M24 Chaffee

The M24 Chaffee (officially Light Tank, M24) is an American light tank used during the later part of World War II; it was also used in post–World War II conflicts including the Korean War, and by the French in the War in Algeria and the First Indochina War. In British service it was given the service name Chaffee after the United States Army General Adna R. Chaffee Jr., who helped develop the use of tanks in the United States armed forces. M24s were mostly removed from U.S. and NATO armies by the 1960s, but remained in service with some Third World countries.

Light Tank, M24
M24 Chaffee 33314 4CV pic07
A preserved M24 of the Royal Netherlands Army
TypeLight tank
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service1944–1953 (U.S. Army)
Used byUnited States and 28 others; see Operators
WarsWorld War II
Korean War
First Indochina War
Ifni War
Vietnam War
Cambodian Civil War
Laotian Civil War
Algerian War
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Production history
ManufacturerCadillac
Massey-Harris
Produced1944–August 1945
No. built4,731
Specifications
Mass40,500 lb (18.37 metric tons)
Length18 ft 3 in (5.56 m) including gun
16 ft 6 in (5.03 m) excluding gun
Width9 ft 10 in (3 m)
Height9 ft 1 in (2.77 m)
Crew5 (commander, gunner, loader, driver, assistant driver/radio operator)

Armor0.60–1.50 in (15–38 mm)
Main
armament
75 mm Gun M6 in Mount M64
48 rounds
Secondary
armament
.50 cal Browning M2HB machine gun
440 rounds
2 × .30-06 Browning M1919A4 machine guns
3,750 rounds
EngineTwin Cadillac Series 44T24
220 hp (164 kW) at 3,400 rpm (per engine)
Power/weight24 hp (17.9 kW) / tonne
TransmissionHydramatic
8 speeds forward, 4 reverse
SuspensionTorsion bar
Ground clearance1 ft 6 in (0.46 m)
Fuel capacity110 US gallons (420 litres)
Operational
range
100 mi (160 km)
Speed35 mph (56 km/h) on road

Development and production history

British combat experience in the North African campaign identified several shortcomings of the M3 Stuart light tank, especially the performance of its 37 mm cannon. A 75 mm gun was experimentally fitted to a Howitzer Motor Carriage M8 - an M3 tank with a larger turret - and trials indicated that a 75 mm gun on the M5 light tank development of the M3 was possible. The M3/M5 design was dated though, the 75 mm gun reduced storage space, and the armor was insufficient.[1]

The T7 light tank design, which was initially seen as a replacement, grew in weight to more than 25 short tons taking it out of the light tank classification, and so was designated as the Medium Tank M7. The weight increase without increased power gave it unsatisfactory performance; the program was stopped in March 1943 to allow standardization on a single medium tank - the M4 medium.[2][1] This prompted the Ordnance Committee to issue a specification for a new light tank, with the same powertrain as the M5A1 but armed with a 75 mm gun.[3]

In April 1943, the Ordnance Corps, together with Cadillac (who manufactured the M5), started work on the new project, designated Light Tank T24. The powerplant and transmission of the M5 were used together with some aspects of the T7.[1] Efforts were made to keep the weight of the vehicle under 20 tons. The armor was kept light, with the glacis plate only 25 mm thick but sloped to maximize effectiveness. A new lightweight 75 mm gun was developed, a derivative of the gun used in the B-25H Mitchell bomber. The gun had the same ballistics as the 75 mm M3 in use by American tanks but used a thinly walled barrel and different recoil mechanism. The design featured 16 in (41 cm) tracks and torsion bar suspension, similar to the slightly earlier M18 Hellcat tank destroyer, which itself started in production in July 1943. The torsion bar system was to give a smoother ride than the vertical volute suspension used on most US armored vehicles. At the same time, the chassis was expected to be a standard used for other vehicles, such as self-propelled guns, and specialist vehicles; known together as the "Light Combat Team".[1] It had a relatively low silhouette and a three-man turret.

