The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. The definition varies among countries; usually it is a type of secondary school.
Lyceum is a Latin rendering of the Ancient Greek Λύκειον (Lykeion), the name of a gymnasium in Classical Athens dedicated to Apollo Lyceus. This original lyceum is remembered as the location of the peripatetic school of Aristotle. Some countries derive the name for their modern schools from the Latin but use the Greek name for the ancient school: for example, Dutch has Lykeion (ancient) and Lyceum (modern), both rendered "lyceum" in English (note that in classical Latin the "C" in lyceum was always pronounced as a K, not a soft C, as in modern English).
In Pakistan in a small city called Dera Ghazi Khan there is a school named Lyceum High School. It was established in 1993 by its principal Javaid Iqbal. It only offers classes till eighth, but its studies match the level of its name as it uses all the foreign methods of teaching and stands with a slogan of "Lyceum: a school of creative thoughts."
The Goa Lyceum (Portuguese: Liceu de Goa) in Panaji, Goa – established in 1854, following the Portuguese model – was the first public secondary school in the state, then a Portuguese territory. Later, the Goa Lyceum received the official title of Liceu Nacional Afonso de Albuquerque (Afonso de Albuquerque National Lyceum).
The Philippines follows its version of the K-12 system, where the term junior high school might be used instead of lyceum. However, there are schools that appropriate the word "lyceum" in their brand. Lyceum of the Philippines University (LPU) is a university in Manila established by former wartime president José P. Laurel. Among its notable alumni are current president Rodrigo Duterte, popular author Rene Villanueva, and actor Cesar Montano. LPU has campuses in Makati, Batangas, Laguna, Cavite, and Davao. There are other schools that call themselves "Lyceum" but are unaffiliated with LPU.
The Turkish word for the latest part of pre-university education is lise which is derived from the French word "lycée" and corresponds to "high school" in English. It lasts 4 to 5 years with respect to the type of the high school. At the end of their "lise" education, students take the YGS / LYS test, i.e. university entrance examination, to get the right to enroll in a public university or a private university.
Lyceums also emerged in the former Soviet Union countries after they became independent. One typical example is Uzbekistan, where all high schools were replaced with lyceums ("litsey" is the Russian term, derived from French "lycée"), offering a three-year educational program with a certain major in a certain direction. Unlike Turkey, Uzbek lyceums do not hold University entrance examination, which gives students the right to enter a University, but they hold a kind of "mock examination" which is designed to test their eligibility for a certain University.
The Albanian National Lyceum was a high school in the city of Korçë, Albania, that emphasized the French culture and the European values. The school fully functioned with a French culture emphasis from 1917 to 1939. The school was continued post World War II as the Raqi Qirinxhi High School.
The Belarusian Humanities Lyceum is a private secondary school founded shortly after Belarus' independence from the USSR by intellectuals, such as Vincuk Viacorka and Uladzimir Kolas, with the stated aims of preserving and promoting native Belarusian culture, and raising a new Belarusian elite. It was shut down in 2003 by the Ministry of Education of Belarus allegedly for promoting enmity within Belarusian society and using the classroom as a political soapbox, indoctrinating students with biased views on history, ideology, politics, morality and values. The lyceum eventually switched to homeschooling with a limited number of underground home schoolers.
The term lyceum refers to a type of secondary education consisting of anywhere from 4 years ended by graduation. It is a type between grammar school and a technical high school. For example, the famous scientist Gerty Cori went to a "lyceum" school.
The concept and name lyceum (in Swedish, lyseo in Finnish) entered Finland through Sweden. Traditionally, lycea were schools to prepare students to enter universities, as opposed to the typical, more general education. Some old schools continue to use the name lyceum, though their operations today vary. For example, Helsinki Normal Lyceum educates students in grades 7–12, while Oulu Lyceum enrolls students only in grades 10–12. The more commonly used term for upper secondary school in Finland is lukio in Finnish, gymnasium in Swedish.
