Lwów Ghetto

The Lwów Ghetto[1] (German: Ghetto Lemberg; Polish: getto we Lwowie) was a World War II Jewish ghetto established and operated by Nazi Germany in the city of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine) in the territory of Nazi-administered General Government in German-occupied Poland.

The Lwów Ghetto was one of the largest Jewish ghettos established by Nazi Germany after the joint Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland. The city was a home to over 110,000[1] Jews before the outbreak of World War II in 1939, and by the time the Nazis occupied the city in 1941 that number had increased to over 220,000 Jews,[2] since Jews fled for their lives from Nazi-occupied western Poland into the then relative safety of Soviet-occupied eastern Poland, which included Lwów. The ghetto, set up in the second half of 1941 after the Germans arrived, was liquidated in June 1943 with all its inhabitants who survived prior killings, sent to their deaths in cattle trucks at Bełżec extermination camp and the Janowska concentration camp.[3]

Lwów Ghetto
Lwow Ghetto (spring 1942)
The Lwów Ghetto, Spring 1942.
Jewish women behind the barbwire fence
WW2-Holocaust-Poland
Major ghettos in occupied Poland marked
with red-gold stars; Nazi-Soviet demarcation line in red
Also known asGerman: Ghetto Lemberg
LocationLwów, Zamarstynów
(German-occupied Poland)
DateNovember 8, 1941 to June 1943
Incident typeImprisonment, mass shootings, forced labor, starvation, exile, forced abortions and sterilization
OrganizationsNazi SS
CampBełżec, Janowska
Victims120,000 Polish Jews
Survivors823

Before the war

On the eve of World War II, the city of Lwów had the third-largest Jewish population in Poland, after Warsaw and Łódź, 99,600 in 1931 (32%) by confession criteria (percent of people of Jewish faith) and numbering 75,300 (24%) by language criteria (percent of people speaking Yiddish or Hebrew as their mother tongue), according to Polish official census.[4] Assimilated Jews, those who perceived themselves as Poles of Jewish faith, constitute the discrepancy between those numbers. By 1939, those numbers were, respectively, several thousand greater. Jews were notably involved in the city's renowned textile industry and had established a thriving center of education and culture, with a wide range of religious and secular political activity including parties and youth movements of the orthodox and Hasidim, Zionists, the Labour Bund, and communists. Assimilated Jews constituted a significant part of Lwów's Polish intelligentsia and academical elites, including such notable ones as Marian Auerbach, Maurycy Allerhand and many others, and greatly contributed to Lwów's cultural center status.

Soviet occupation zone at the onset of World War II

Soon after the outbreak of World War II about 200,000–300,000 Polish Jews fled eastward to Lwów from the Nazi-occupied western part of Poland. The mass influx of refugees in Lwów preceded the formal annexation of the Polish Kresy region by the Soviet Union in accordance with the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany.[5] Within weeks of the Soviet takeover, all city supplies of grain, corn, wheat flour, beef and other meats, sugar, butter, salt, tobacco, even matches, vanished. By December 1939 up to one thousand people were lining up at various locations to buy bread. In January 1940 no bread was available anywhere in Lwów for a whole week. The price of potatoes rose by 800 per cent.[6]

Many Jews in Lwów under the Soviet rule became the target of state terror like the rest of local citizenry. There were 10,000 Jewish men and women among the hundreds of thousands of Polish nationals deported to Siberia by the Soviet NKVD in 1940. Those deported deep into the USSR who managed to survive in the coldest and harshest climates were almost the only ones who also outlived the catastrophe of the Holocaust.[7]