On October 15, 1943, the first pilot vehicle was delivered. The design was judged a success and a contract for 1,000 was immediately raised by the Ordnance Department. This was subsequently increased to 5,000.[1] Production began in 1944 under the designation Light Tank M24. It was produced at two sites; from April at Cadillac and from July at Massey-Harris. By the time production was stopped in August 1945, 4,731 M24s had been produced.[4]

Service history

M24 May 1945
M24 Chaffee moves on the outskirts of Salzburg, May 1945

The M24 Chaffee was intended to replace the aging and obsolete Light Tank M5 (Stuart), which was used in supplementary roles. The first thirty-four M24s reached Europe in November 1944 and were issued to the U.S. 2nd Cavalry Group (Mechanized) in France. These were then issued to Troop F, 2nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron[5] and Troop F, 42nd Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron,[6] which each received seventeen M24s. During the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944, these units and their new tanks were rushed to the southern sector; two of the M24s were detached to serve with the 740th Tank Battalion of the U.S. First Army.[7]

The M24 started to enter widespread use in December 1944, but they were slow in reaching the front-line combat units. By the end of the war, many armored divisions were still mainly equipped with the M3/M5 Stuart. Some armored divisions did not receive their first M24s until the war was over[8]. Aside from the US Army, the British Army was another user of the Chaffee, with at least several hundred obtained through the US Lend-Lease program. These saw action mainly in northwestern Europe and the North German Plain where British forces saw action against German troops.

Reports from the armored divisions that received them prior to the end of hostilities were generally positive. Crews liked the improved off-road performance and reliability, but were most appreciative of the 75 mm main gun, which was a vast improvement over the 37 mm. The M24 was inferior to German tanks, but the bigger gun at least gave its crews a much better chance to fight back when it was required. The M24's light armor made it vulnerable to virtually all German tanks, anti-tank guns, and hand-held anti-tank weapons. The contribution of the M24 to winning the war in Europe was insignificant, as too few arrived too late to replace the worn-out M5s of the armored divisions.[4]

Chaffees at Masan
M24 Chaffee light tanks of the 25th Infantry Division, U.S. Army, wait for an assault of North Korean T-34-85 tanks at Masan.

In the Korean War, M24s were the initial U.S. tanks directed to combat the North Korean T-34-85s. The occupation troops in Japan from which the tanks were drawn were inexperienced and under-equipped due to rapid demobilization after World War II. The M24 fared poorly against these better armed, better armored, and better crewed medium tanks, losing most of their number while inflicting only minor damage on the T-34 units. Managing a fighting withdrawal, they ended up as artillery in the Pusan Perimeter; in August reinforcements from the US and the Commonwealth brought heavier tanks that could easily dispatch the T-34s. M24s were more successful later in the war in their reconnaissance role, supported by heavier, more capable tanks such as the M4 Sherman, M26 Pershing, and M46 Patton.[9]

French M24 Chaffee Vietnam
The French deployed several M24 tanks during the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.

Like other successful World War II designs, the M24 was supplied to many armies around the globe and was used in local conflicts long after it had been replaced in the U.S. Army by the M41 Walker Bulldog. France employed its M24s in Indo-China in infantry support missions, with good results. They employed ten M24s in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. In December 1953, ten disassembled Chaffees were transported by air to provide fire support to the garrison. They fired about 15,000 shells in the long siege that followed before the Viet Minh forces finally overcame the camp in May 1954, almost all being entirely worn out and badly damaged by the time the battle was over.[10] France also deployed the M24 in Algeria. Some Chaffees are known to have been passed down to the Army of South Vietnam, where they saw service at least until the Battle of Huế. The last time the M24 is known to have been in action was in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, where 66 Pakistani Chaffees stationed in East Pakistan (today's Bangladesh) were lost to Indian Army T-55s, PT-76s, and anti-tank teams, being easy prey for the better-equipped invading Indian forces. Although both Iran and Iraq had M24s prior to the Iran–Iraq War, there is no report of their use in that conflict. South Korean Chaffees saw limited service during the Korean War, often performing hit-and-run raids on communist forces[11]. Also, Cambodia, Laos, Japan and Taiwan were four other Asian nations to have operated Chaffees aside from South Vietnam, South Korea and Pakistan.

