Městys

Městys (or, unofficially or obsolete, městečko) is a status conferred on certain municipalities in the Czech Republic, lying in terms of size and importance higher than that of obec (village municipality, commune), but lower than that of město (city, town). Sometimes, "město" is translated as "city" (although some of them are relatively small towns) and "městys" is translated as "town" or "market town".

Historically a městys was a locality which had the right to stage livestock markets (and some other "extraordinary" and annual markets), and it is therefore often translated as "market town". The term went out of official use in Czechoslovakia in 1954, but was reintroduced in the Czech Republic in 2006. As of 2009, there are 192 localities on which the status of městys has been conferred.

Historical development of městys in the Czech Republic

Middle Ages and early modern period

The development of the městečka began in the 14th century, decreed by the reigning monarch primarily on the land of the nobility and church. From the 16th century on, it became possible for settlements with significant springs to get the title městys. The village then became entitled to call itself "městec", resulting in such place names as Městec Králové and Heřmanův Městec.

The typical městečko was very small, and a large number were created during the 14th century. Eduard Maur estimated that the average distance between two městečka was 5–20 km.

Early 20th century

After the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918, the status was conferred by the Ministerial Council on the basis of a detailed application from the village. According to the "Statistický lexikon obcí v Republice československé" (Statistical lexicon of villages in Czechoslovakia), there were 503 městys in Czechoslovakia in 1930.

After the coup d'état of February 1948, the Communist ruling authorities ceased using the term by around 1950.

Late 20th century revival

After the Velvet Revolution of 1989, there was intense lobbying for the revival of the městys status from the representatives of villages which had previously held the title. On 27 January 2006 their efforts succeeded; the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic approved an amendment to the Municipalities Act (Establishment of Municipalities) [1], which amongst other matters restored the title of městys. The amendment was approved by the Senate of the Czech Republic on 29 March, was signed by the president on 11 May and came into force on 1 July 2006.

Municipalities that had the right to carry the title of městys prior to 17 May 1954 are to inform the chairman of the Chamber of Deputies, so that the restoration of the status can be arranged.

On 10 October 2006, the chairman of the Chamber of Deputies announced the first 108 municipalities which can continue to use the title.

Similar designations in other countries

Many other countries in Europe have similar designations, for example:

  • Hungary and Slovakia: the Latin title oppidum; from 14th century to 1871 also Hungarian: mezőváros - lit. "field town"
  • Austria: German: Marktgemeinde. In other German-speaking areas the terms Flecken, Marktflecken and Markt are also used.
  • Denmark: Danish: flække
  • Sweden: Swedish: köping
  • France: French: bourg

Městyse also existed on the territory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and before Communism these municipalities often used the terms:

A very approximate equivalent to this title in the former USSR was the "urban-type settlement" (Russian: посёлок городского типа, Ukrainian: селище міського типу, Belarusian: пасёлак гарадскога тыпу). The criteria for awarding this title differed greatly between members of the federation, and still do in Russia to this day. This category also existed in Poland between 1954 and 1972 (Polish: osiedle typu miejskiego).

See also

External links

More information on the restoration of the městys designation from Union of Towns and Municipalities of the Czech Republic (Svaz měst a obcí ČR):

Doubravice nad Svitavou

Doubravice nad Svitavou is a market town (městys) in Blansko District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 10.7 square kilometres (4.1 sq mi), and has a population of 1,264 (as at 28 August 2006).

Doubravice nad Svitavou lies approximately 9 kilometres (6 mi) north of Blansko, 27 km (17 mi) north of Brno, and 175 km (109 mi) south-east of Prague.

Kolinec

Kolinec is a market town (městys) in Klatovy District in the Plzeň Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 48.7 square kilometres (18.8 sq mi), and has a population of 1,431 (as at 2 October 2006).

Kolinec lies approximately 16 kilometres (10 mi) south-east of Klatovy, 51 km (32 mi) south of Plzeň, and 113 km (70 mi) south-west of Prague.

Libice nad Doubravou

Libice nad Doubravou is a market town (městys) in Havlíčkův Brod District in the Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 21.94 square kilometres (8.47 sq mi), and has a population of 851 (as at 28 August 2006).

Libice nad Doubravou lies approximately 18 kilometres (11 mi) north-east of Havlíčkův Brod, 40 km (25 mi) north of Jihlava, and 100 km (62 mi) east of Prague.

Litenčice

Litenčice (German: Litentschitz) is a market town (městys) in Kroměříž District in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic.

Lomnice (Brno-Country District)

Lomnice is a market town (městys) in Brno-Country District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 14.534 square kilometres (5.612 sq mi), and has a population of 1,342 (as at 25 February 2008).

Lomnice lies approximately 28 kilometres (17 mi) north-west of Brno and 163 km (101 mi) south-east of Prague.

Malšice

Malšice is a market town (městys) in Tábor District in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 38.6 square kilometres (14.9 sq mi), and has a population of 1,747 (as at 28 August 2006).

Malšice lies approximately 8 kilometres (5 mi) south-west of Tábor, 45 km (28 mi) north of České Budějovice, and 81 km (50 mi) south of Prague.