The Nazi conquest and Pogroms

The German army entered the Soviet occupation zone on June 22, 1941 under the codename Operation Barbarossa and a week later, on June 30, 1941 overran the city of Lwów. When the 1st Mountain Division of the German 49th Army Corps took over the city, the gates of all NKVD prisons were opened and, within hours, the scale of Soviet murders revealed. A special commission was formed under SS Judge Hans Tomforde to make a report. Jews were ordered to start removing decomposing bodies from cells and cellars into prison yards. Over 10,000 dead were accounted for at Brygidki. At some prisons, the mountains of putrefacting corpses reaching the basement ceilings forced the Germans to stop counting and wall-off the doors with brickwork. The German propaganda blamed the killings on the Jewish commissars and encouraged local Ukrainians to take their revenge – according to testimonies collected by the Germans, OUN-UPA members were in the majority of prisoners. In early July 1941 SS paramilitary death squads organized the first pogrom against the Jews with the aid of Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. About 4,000 Jews were massacred by Ukrainian nationalists. In late July, another pogrom (known as Petliura Days), took the lives of more than 2,000 Jews.[2][8][9] Some, mostly Ukrainian scholars, argue that the pogroms were in retaliation for the NKVD prisoner massacres of approximately 7,000,[10] and up to 10,000 prisoners according to OUN,[11] including Polish, Jewish and Ukrainian intellectuals, political activists, and alleged common criminals held at Lwów's three prisons comprising Brygidki, Łąckiego Street and Zamarstynowska Street prison. According to Ukrainian scholars 75-80% of these victims were Ukrainian.[11] The Jews who survived the pogroms as eyewitnesses and victims of the violence present a far more direct view in their memoirs. Of the entire population of Jewish Lwow before World War II estimated to be 150,000; fewer than 1,000 survived.

Anti-Jewish rhetoric and mass killings

Although Jews had also been among the victims of the massacre perpetrated by the NKVD and Soviets in retreat, they were collectively accused as a group by the Nazis of having somehow been responsible for it.[8] One theory advanced to "justify" the ensuing anti-Jewish pogrom commonly known as the "Prison Massacre" and mass murder of several thousand Jews is that the Ukrainians had retaliated against them "because some Jews had welcomed the Soviet occupation." Ukrainian historians have posited other theories also, and this is just one among many as to why the Prison Massacre of the Jews occurred.[8]

According to the Jewish survivors of the Ghetto – eyewitnesses to these events – the sole reason for the so-called Prison Massacre was hundreds of years of pent-up Ukrainian hatred for the Jewish population,[12] that had been steeping from the days when Ukrainians were still Ruthenians, subjected to the authority of the Kaiser Franz Josef I during the time when Lemberg was the capital city of the province of Galicia in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, wrote Jakob Weiss. In the eyes of the Jewish survivors, the murder of Ukrainian prisoners gave impetus to the shifting of blame onto the Jews with reasonably foreseeable consequences (i.e. to advance what would soon be called the "Final Solution"). It was craftily set in motion utilizing the nationalistic Ukrainians as "tools" (or in view of the crimes committed against the innocent Jewish civilian population, "accessories") after the Nazi invasion.[8]

During this invasion, according to evidentiary photographs as well as eye witness accounts, Ukrainian Nationalists marched side-by-side with the German Einsatzgruppen "C" and the Wehrmacht "Army Group South" when they entered Lviv. Ukrainian nationalists, UNO, and civilians welcomed the invaders. Some were bearing garlands, waving the Ukrainian Trizub along with the Nazi standard. The Ukrainians (civilians and "nationalists" alike) greeted the invaders with open arms, banners, and floral arrangements.[13] Men displayed a raised arm "Heil Hitler" salute, while the Nazis received embraces and kisses from young women dressed in traditional Ukrainian folk outfits.