Senior or Upper Secondary Education School (high school) - Ages: 14 ~ 18
Ενιαίο Λύκειο - (3 years), Eniaio Lykeio, "Unified Lyceum" (defunct, 1997–2006)
Τεχνικό Λύκειο - (3 years), Techniko Lykeio, "Technical Lyceum" (defunct, 1977-1985)
Γενικό Λύκειο - ΓΕΛ (3 years), Geniko Lykeio, "General Lyceum" (1976-1996, 2006–Present)
Eπαγγελματικό Λύκειο - ΕΠΑΛ (3 years), Epagelmatiko Lykeio, "Vocational Lyceum" EPAL (2006-Present)
EPAL School Leaving Certificate is recognized equally as a Senior Secondary School Leaving Certificate (high school)
Ενιαίο Πολυκλαδικό Λύκειο - ΕΠΛ (3 years), Eniaio Polykladiko Lykeio, "Unified Multisector Lyceum" (defunct, 1985-1997)
Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο - ΤΕΛ (3 years), Techniko Epagelmatiko Lykeio, "Technical Vocational Lyceum" TVE (defunct, 1985-1998)
Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Εκπαιδευτήριο - ΤΕΕ, Techniko Epagelmatiko Ekpaideftirio, "Technical Vocational Educator" (defunct, 1998-2006)
Εσπερινό Λύκειο (4 years), Esperino Lykeio "Evening Lyceum" was founded in 1974 for secondary education at working and adult students
Before World War I, secondary education institutes with a primary goal of preparing for higher studies were often referred to by the word líceum.
In contemporary Hungarian, the most ubiquitous word for these institutions is gimnázium, but líceum lives on as an archaizing word referring to schools of high prestige and revered traditions, most notably Calvinist boarding schools.
In Italy the term liceo refers to a number of upper secondary school, which last 5 years (from 14 to 19 years) and are specialized in teaching math, ancient Greek, and Latin. It gives preparation for university. It’s divided into four different branches, each one specialized in certain subjects:
The lyceum is considered by most the hardest and most prestigious kind of secondary school in Italy.
Some gymnasiums are called licėjus, e. g. Vilnius Lyceum.
Junior lyceums refer to secondary education state owned schools.
Until recently, in the Republic of Moldova the lyceum - called liceu - was an educational institution where students studied from the first to the twelfth grade and would obtain the Baccalaureate degree upon completion. In most cases, the lyceums were specialized in a particular domain (fine art, theatre, language) that was relevant to the personality whose name the institution bore. In other respects, it was little different from any regular school, with the exception of slightly higher education standards and supposedly being more prestigious. After 2010, regular schools were all formally reformed into lyceums, although their quality remained of the same level as before and most did not get any particular specialization, thereby being dubbed 'Theory Lyceums' ('Liceu Teoretic'). One reason for the 2010 reform was to reduce the influence of the Soviet/ Russian educational system and/ or mentality in Moldova.
In the Netherlands, a lyceum is a selective secondary school for children aged 12–18 that offers "voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs" (vwo) and "hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs" (havo), the top and middle levels of secondary education available in that country. Successful completion allows vwo students admission to university and havo students to hogeschool, comparable to vocational university. The term lyceum is also sometimes used for other vocational schools such as the Grafisch Lyceum, or Muzieklyceum Amsterdam, which grew into the Conservatorium van Amsterdam.
The liceum is the Polish secondary-education school. Polish liceums are attended by children aged 16 to 19–21 (see list below). Before graduating, pupils are subject to a final examination, the matura.
Polish liceums are of several types:
From 1836 until 1978, in the Portuguese educational system, the lyceum (Portuguese: liceu), or national lyceum (Portuguese: liceu nacional), was a high school that prepared students to enter universities or more general education. On the other hand, the technical school (Portuguese: escola técnica) was a technical-oriented school.
After several education reforms, all these schools merged into a single system of "3rd cycle basic" and secondary schools (Portuguese: escolas básicas do 3.º ciclo e secundárias), offering grades 7 to 12.
The Romanian word for lyceum is liceu. It represents a post-secondary form of education. In order for a student to graduate the lyceum and obtain a baccalaureate diploma, they must pass the bac. The lyceum consists of four school years (15–19). Although the lyceum is a pre-university educational institution, it can be enough for the graduates to find a job, mainly as office work.
In Imperial Russia, a Lyceum was one of the following higher educational facilities: Demidov Lyceum of Law in Yaroslavl (1803), Alexander Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo (1810), Richelieu Lyceum in Odessa (1817), and Imperial Katkov Lyceum in Moscow (1867).
The Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum was opened on October 19, 1811 in the neoclassical building designed by Vasily Stasov and situated next to the Catherine Palace. The first graduates were all brilliant and included Aleksandr Pushkin and Alexander Gorchakov. The opening date was celebrated each year with carousals and revels, and Pushkin composed new verses for each of those occasions. In January 1844 the Lyceum was moved to Saint Petersburg.