The Greek Army received 85 M24s from USA from 1950 till 1970. The M24s initially were organized in two Tank Regiments numbered 392, 393. In later years the Tank Regiments were reorganized in Tank Battalions with the same numbers. From 1962 till the early seventies the M24s in Tank Battalions were replaced with M47s and the M24s were used to equip Independent Reconnaissance Companies with an additional 121 M24s received from Italy in 1975. From 1991 till 1995 61 M24s were scrapped due to CFE Treaty limitations.[12] The rest are abandoned in or outside military camps [13] and one M24 is preserved in the Greek Army Tank Museum.[14]

Chaffees appear in two war movies, The Bridge at Remagen and The Battle of the Bulge. In each case the Chaffees are being used to represent the heavier M-4 Sherman. The tanks used in The Battle of the Bulge were borrowed from the Spanish Army.

Variants and related vehicles

M19 GMC
M19 Twin 40 mm Gun Motor Carriage
M37 SPH
Spanish Army M37 105 mm howitzer.
Multiple .50 caliber Gun Motor Carriage T77
T77 Multiple .50 caliber Gun Motor Carriage
  • Light Tank T24
Original prototype. Tested at Aberdeen Proving Grounds in January 1944. Was eventually standardized as Light Tank M24.[4]
  • Light Tank T24E1
Prototype with Continental R-975-C4 engine and Spicer torque converter transmission. One vehicle was converted from the original T24 prototype and tested in October 1944. The vehicle had superior performance compared to the M24, but suffered from transmission reliability problems.[4]
Developed from T65 40 mm GMC (anti-aircraft gun on extended M5 chassis). Lengthened M24 hull with engine moved to center, twin 40 mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns mounted at hull rear (336 rounds). 904 were ordered in August 1944, but only 285 were completed by the end of the war.[15]
Developed in 1945. Carried a 105 mm howitzer M4 (126 rounds). Was intended to replace the 105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage M7. 448 ordered, 316 delivered. Saw service in the Korean War.[16]
Engine moved to the center of hull, 155 mm howitzer M1 mounted at rear. 250 ordered, 85 produced. Saw service in the Korean War, with some exported to France[16]
  • T77 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage
Had six .50 (12.7 mm) caliber machine guns mounted in a new designed turret.[16]
  • T42, T43 Cargo tractors
Based on the T33, the T42 had a torque converter transmission from the M18 Hellcat. The M43 was a lightened version of the T42.[16]
  • T9
Had bulldozer kit installed.[17]

Additionally, the M38 Wolfhound prototype armored car was experimentally fitted with an M24 turret.[16]

Foreign variants

NM-116

In 1972, the Norwegian Army decided to retain 54 of their 123 M24 light tanks as reconnaissance vehicles after they were substantially rebuilt under the designation NM-116. It was calculated that the NM-116 rebuilding program cost only about a third as much as contemporary light tanks.[18]

This program was managed by the firm Thune-Eureka. The American firm NAPCO developed an improved power pack based around the 6V53T diesel engine used in the M113 armored personnel carrier mated to an Allison MT-653 transmission. The original 75 mm Gun M6 L/39 was replaced with a French D-925 90 mm low pressure gun, with a co-axial 0.50-inch (12.7 mm) M2 heavy machine gun. The bow gunner position was eliminated in favor of ammunition stowage. A new fire-control system was installed, complete with a Simrad LV3 laser rangefinder. Norwegian firms also converted eight M24 light tanks into light armored recovery vehicles to support the NM-116. The NM-116 were retired from service in 1993.[18]