The Soviets themselves as well as other witnesses (mostly the few surviving Jews), notably Rabbi Dawid Kahane, author of Lvov Ghetto Diary and former member of the Committee on Religious Affairs of the Lemberg Judenrat, have asserted that it was actually the Nazis themselves that perpetrated the massacre, and then blamed it on the NKVD. But as the pretext went, after filming the devastation they themselves had inflicted, used the "prison massacre" as a pretext to set up the Jews of Lwow; in effect to provide a "cause" for the Ukrainians to vent their hatred. Thus, if we accept the Soviet and Jewish victims' version of the events rather than the version advanced by the Ukrainians (who were the actual rioters and perpetrated the murders), it was the Nazis who "gave license" to the UNO, the Ukrainian nationalists, the Ukrainian People's Militia (soon to become the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police), and Ukrainian citizenry (identified simply by yellow armbands), to conduct a full blown massacre in which at least 2000 Jewish men were killed. Note that at this early stage of the (recently named) "Holocaust by Bullets" in Ukraine (technically General Government Galicia beginning in August, 1941), women were still only harassed and beaten. The outright massacres of Jewish men, women, and children would soon follow (see the "Final Solution" in the General Government Galicia).[14]

A second pogrom took place in the last days of July 1941 and was named the "Petlura Days" after the assassinated Ukrainian leader and pogromist Symon Petliura.[15][16] This pogrom was organized by the Nazis, but carried out by the Ukrainians, as a prologue to the total annihilation of the Jewish population of Lwów. Somewhere in the neighborhood of between 5,000–7,000 Jews were brutally beaten and more than 2,000 murdered[2] in this massacre.[17] In addition, some 3,000 persons, mostly Jews, were executed in the municipal stadium by the German military.[17]

The Ghetto

1942ukrpoljudeakt4
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police "Judenaktion"correspondence. Lemberg, March 1942

Following the Nazi takeover, one of the most prolific mass murderers in the SS, Gruppenführer Fritz Katzmann, became the Higher SS and Police Leader (SSPF) of Lwów.[18] On his orders the Ghetto called Jüdischer Wohnbezirk was established on November 8, 1941 in the northern part of the city. Some 80,000 Jews were ordered to move there by December 15, 1941 and all Poles and Ukrainians to move out.[19] The neighborhood which was designated to form the Jewish quarter was Zamarstynów (now Zamarstyniv). Before the war it was one of the poorest suburbs of Lwów. German police also began a series of "selections" in an operation called "Action under the bridge" - 5,000 elderly and sick Jews were shot as they crossed under the rail bridge on Pełtewna Street (called bridge of death by the Jews) moving slowly toward the gate. Eventually, between 110,000 and 120,000 Jews were forced into the new ghetto. The living conditions there were extremely poor, coupled with severe overcrowding. For example, food rations allocated to the Jews were estimated to equal only 10% of the German and 50% of the Ukrainian or Polish rations.[20]

The Germans established a Jewish police force called the Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst Lemberg wearing dark blue Polish police uniforms from before World War II, but with the Polish insignia replaced by a Magen David and the new letters J.O.L. in various positions on their uniform. They were given rubber truncheons. Their ranks numbered from 500 to 750 policemen.[20] The Jewish police force answered to the Jewish National city council known as the Judenrat, which in turn answered to the Gestapo.

Deportations

The Lemberg Ghetto was one of the first to have Jews transported to the death camps as part of Aktion Reinhard. Between March 16 and April 1, 1942, approximately 15,000 Jews were taken to the Kleparów railway station and deported to the Belzec extermination camp. Following these initial deportations, and death by disease and random shootings, around 86,000 Jews officially remained in the ghetto, though there were many more not recorded. During this period, many Jews were also forced to work for the Wehrmacht and the ghetto's German administration, especially in the nearby Janowska labor camp. On June 24–25, 1942, 2,000 Jews were taken to the labor camp; only 120 were used for forced labor, and all of the others were shot.

Between August 10–31, 1942, the "Great Aktion" was carried out, where between 40,000 and 50,000 Jews were rounded up, gathered at transit point placed in Janowska camp and then deported to Belzec. Many who were not deported, including local orphans and hospital inpatients, were shot. On September 1, 1942, the Gestapo hanged the head of Lwów’s Judenrat and members of the ghetto's Jewish police force on balconies of Judenrat's building at Łokietka street and Hermana street corner. Around 65,000 Jews remained while winter approached with no heating or sanitation, leading to an outbreak of typhus.