During 33 years of the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum's existence, there were 286 graduates. The most famous of these were Anton Delwig, Wilhelm Küchelbecher, Nicholas de Giers, Dmitry Tolstoy, Yakov Karlovich Grot, Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky, Alexei Lobanov-Rostovsky and Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin.
The Lyceum of the Principality of Serbia was the first higher education school in Serbia in which education was taught in Serbian. It was founded in 1838 on the initiative of Prince Miloš Obrenović II in 1838 in Kragujevac. When Belgrade became the Serbian capital city in 1841, the Serbian Lyceum was moved to it. In 1863 it was transformed into the Higher School.
It is not uncommon in Chile to use the word "Liceo" when referring to a High School. Another term is "Enseñanza Media" (Secondary Education), however, "Liceo" is the most common term due to Chile's extensive European influence.
Abraham Lincoln's Lyceum Address was delivered to the Young Men's Lyceum of Springfield, Illinois on January 27, 1838, titled "The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions". In this speech, Lincoln spoke about the dangers of slavery in the United States, as the institution could corrupt the federal government. Lincoln warned that mobs or people who disrespected U.S. laws and courts could destroy the United States. He went on to say the Constitution and rule of law in the United States are "the political religion of our nation."Houston Public Library
Houston Public Library is the public library system serving Houston, Texas, United States.Jamshid Nakhchivanski Military Lyceum
Jamshid Nakhchivanski Military Lyceum (Azerbaijani: Cəmşid Naxçıvanski adına Hərbi Lisey), also known as Military Lyceum named after Jamshid Nakhchivanski, is a state school, specializing in education and training of students in military science and preparing them for professional military service. The lyceum is located in the suburbs of Baku, Azerbaijan.Liceo Mexicano Japonés
Liceo Mexicano Japonés, A.C. (社団法人日本メキシコ学院, Shadan Hōjin Nihon Mekishiko Gakuin, Spanish for "Mexican-Japanese Lyceum", or 日墨学院 Nichiboku Gakuin "Japan-Mexico Institute"), is a Japanese school based in the Pedregal neighborhood of the Álvaro Obregón borough in southern Mexico City, Mexico.It is a school for Japanese Mexicans and the sons of Japanese temporary workers who are often brought to Mexico by companies like Nissan. There is also a section for Mexicans with no Japanese origin or descent, but Japanese is taught beginning in kindergarten and the system is in both languages until high school.Carlos Kasuga Osaka, who served as the director of Yakult Mexico, founded the school and served as its chair. Within any Nikkei community, it was the first transnational educational institution.María Dolores Mónica Palma Mora, author of De tierras extrañas: un estudio sobre las inmigración en México, 1950-1990, wrote that the school is a "central institution in the life of" the Japanese Mexican group. Chizuko Watanabe Hougen (千鶴子 ホーゲン・渡邊 ), the author of the master's thesis "The Japanese Immigrant Community in Mexico Its History and Present" at the California State University, Los Angeles, stated that Japanese parents chose the school because they wanted to "maintain their ethnic identity and pride, to implant a spiritual heritage that they claim is the basis for success, and to establish close ties with other Nikkei children who live in distant areas."As of 1983 many Nikkei and Japanese persons come to the school to study its management techniques and problems.Lyceum (Classical)
The Lyceum (Ancient Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) or Lycaeum was a temple dedicated to Apollo Lyceus ("Apollo the wolf-god").
It was best known for the Peripatetic school of philosophy founded there by Aristotle in 334 / 335 BCE. Aristotle fled Athens in 323 BCE, but the school continued to function under a series of leaders until the Roman general Sulla destroyed it during his assault on Athens in 86 BCE.The remains of the Lyceum were discovered in modern Athens in 1996 in a park behind the Hellenic Parliament.Lyceum Kennedy International School
Lyceum Kennedy International School is an international school with two locations in the New York metropolitan area. The main campus, Manhattan Campus, is located in two buildings in Midtown Manhattan, and the Ardsley Campus is in Ardsley, New York.
The Manhattan campus serves preschool through grade 12 while the Ardsley campus serves preschool through grade 5.The school was named after President of the United States John F. Kennedy. Founded in 1964, Lyceum Kennedy French American school serves the needs of French and francophone families living in New York.Lyceum Pirates
The LPU Pirates are the athletic teams that represent the Lyceum of the Philippines University and plays in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines), the oldest athletic association in the Philippines. Lyceum has fifteen collegiate men's varsity teams that participate in fifteen sporting events of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines), its mother league. They are popularly known as the "Pirata ng Intramuros". The women's varsity team is called the Lady Pirates, which plays in the Premier Volleyball League (PVL) while the high school varsity basketball team is from the Cavite Campus' International High School which is called the Junior Pirates. The university takes part in various sports leagues and tournaments such as the Filoil Flying V Preseason Cup, Fr. Martin's Cup, Philippine Collegiate Champions League, Milcu Sports Basketball Presents Got Skills Premier League, PBA Developmental League and Premier Volleyball League (PVL). Lyceum of the Philippines University is the youngest member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Philippines).