Medlov (Brno-Country District)

Medlov (German: Mödlau) is a market town (městys) in Brno-Country District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 10.19 square kilometres (3.93 sq mi), and has a population of 645 (as at 3 July 2006).

Medlov lies on the Jihlava River, approximately 21 kilometres (13 mi) south of Brno and 193 km (120 mi) south-east of Prague.

Mikulovice (Znojmo District)

Mikulovice (German: Niklowitz) is a market town (městys) in Znojmo District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 13.78 square kilometres (5.32 sq mi), and has a population of 622 (as at 2 October 2006).

Mikulovice lies approximately 14 kilometres (9 mi) north of Znojmo, 47 km (29 mi) south-west of Brno, and 175 km (109 mi) south-east of Prague.

Nezamyslice

Nezamyslice is a market town (městys) in Prostějov District in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 7.5 square kilometres (2.9 sq mi), and has a population of 1,307.

Nosislav

Nosislav is a market town (městys) in Brno-Country District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 17.06 square kilometres (6.59 sq mi), and has a population of 1,242.

Nosislav lies approximately 21 kilometres (13 mi) south of Brno and 201 km (125 mi) south-east of Prague.

Okříšky

Okříšky (Czech pronunciation: [ˈokr̝̊iːʃkɪ]) is a market town (městys) in Třebíč District in the Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 6.58 square kilometres (2.54 sq mi), and has a population of 2,065.

Okříšky lies approximately 9 kilometres (6 mi) west of Třebíč, 21 km (13 mi) south-east of Jihlava, and 135 km (84 mi) south-east of Prague.

Olbramovice (Znojmo District)

Olbramovice (German: Wolframitz) is a market town (městys) in Znojmo District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 17.21 square kilometres (6.64 sq mi), and has a population of 1,044 (as at 3 July 2006).

Olbramovice lies approximately 31 kilometres (19 mi) north-east of Znojmo, 29 km (18 mi) south-west of Brno, and 188 km (117 mi) south-east of Prague.

Ostrovačice

Ostrovačice (German: Schwarzkirchen) is a market town (městys) in Brno-Country District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 86 km2, and has a population of 672 (2012).

Ostrovačice lies approximately 15 km west of Brno.

Pozlovice

Pozlovice is a market town (městys) in Zlín District in the Zlín Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 9.58 square kilometres (3.70 sq mi), and has a population of 1,229 (as at 28 August 2006).

Pozlovice lies approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) south-east of Zlín and 265 km (165 mi) south-east of Prague.

Pozořice

Pozořice is a market town (městys) in Brno-Country District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 15.46 square kilometres (5.97 sq mi), and has a population of 2,141 (as at 3 July 2006).

Pozořice lies approximately 14 kilometres (9 mi) east of Brno and 198 km (123 mi) south-east of Prague.

Prosiměřice

Prosiměřice (German: Prossmeritz) is a market town (městys) in Znojmo District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 6.44 square kilometres (2.49 sq mi), and has a population of 750 (as at 28 August 2006).

Prosiměřice lies approximately 13 kilometres (8 mi) north-east of Znojmo, 46 km (29 mi) south-west of Brno, and 184 km (114 mi) south-east of Prague.

Protivanov

Protivanov is a market town (městys) in Prostějov District in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 18.82 square kilometres (7.27 sq mi), and has a population of 1,062 (as at 28 August 2006).

Protivanov lies approximately 21 kilometres (13 mi) west of Prostějov, 33 km (21 mi) west of Olomouc, and 186 km (116 mi) east of Prague.

Rokytnice nad Rokytnou

Rokytnice nad Rokytnou is a market town (městys) in Třebíč District in the Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic.

The town covers an area of 8.07 square kilometres (3.12 sq mi), and has a population of 856 (as at 3 July 2006).

Rokytnice nad Rokytnou lies approximately 9 kilometres (6 mi) south-west of Třebíč, 28 km (17 mi) south-east of Jihlava, and 140 km (87 mi) south-east of Prague.

Svojanov

Svojanov is a market town (městys) in Svitavy District in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic. Svojanov lies approximately 16 kilometres (10 mi) south of Svitavy, 65 km (40 mi) south-east of Pardubice, and 152 km (94 mi) east of Prague.

The town covers an area of 13.89 square kilometres (5.36 sq mi). From the total population of 389 (as of 1 January 2012), there are 214 women and 175 men. The number of inhabitants in the town has been decreasing over the last decades (for example in 1977 the town had 654 inhabitants).The town was firstly mentioned in 1287. It has a rich history that is closely connected with the Svojanov Castle. The castle was founded around 1262 by Ottokar II of Bohemia to protect the Trstěnice route, a former trade route of significant importance. The castle's original German name was Fürstenberg. In 1421 the town was besieged by Jan Žižka and between 1642 and 1645 the town was occupied by the Swedes. In December 1798 the Russian legions marched through Svojanov to fight against Napoleon.Starý Svojanov (English translation: Old Svojanov) is supposedly the oldest part of the municipality. An interesting sight is the church of St. Nicholas (Czech: kostel sv. Mikuláše) with a 13th-century chancel and fresco decoration which dates back to the period of Charles IV.

Current
Historical

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.