Between January 5–7, 1943, another 15,000-20,000 Jews, including the last members of the Judenrat, were shot outside of the town on the orders of Fritz Katzmann. After this aktion in January 1943 Judenrat was dissolved, that what remained of the ghetto was renamed Judenlager Lemberg (Jewish Camp Lwów), thus formally redesigned as labor camp with about 12,000 legal Jews, able to work in German war industry and several thousands illegal Jews (mainly women, children and elderly) hiding in it.[20]

In the beginning of June 1943 Germans decided to finally end the existence of the Jewish quarter and its inhabitants. As Nazis entered the Ghetto they met some sporadic acts of armed resistance, but most of the Jews were trying to hide themselves in earlier prepared hideouts (so called bunkers). In effect many buildings were suffused with gasoline and burned in order to "flush out" Jews from their hiding places. Some Jews managed to escape or to conceal themselves in the sewer system.

By the time that the Soviet Red Army entered Lwów on July 26, 1944, only a few hundred Jews remained in the city. Number varies from 200 to 900 (823 according to data of Jewish Provisional Committee in Lwów, Polish: Tymczasowy Komitet Żydowski we Lwowie from 1945).

Among its notable inhabitants was Chaim Widawski, who disseminated news about the war picked up with an illegal radio.[21] Polish Olympic football player Leon Sperling was shot to death by the Nazis in the ghetto in December 1941.[22] Nazi-hunter Simon Wiesenthal was one of the best-known Jewish inhabitants of Lemberg Ghetto to survive the war (as his memoirs (The Executioners Among Us) indicate, he was saved from execution by a Ukrainian policeman), though he was later transported to a concentration camp, rather than remaining in the ghetto.