The university colors are Wine Red and Silver Grey. Red is for courage, representing Jose P. Laurel's aspirations of strong will, true honor, and love of country. "We should realize that national and individual progress can only be attained through work, more work, and more hard hard work." -Jose P. Laurel Red also symbolizes bravery, dominance, aggression, and power. Grey is strong and steady, making a feeling of cool and self-restraint. The Pirates is the first to use distinctive dark red and grey colors in the collegiate sports scene in the Philippines.Lyceum Theatre, London
The Lyceum Theatre (pronounced ly-CEE-um) is a 2,100-seat West End theatre located in the City of Westminster, on Wellington Street, just off the Strand. The origins of the theatre date to 1765. Managed by Samuel Arnold, from 1794 to 1809 the building hosted a variety of entertainments including a circus produced by Philip Astley, a chapel, and the first London exhibition of waxworks displayed by Madame Tussaud. From 1816 to 1830, it served as The English Opera House. After a fire, the house was rebuilt and reopened on 14 July 1834 to a design by Samuel Beazley. The building was unique in that it has a balcony overhanging the dress circle. It was built by the partnership of Peto & Grissell. The theatre then played opera, adaptations of Charles Dickens novels and James Planché's "fairy extravaganzas", among other works.
From 1871 to 1902, Henry Irving appeared at the theatre in, especially, Shakespeare, usually starring opposite Ellen Terry. In 1904 the theatre was almost completely rebuilt and richly ornamented in Rococo style by Bertie Crewe, but it retained Beazley's façade and grand portico. It played mostly melodrama over the ensuing decades. The building closed in 1939 and was set to be demolished, but it was saved and converted into a Mecca Ballroom in 1951, styled the Lyceum Ballroom, where many well-known bands played. The Lyceum was closed in 1986 but restored to theatrical use in 1996 by Holohan Architects. Since 1999, the theatre has hosted The Lion King.Lyceum Theatre (Broadway)
The Lyceum Theatre ( ly-SEE-əm) is a Broadway theatre located at 149 West 45th Street near Times Square between Seventh and Sixth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.Lyceum Theatre (Park Avenue South)
The Lyceum Theatre was a theatre in New York City located on Fourth Avenue, now Park Avenue South, between 23rd and 24th Streets in Manhattan. It was built in 1885 and operated until 1902, when it was torn down to make way for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower. It was replaced by a new Lyceum Theatre on 45th Street. For most of its existence, the theatre was home to Daniel Frohman’s Lyceum Theatre Stock Company, which presented many important plays and actors of the day.Lyceum Theatre (Sheffield)
The Lyceum is a 1068-seat theatre in the City of Sheffield, England.Lyceum of the Philippines University
The Lyceum of the Philippines University (Filipino: Pamantasang Liseo ng Pilipinas, abbreviated LPU) is an institute of higher education located in Intramuros in the City of Manila, Philippines. It was founded in 1952 by Dr. José P. Laurel, who became the third president of the Philippines. He named the institution after lykeion, the grove in ancient Athens where Aristotle taught his pupils. LPU is the only university founded by a president of the republic. Its educational vision is founded on principles that its founder, José P. Laurel, set down. It opened its gates to its first students on July 7, 1952.
Two of the building's most prominent features are its entrance through the "Hall of Heroes", commonly known as "Mabini Hall", which exhibits busts of revered Philippine historical figures sculpted by the National Artist Guillermo Tolentino; and the famous "Lyceum Tower" which serves as Lyceum's trademark and stands witness to the university's history and continuing progress.
Many disciplines are taught in the university, with International relations (diplomacy, international trade), business, communication and International Hospitality (hotel and restaurant management, tourism) consistently being the university's flagship courses.