Other variants

The Chilean Army up-gunned their M24s in the mid-1980s to the IMI-OTO 60 mm Hyper Velocity Medium Support (HVMS) gun, with roughly comparable performance to a standard 90 mm gun. Chile operated this version until 1999.[18] Uruguay continues to use the M24,[19] modernized with new engines and 76 mm guns which can fire armor-piercing, fin stabilised, discarding sabot (APFSDS) rounds.[20] In the mid-1950s, in an attempt to improve the anti-tank performance of the vehicle, some French M24s had their turrets replaced with those of the AMX-13 light tank. AMX-13 variants with Chaffee turret also existed.[18]

Operators

M24 Chaffee operators map
Operators of the M24

Former operators

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Chamberlain & Ellis 1969, p. 101.
  2. ^ Chamberlain & Ellis 1969, p. 98.
  3. ^ Berndt 1994, p. 52.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Green & Green 2000, pp. 76–77
  5. ^ Nance, William Stuart. (May 2011). Patton's Iron Cavalry - The Impact of the Mechanized Cavalry on the U.S. Third Army (MA). Denton, Texas: University of North Texas. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc68023/.
  6. ^ Patton's Iron Cavalry - The Impact of the Mechanized Cavalry on the U.S. Third Army (MA). University of North Texas. May 2011. p. 147. Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  7. ^ Bergstrom, Chris (2014). The Ardennes, 1944–1945. Casemate/Vaktel Forlag. p. 368. ISBN 161200315X.
  8. ^ Zaloga 2003, p. 10.
  9. ^ Zaloga 2003, pp. 18-21.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Zaloga 2003, p. 22.
  11. ^ Zaloga 2003, p. 35.
  12. ^ Hellenic Army General Staff / Training Directorate (Γενικό Επιτελείο Στρατού / Διεύθυνση Εκπαιδεύσεως), History of Cavalry and Tank Corps (Ιστορία Ιππικού Τεθωρακισμένων), Athens (Αθήνα), 1995
  13. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O_dqakQ1DM8
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-09-05. Retrieved 2017-04-15.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ Chamberlain & Ellis 1969, p. 104.
  16. ^ a b c d e Zaloga 2003, pp. 38-43.
  17. ^ Zaloga 2003, p. 38.
  18. ^ a b c d Zaloga 2003, pp. 36-37.
  19. ^ EJÉRCITO NACIONAL URUGUAYO - ORBAT Archived 2007-01-26 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "Las Fuerzas Blindadas del Ejército Uruguayo", DEFESA@NET, 22 November 2003.
  21. ^ "Trade-Register-1971-2016.rft". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
  22. ^ "Rulers of Iraq and Saudi Arabia bury an old feud with big party in Baghdad." LIFE magazine: May 27, 1957.
  23. ^ "M24 Chaffee", NMM.info, 31 Mar 2018.
  24. ^ "Chaffee", RHPA.nl, 31 Mar 2018.
  25. ^ "India - Pakistan War, 1971; Introduction", ACIG.info, 10 Feb 2008.

Bibliography

  • Berndt, Thomas (1994). American Tanks of World War II. Minneapolis, MN: MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87938-930-3.
  • Chamberlain, Peter; Ellis, Chris (1969), American and British Tanks of World War II, Arco Publishing
  • Green, Michael; Green, Gladys (2000). Weapons of Patton's Armies. Minneapolis, MN: MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-0821-7.
  • Hunnicutt, R. P (1992). A History of the American Light Tank. Novato, California: Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-462-2.
  • Zaloga, Steven J (2003). M24 Chaffee Light Tank 1943–85. Botley, England: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-540-6.
  • Icks, Robert Light Tanks M22 Locust and M24 Chaffee AFV Profile No. 46 Profile Publishing

Further reading

  • Schulimson, Jack, LtCol. Leonard Blasiol, Charles R. Smith, and Capt. David A. Dawson. U.S. Marines in Vietnam: 1968, the Defining Year. Washington, D.C.: History and Museums Division, United States Marine Corps, 1997. ISBN 0-16-049125-8

External links

759th Tank Battalion (United States)

The 759th Tank Battalion was a tank battalion of the United States Army active during the Second World War.

