Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.[1]

Lyrbe, Agora
The Agora of Lyrbe


It is only known by its coins and the mention made of it by Dionysius Periegetes,[2] Ptolemy,[3] and Hierocles.[4][5] Dionysius places the town in Pisidia, while William Smith equates Lyrbe with the Lyrope (Λυρόπη), mentioned by Ptolemy and placed by the ancient geographer in Cilicia Trachaea.[6]

It is identified with modern Asarkale,[1] Bucakşeyhler,[7] or Şıhlar.[8]

The Notitiae episcopatuum mention Lyrba as an episcopal see, suffragan of the archbishopric of Side, up to the 12th and 13th centuries. Two of its bishops are known: Caius, who attend the First Council of Constantinople in 381, and Taurianus at the First Council of Ephesus in 431 (Le Quien, Oriens christianus, I, 1009); Zeuxius was not Bishop of Lyrba, as Le Quien states, but of Syedra.[5]

See also


  1. ^ a b Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 918
  2. ^ Dionysius Periegetes 858,
  3. ^ Ptolemy. The Geography. 5.5.5.
  4. ^ Hierocles. Synecdemus. p. 682.
  5. ^ a b Sophrone Pétridès, "Lyrba" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1910)
  6. ^ Ptolemy. The Geography. 5.5.9.
  7. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
  8. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 65, and directory notes accompanying.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Lyrbe". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Alexander M. Zaleski

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Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

Mikiel Gonzi

Sir Michael Count Gonzi, KBE (born Mikiel Gonzi: 13 May 1885 – 22 January 1984), was Roman Catholic Archbishop of Malta from 1944 until 1976. He had been enthroned as Bishop of Malta in December 1943, and was consecrated as the first Archbishop of Malta in 1944. He had also been Bishop of Gozo and an elected Labour Senator in the Malta Legislative Assembly, before siding with the Nationalist Party based on orthodox principles.

Archbishop Count Gonzi is known for his intervention in politics, having also interdicted the Labour Party and demanding people not to vote for them. Despite this, 43.7% of the population, in 1966, voted for the Dominic Mintoff-led Labour Party and this was interpreted as a decline in the Church's influence and declining religious, social and political power. His support for public harassment, mainly politicians, led to an outline of 'Six Points' of church and state separation, where eventually the church was confined to spiritual matters.The Count was a staunch opponent of LGBT rights, on his belief that it was a grave sin, "unnatural" and practiced by the "sick". Similarly, he was against equal rights between men and women, and demanded punishment for adulterers. During his church leadership, several local and foreign (mainly Irish) priests had abused, in different ways, children, which came to public knowledge only in the early 21st century. He was in support of the 're-introduction' of the Italian language, instead of promoting Maltese, but his waited opportunism was never realised. He was a social smoker, who generally smoked cigars.


Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).

Polygonal masonry

Polygonal masonry is a technique of stone wall construction. True polygonal masonry is a technique wherein the visible surfaces of the stones are dressed with straight sides or joints, giving the block the appearance of a polygon.This technique is found throughout the world and sometimes corresponds to the less technical category of Cyclopean masonry.


Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Seleucia (Pamphylia)

Seleucia (Greek: Σελεύκεια – also transliterated as Seleukeia) was an ancient Greek city on the Mediterranean coast of Pamphylia, in Anatolia, approximately 15 km northeast of Side; the site is currently about 1k north of the village of Bucakşeyhler (also Bucakşıhler), approximately 12 km northeast of Manavgat, Antalya Province, Turkey. It is situated on a hilltop with steep escarpments on several sides making a strong defensive position. The track from the village has recently been clearfelled but the main site is still within a mature pine forest. The German researcher Johannes Nollé has suggested, however, that the remains at this location are not those of Seleucia but rather those of Lyrba.A proof that this alternative name "Lyrbe" is accepted by the authorities can be found on a sign photographed in the same year the picture illustrating this subject was taken. A picture of the notice is followed by a gallery of what seems to be more properly called Lyrbe,

There are remains of an agora containing a row of two-storey and three-storey building façades, a gate, a mausoleum, a Roman bath, a necropolis, in addition to several temples and churches.Because of its remote location,the site has not been plundered for building materials and the area is littered with columns and other items like large grindstones for flour making.

Modern scholars place the Pamphylian Selecuia near Şıhlar, north of the mouth of the Peri Su, west of Side.

Sidetic language

The Sidetic language is a member of the extinct Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family known from legends of coins dating to the period of approx. the 5th to 3rd centuries BCE found in Side at the Pamphylian coast, and two Greek–Sidetic bilingual inscriptions from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE respectively. The Greek historian Arrian in his Anabasis Alexandri (mid-2nd century CE) mentions the existence of a peculiar indigenous language in the city of Side.

Sidetic was probably closely related to Lydian, Carian and Lycian.

The Sidetic script is an alphabet of the Anatolian group. It has 25 letters, only a few of which are clearly derived from Greek. It is analysed from coin legends in what is possibly Sidetic. The script is essentially undeciphered.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Vinkenti Peev

Vinkenti Peev (Bulgarian: Винкенти Пеев) was a Bulgarian Catholic priest, Capuchin friar and Vicar Apostolic of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sofia and Plovdiv.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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