The LPU has affiliate/branch campuses in Makati, Batangas, Laguna and Cavite.Museum of Vuk and Dositej
The Museum of Vuk and Dositej (Serbian: Музеј Вука и Доситеја / Muzej Vuka i Dositeja) is one of the most important memorial museums in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. Founded in 1949, it depicts the life, work and legacy of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (1787–1864), the reformer of the Serbian language, and Dositej Obradović (1742–1811), a writer who was the country's first Minister of Education. The museum is a crucial site for understanding the revival of Serbian culture at the time of the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire. Since 1979, this institution has been governed by the National Museum of Serbia.New York Academy of Sciences
The New York Academy of Sciences (originally the Lyceum of Natural History) was founded in January 1817. It is one of the oldest scientific societies in the United States. An independent, non-profit organization with more than 20,000 members in 100 countries, the Academy's mission is "to advance scientific research and knowledge; to support scientific literacy; and to promote the resolution of society's global challenges through science-based solutions". The current President and CEO is Ellis Rubinstein; the current chair of the board of governors of the Academy is NYU professor and longtime Senior Vice President of all research for IBM, Paul Horn. He succeeds Nancy Zimpher, Chancellor, The State University of New York (SUNY).Oregon Lyceum
The Oregon Lyceum or Pioneer Lyceum and Literary Club was founded in Oregon City, Oregon Country around 1840. The forum was a prominent fixture for the leading pioneer settlers during its brief existence. It would begin publishing the first American newspaper west of the Rocky Mountains in 1846 and had several names during its existence.Pittsburgh Lyceum
The Pittsburgh Lyceum Club, or Pittsburgh Lyceum, were a professional ice hockey team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The team was a member of the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League from 1907 to 1908, and played all of their games at the Duquesne Gardens.Pittsburgh Lyceum (American football)
The Pittsburgh Lyceum were a professional football team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1906 until 1910. The team played against many of the top "Ohio League", the most notables being the Canton Bulldogs and the Massillon Tigers. They were regarded as one of the top professional football teams in Pittsburgh from 1907 until the mid-1920s. The Lyceum was also the last pro football championship team Pittsburgh would produce until the 1970s. Many of their victories came against many of the strongest teams in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio. Hence, they were given the mythical moniker the "Tri-State Champions" in 1909. The team was finally defeated in 1909, via an upset by the Dayton Oakwoods in their final game of 1909. The Lyceums broke up after a disappointing 1910 season. An unrelated incarnation of the team existed in 1924. Art Rooney, who would go on establish the Pittsburgh Steelers and become enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, played for the Lyceum.Royal Lyceum Theatre
The Royal Lyceum Theatre is a 658-seat theatre in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, named after the Theatre Royal Lyceum and English Opera House, the residence at the time of legendary Shakespearean actor Henry Irving. It was built in 1883 by architect C. J. Phipps at a cost of £17,000 on behalf of James B. Howard and Fred. W. P. Wyndham, two theatrical managers and performers whose partnership became the renowned Howard & Wyndham Ltd created in 1895 by Michael Simons of Glasgow. With only four minor refurbishments, in 1929, 1977, 1991, and 1996, the Royal Lyceum remains one of the most original and unaltered of the architect's works.Opening night was 10th September 1883 with a performance of Much Ado About Nothing by the company of the London Lyceum Theatre and starring Henry Irving and Ellen Terry.In 1965, the building was purchased by the Edinburgh Corporation to house the newly formed Royal Lyceum Theatre Company, who are now the permanent residents, leasing it from the local council.The Royal Lyceum has been one of the principal venues for the Edinburgh International Festival since the festival's inception in 1947, its owners renting out the building for three weeks every August for visiting companies, and often for a further week to Fringe companies.The Royal Lyceum has primarily been known for its provision of drama. However it has also presented some significant opera, from the first tours of Carl Rosa in the latter part of the 19th century through to the early decades of Scottish Opera in the 1960s and 1970s. Some important operas received their first Scottish performance at the Lyceum, including Madam Butterfly, Manon and Die Meistersinger.The theatre was the first in Britain to be fitted with an iron safety curtain, and the first in Scotland to use electricity for house lighting.David Greig took over from Mark Thomson as Artistic Director in 2016.The Lyceum, Liverpool
The Lyceum is a Neoclassical Grade II* listed building located on Bold Street, Liverpool, England. It was constructed in 1802 as a news-room and England's first subscription library (1758-1942) and later became a gentleman's club.
After the club relocated in 1952 the building was left unoccupied for many years, eventually falling into a state of disrepair. Calls were made for its demolition in the late 1970s, however a campaign against demolition was successful and it later reopened as a post office. Currently the building lies vacant with the previous tenant, The Co-operative Bank vacating in April 2017.
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