It was activated in June 1941 as a light tank battalion, equipped with M3 Stuart tanks, and sent to Iceland as part of the garrison force in mid-1942. After a year it moved to the United Kingdom, in mid-1943, and was landed in Normandy on D+10, 16 June 1944. It was attached to the 2nd Infantry Division and fought in the St-Lo area. When the 2nd Division moved westwards towards Brest in mid-August, the battalion was attached to the 4th Cavalry Group, with which it would serve for the remainder of the war.

Moving eastwards, it crossed the Seine north of Paris in late August with VII Corps, then over the Meuse, entering Germany on 13 September. In December, it moved north into the Ardennes during the Battle of the Bulge, and was the first unit to receive the M24 Chaffee tank. It then took up defensive positions, before reaching the Rhine in early March. It moved through Germany capturing a number of small towns in April, and ended the war in Aschersleben, eastern Germany, where it began occupation duties.

75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6

The US 75 mm gun tank gun M2 and the later M3 were the standard American tank guns of World War II, used primarily on the two main American medium tanks of the war, the M3 Lee (M2 or M3 gun) and the M4 Sherman (M3 gun).

The lightweight M6 and M5 variants were developed to equip the M24 Chaffee light tank, and the -G and -H subtypes of the B-25 Mitchell bomber respectively. The M3 was also used on the prototype M7 Medium Tank platform.

Berlin Victory Parade of 1945

The Berlin Victory Parade of 1945 was held by the Allies of World War II on 7 September 1945 in Berlin, the capital of the defeated Nazi Germany, shortly after the end of World War II. The four participating countries were the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom and France.

The parade was proposed by the Soviet Union, following the June Moscow Victory Parade of 1945. July in Berlin also saw a British parade (the 1945 British Berlin Victory Parade). The September parade took place near the Reichstag building and the Brandenburg Gate.Senior officers present at the parade were Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov from the USSR, General George S. Patton from the United States, General Brian Robertson, from the United Kingdom, and General Marie-Pierre Kœnig from France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery declined the invitations shortly before the parade, and sent Patton and Robertson as their representatives. About 5,000 troops from the USSR, USA, UK and France took part in the parade (with 2,000 of the troops being Soviet). The parade was opened by marching troops, followed by the armour. Units present included the Soviet 248th Infantry Division, the French 2nd Infantry Division, the British 131st Infantry Brigade, and the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division; the forces present came primarily from the local garrisons. The armoured contingent came from the British 7th Armoured Division, French 1st Armored Division, and U.S. 16th Mechanized Cavalry Group. The Red Army used this occasion for the first public display of the IS-3 heavy tank, with 52 tanks from the 2nd Guards Tank Army participating.Russian sources refer to this parade as a "forgotten parade", as it was mentioned in only a few Western sources. The downplaying of the parade in the West can be seen as one of the early signs of the Cold War. The forces of four Allies also participated in another Berlin parade a year later, on the Charlottenburger Chaussee, in front of the Brandenburg Gate, on the first anniversary of the German surrender on 8 May 1946, in the Berlin Victory Parade of 1946. This parade was connected to the inauguration of the Soviet War Memorial at Tiergarten. Soviet troops would not be present at the much more widely known in the West London Victory Celebrations of 1946.

Cold War tank formations

During the Cold War, NATO and the Warsaw Pact both had large tank formations present in Europe.

The following gives the number of armoured formations and tank strength as of 1981/1982 for Warsaw Pact and NATO member countries. These include formations and vehicles deployed outside Europe, such as in North America or the Asiatic USSR.

