operated by Ibis Budget.Beckley and Stowood
Beckley and Stowood is a civil parish in the South Oxfordshire district of Oxfordshire, England. According to the United Kingdom Census 2011 it had a population of 608 (an increase of 55 in 10 years) across its area of 9.17km². It is centred 3 miles (4.8 km) north-east of Oxford and just over 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the M40 motorway. The parish settlements are Beckley and Stowood which is covered in the Beckley article, long being closely associated.Cherwell Valley services
Cherwell Valley services is a motorway service station on the M40 motorway at Stoke Lyne, near Bicester, in Oxfordshire, England. In August 2011 it was rated as 3 stars by quality assessors at Visit England; however, it is unknown whether this was a rating of the new or temporary building.Farthingstone
Farthingstone is a village in the district of Daventry in the county of Northamptonshire in England. It is close to the major trunk routes of the M1 junction 16, M40 motorway, and A5 road, at the head of a valley.Fencott and Murcott
Fencott and Murcott is a civil parish about 4 miles (6 km) south of Bicester in the Cherwell district of Oxfordshire, England.
The parish is bounded on the north and west by the River Ray and has an area of just over 3,300 acres (1,300 ha) being 13.49 square kilometres (5.21 sq mi) inclusive of roads and watercourses. It includes the villages of Fencott and Murcott and had a population of about 285 residents in 2011. There are no shops or post offices but there is one public house, the Nut Tree Inn at Murcott. The M40 motorway passes through the northern part of the parish. The parish covers most of Otmoor, including the Otmoor RSPB nature reserve.Handy Cross
Handy Cross is a hamlet in the parish of Little Marlow, Buckinghamshire, England. It is located on Marlow Hill, on the old road between Marlow and High Wycombe. At the 2011 Census the population of the hamlet was included in the civil parish of Great Marlow. Today the hamlet consists of a farm, several households and a Harvester pub & restaurant.
The name Handy Cross is also used to refer to the neighbouring Handy Cross roundabout which is an M40 motorway junction (junction 4) linking the M40 to both Marlow and Wycombe. The junction was upgraded during 2006 and early 2007 to improve traffic flows between the M40 and A404.Handy Cross roundabout
Handy Cross roundabout is a major road interchange at Handy Cross, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire; the junction for High Wycombe, the M40 motorway and the A404 dual-carriageway. It is the terminus of the A4010 which runs to Aylesbury.Longbridge Interchange
Longbridge Interchange (also known as Longbridge Island) is a major road and motorway junction between Warwick and Sherbourne, Warwickshire, connecting the A46 road and A429 road respectively to the M40 motorway at junction 15. For many years, it was deemed inadequate in handling the volume of traffic, which in 2009 was estimated to be in the region of 75,000 vehicles daily; a bypass was built during 2008-2009 which relieved congestion.N40 road (Ireland)
The N40 road (commonly known as the Cork South Ring Road) is a national primary road in Cork City, Ireland, which forms an orbital route around the south side of the city, linking the N22 at Ballincollig to the N25 at the Dunkettle Interchange. The present N40 was created on 23 February 2012 via statutory instrument. The newly designated N40 was formed from parts of both the N22 and N25. It is intended that once the Cork North Ring Road is completed, that the N40 will comprise a complete orbital route of Cork city.Norton Lindsey
Norton Lindsey is a village and civil parish in Warwickshire, England, 3.5 miles south-west of the tourist and county town of Warwick and a mile west of the M40 motorway. At the 2011 census, the parish had a population of 326.The village takes its name from the Lindsey family who were lords of the manor in the 12th century. The parish church of the Holy Trinity dates from the following century. The village has a windmill. Two of the village's other prominent features are the Village Hall and the cricket club, which is shared with nearby Wolverton. The village also has its own Brownie pack.Oxford services
Oxford services is a motorway service station next to junction 8A of the M40 motorway at Waterstock near Wheatley in Oxfordshire. It is named after the nearby city of Oxford. The services are owned by Welcome Break and opened in the summer of 1998. There is also a Ramada hotel on the site. There is also a Welcome Break area at the Peartree Roundabout. It is one of four services along the 89-mile M40 motorway; the others are Beaconsfield, Cherwell Valley and Warwick. It is also known as "Rippy Fountain" services, due to the water displays outside the park which are similar to the now defunct Ripsaw ride at Alton Towers.Postcombe
Postcombe is a village in the civil parish of Lewknor, about 4 miles (6.4 km) south of Thame in Oxfordshire. It is on the A40 road with the Chiltern Hills to the east and the M40 motorway just to the south.
In 1971–73 the M40 Archaeological research group excavating a site at Postcombe
found three Saxon graves, one of which was of a child. A bronze buckle in one of the graves dated the burials to the 7th century.The village has a public house, England's Rose, that was formerly The Feathers. There is also a filling station. The current Lord of the Manor is Nigel Ross Parsons.Silverstone
Silverstone is a village and civil parish in Northamptonshire, England. It is about 4 miles (6.4 km) from Towcester on the former A43 main road, 10 miles (16 km) from the M1 motorway junction 15A and about 12 miles (19 km) from the M40 motorway junction 10, Northampton, Milton Keynes and Banbury. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 2,176. The A43 now bypasses to the south-east of the village.
The Silverstone Circuit, the current home of the British Grand Prix, is located nearby; it straddles the Northamptonshire and Buckinghamshire border.
The village is listed in the Domesday Book.Warwick services
Warwick Services is a motorway service station that is situated in Warwickshire, England, and serves the M40 motorway. It is situated approximately five miles south-east of Warwick.
It is situated on two bases at each side of the motorway, and was opened in early 1998 as the second of four service stations which serve the M40. Throughout 2007 the northbound Days Inn hotel was closed as the ground floor had completely flooded, although it has since reopened.Until recently they had to be signed as 'Welcome Break Coffee Primo' as they only recently gained a KFC outlet. The southbound services were one of the first to gain a KFC facility.Waterperry with Thomley
Waterperry with Thomley is a civil parish in South Oxfordshire. It includes the village of Waterperry (Ordnance Survey grid reference SP626066) and the abandoned former village of Thomley (OS Grid ref. SP629091). Thomley and Wateperry were separate civil parishes in 1957. The current single civil parish was formed at some time thereafter, comprising 13.76km², having a population of 257 recorded in the United Kingdom Census 2011. The area is bisected by the M40 motorway, it is in the valley of the Thame and centred approximately 7 miles (11 km) east of the city of Oxford.