M19 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage

The M19 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage (MGMC) was a World War II United States Army self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon on the M24 light tank chassis. It was equipped with two Bofors 40 mm (1.6 in) guns. It was produced by Cadillac and Massey-Ferguson of Canada near the end of 1944.

The M19 was developed from the T65 which was based on the M5 light tank chassis. With the M5 going out of production, the project adopted the M24 Chaffee Light tank chassis and was designated the T65E1. It was accepted into service in May 1944 as the M19 MGMC, equipping several U.S. Army anti-aircraft units during World War II. The M19A1 was an improved variant with an auxiliary engine and spare barrels for the 40 mm Bofors guns.

Although all M19s were produced during World War II, they did not reach operational capability until after the cessation of hostilities. The M19’s first combat was in Korea in 1950 against North Korean forces.

M37

M37 or M-37 may refer to:

M-37 (Michigan highway), a state highway in Michigan

M37 highway, a highway in Turkmenistan

Dodge M37, a military truck

Ithaca M37, an American shotgun

Messier 37, a star cluster

82-BM-37, an infantry mortar

Infiniti M37, a Japanese luxury car

M37 machine gun. Cal. .30 Browning adapted for tank use. M1919 Browning machine gun

M37 105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage, Developed from M24 Chaffee to replace the M7

Ruleville-Drew Airport

Smith & Wesson Model 37, a model sold and used by Japanese police departments.

M37 105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage

The M37 105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage is a 105 mm howitzer self propelled gun developed by the United States. It saw combat in the Korean War and remained part of the U.S. military until being replaced in the late 1950s. Approximately 300 were built.

M41

M41, M-41, or M.41 may refer to:

M-41 (Michigan highway), a former state highway in Michigan

M41 motorway, a former motorway in England

M41 highway, a major highway in Central Asia which crosses the Pamir Mountains

M41 Walker Bulldog, an American light tank

M41 155 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage, developed from M24 Chaffee

BMW M41, a 1994 straight-4 Diesel engine

Macchi M.41 and M.41bis, an Italian flying boat fighter of the 1930s

Messier 41 (M41), an open star cluster in the constellation Canis Major

M41, a postcode in the M postcode area that covers the town of Urmston, United Kingdom

Type 41 75 mm Mountain Gun, a Japanese artillery gun

M41 Light Rifle/TLR-41, a possible designation for the Thompson Light Rifle

M-1941 Field Jacket

HMS Quorn (M41), a British naval minesweeper

the 41st Mersenne primeIn Entertainment:

M41A pulse rifle, a fictional assault rifle from the 1986 film Aliens and related media

The 41st millennium, as expressed in the game Warhammer 40000.

M41 Howitzer Motor Carriage

The 155 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage M41 (also known as the M41 Gorilla) was an American self-propelled artillery vehicle built on a lengthened M24 Chaffee tank chassis that was introduced at the end of the Second World War. Out of a planned run of 250, only 85 were produced before cancellation of the order at the end of 1945. The M41 went on to serve extensively in the Korean War, its success influencing the design of later U.S. self-propelled artillery. The type was retired after the conclusion of that conflict, but went on to serve briefly in the French Army.

M41 Walker Bulldog

The M41 Walker Bulldog, officially 76-mm Gun Tank, M41, was an American light tank developed for armed reconnaissance purposes. It was produced by Cadillac between 1951 and 1954 and marketed successfully to the United States Army as a replacement for its aging fleet of World War II vintage M24 Chaffee tanks. Although engineered first and foremost as a reconnaissance vehicle, the M41's weight and armament also made it effective in the close infantry support role and for rapid airborne deployments. Upon entering US service, all M41s received the designation Little Bulldog and subsequently, Walker Bulldog after the late General Walton Walker, who was killed in a Jeep accident in 1950. The M41 was the first postwar American light tank to see worldwide service, and was exported in considerable numbers by the US, particularly to Asia.Development of the M41 proceeded slowly until the outbreak of the Korean War, when the US Army's renewed demands for more tanks resulted in its being rushed into production. The haste with which it was initially produced led to a number of technical problems, which, coupled with the relatively cramped dimensions of its hull interior, gave it a somewhat mediocre reputation among American tank crews. It was also considered too large in comparison to the Chaffee for a reconnaissance asset. Funding for the M41 program was slashed accordingly, and more emphasis placed on the development of new medium tanks such as the M47 Patton. Cadillac ceased production of the M41 in late 1954, and it was not in US service long before being replaced by the M551 Sheridan during the 1960s.

M8 Tractor

The M8 High-Speed Tractor was an artillery tractor used by the US Army and Marine Corps from 1950.

Operation Maharat II

Operation Maharat II (31 December 1972 – 5 February 1973) was a Royalist offensive against Pathet Lao insurrectionists during the Laotian Civil War. The Royalists planned a two pronged convergence on four Pathet Lao battalions holding the intersection of routes 7 and 13. With neither side particularly avid for combat, the situation was resolved by the Royalist reinforcement of its attack forces until the Communists faced overwhelming odds. The Pathet Lao then decamped. Operation Maharat II ended on 5 February with an artillery fire base supporting an irregular regiment occupying the road intersection. On 22 February 1973, a ceasefire took effect.

Tanks of South Korea

The history and development of the tank in the South Korea spans the period from their adoption after World War II with the foundation of the South Korean Army, into the Cold War and the present. Over this period Korea has moved from being an operator of United States designed and produced tanks to being the designer and manufacturer of first class tanks in its own right

Tanks of the U.S. in the Cold War

This article deals with the history and development of American tanks from the end of World War II, and during the Cold War.

Tanks of the United States

This article on military tanks deals with the history and development of American tanks: their origin during World War I; the interwar period; World War II; the Cold War; and the modern era.

Victorious War Museum

The Victorious War Museum, or the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum, is a history/military museum dedicated to the Korean War located in the North Korean capital-city of Pyongyang.

The museum was first set up in August 1953 and built in the Central District of Pyongyang, initially named as the "Fatherland Liberation War Museum." In April 1963, it was relocated to the Sosong District and re-established in a purpose-built building compound.

In 2014, the museum was renovated and upgraded significantly and the new design included a building spanning across the nearby Botong River, together with a large panorama-style display hall at the top.

The general character and influence of the museum reflects the official North Korean view of their success in fighting against their American arch-enemy and its puppet-state of South Korea, and much of the museum presents the victories of North Korea and its military over its enemies, which are shown to be utterly defeated and broken by the might of the DPRK. Such can be seen from how a display in the museum shows a large cache of captured US infantry-based weapons and combat-helmets stacked up, presenting the idea of the severe casualties sustained by the US military in the Korean War.

Exhibits in the museum include a 360-degree full-scale diorama of the Battle of Taejon during the Korean War, along with displays of North Korean military hardware used in that conflict, such as Soviet T-34/85 tanks, anti-aircraft artillery, naval craft as well as warplanes. Also on display are several captured American (and some British) military equipment, such as ex-US M26 Pershing, M4 Sherman and M24 Chaffee tanks, a former British Army Universal Carrier armoured personnel carrier (APC), along with some artillery guns and downed aircraft of the US-led UN forces fighting against North Korea. In addition to the many statues, figures, murals and artefacts in the museum, one major exhibit is USS Pueblo, a US Navy vessel that was captured by North Korea when it allegedly entered North Korean territorial waters in January 1968. Local and foreign visitors to the museum are allowed to board the ship, now permanently moored on the river beside the museum, and enter and see the ship's secret code-room (which contains classified military intelligence and information onboard) and former ship and crew artefacts now put on display, such as a US flag.

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