Rescue

Some local gentiles attempted to aid and shelter the Jews. Kazimiera Nazarewicz, a Polish nanny hired by a Jewish family, sheltered their daughter throughout the war, and delivered aid to her parents who were imprisoned in the ghetto. After the war, Nazarewicz became one of the recipients of the Righteous Among the Nations title.[23] Leopold Socha and Stefan Wróblewski, laborers maintaining the municipal sewage system, organized in them shelters for 21 one Jews who survived the ghetto's liquidation; 10 of them survived the war. Socha, Wróblewski and their wives received the Righteous titles after the war.[24] Another Righteous, Miroslav Kravchuk, with the help of some acquaintances, shelter his Jewish ex-wife, and some of their other family members and acquaintances. Kravchuk survived a 6-month imprisonment by Gestapo following their arrest of him under the suspicion of him helping Jews.[25]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Megargee, Geoffrey P., ed. (2009). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum encyclopedia of camps and ghettos, 1933–1945. Volume II: Ghettos in German-occupied Eastern Europe. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 802–805. ISBN 978-0-253-35599-7.
  2. ^ a b c "Lvov". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on March 7, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  3. ^ The statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" Archived February 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine by Virtual Shtetl Museum of the History of the Polish Jews  ‹See Tfd›(in English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie," by Gedeon,  ‹See Tfd›(in Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at www.deathcamps.org/occupation/ghettolist.htm  ‹See Tfd›(in English). Accessed July 12, 2011.
  4. ^ Mały Rocznik Statystyczny 1939 (Polish statistical yearbook of 1939), GUS, Warsaw, 1939
  5. ^ Stefan Szende, The Promise Hitler Kept, London 1945, p. 124. OCLC: 758315597.
  6. ^ Wołodymyr Baran (2012). Pamięć i Sprawiedliwość. Pismo naukowe poświęcone historii najnowszej [Memory and Justice 1 (19) 2012] (PDF file, direct download). Przekształcenia ekonomiczne na Ukrainie Zachodniej w latach 1939–1941. Instytut Pamięci Narodowej. Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu. pp. 489–490. ISSN 1427-7476. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  7. ^ Dr. Filip Friedman (2007). Zaglada Zydow Lwowskich [The Annihilation of Lvovian Jews]. Chapter 2. Wydawnictwa Centralnej Zydowskiej Komisji Historycznej przy Centralnym Komitecie Zydow Polskich Nr 4. OCLC 38706656. Archived from the original on November 6, 2010. Retrieved March 4, 2015. English translation of the Russian edition (excerpts).CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  8. ^ a b c d "Lemberg/Lvov massacre "Deutsche Wochenschau" Newsreel". Archives database. U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. July 1941. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  9. ^ "Społeczność żydowska przed 1989 – Ukraina / Львівська область (obwód lwowski)". Lwów. Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich Virtual Shtetl. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  10. ^ Jerzy Węgierski, Lwów pod okupacją sowiecką 1939-1941 , Warszawa 1991, Editions Spotkania, ISBN 83-85195-15-7 p. 273.
  11. ^ a b Yevhen Nakonechny (2006). "Шоа" у Львові ["Shoa" in Lviv] (DjVu). Львів: ЛА «Піраміда». pp. 98–99 or 50 in current document (1/284 or 1/143 digitized). ISBN 966-8522-47-8. Retrieved February 13, 2015 – via Історія @ EX.UA, direct download (7.7 MB).
  12. ^ Jakob Weiss (2011). The Lemberg Mosaic. Alderbrook Press. p. 207. ISBN 0983109109.
  13. ^ David Bankier, Israel Gutman. Nazi Europe and the Final Solution. Berghahn Books. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
  14. ^ David Kahana (1990). Lvov Ghetto Diary (Google Book snippet). University of Massachusetts Press. pp. c. ISBN 0870237268. Retrieved February 12, 2015.
  15. ^ "Lwów". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
  16. ^ "July 25: Pogrom in Lwów". Chronology of the Holocaust. Yad Vashem. 2004. Archived from the original on March 11, 2005.
  17. ^ a b Richard Breitman. Himmler and the 'Terrible Secret' among the Executioners. Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 26, No. 3/4, The Impact of Western Nationalisms: Essays Dedicated to Walter Z. Laqueur on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday (Sep., 1991), pp. 431-451
  18. ^ Waldemar „Scypion” Sadaj (January 27, 2010). "Fritz Friedrich Katzmann". SS-Gruppenführer und Generalleutnant der Waffen-SS und Polizei. Allgemeine SS & Waffen-SS. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
  19. ^ Claudia Koonz (November 2, 2005). "SS Man Katzmann's "Solution of the Jewish Question in the District of Galicia"" (PDF). The Raul Hilberg Lecture. University of Vermont: 2, 11, 16–18. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 5, 2015. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
  20. ^ a b c Filip Friedman, Zagłada Żydów lwowskich (Extermination of the Jews of Lwów) OCLC 38706656.
  21. ^ Trunk, Isaiah; Shapiro, Robert Moses (2006). Łódź Ghetto: a history. Indiana University Press. p. lvi. ISBN 978-0-253-34755-8.
  22. ^ Kay Schaffer & Sidonie Smith (2000). The Olympics at the Millennium: Power, Politics, and the Games. pg 61: Rutgers University Press. p. 318. ISBN 0-8135-2820-8.
  23. ^ "The Righteous Among The Nations: Nazarewicz-Gruszko, Kazimiera". db.yadvashem.org. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  24. ^ "Leopold and Magdalena Socha | www.yadvashem.org". socha.html. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  25. ^ "The Righteous Among The Nations: Kravchuk, Miroslav". db.yadvashem.org. Retrieved June 12, 2019.

References

Further reading

  • Marek Herman, From the Alps to the Red Sea. Tel Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad Publishers and Beit Lohamei Haghetaot, 1985. pp. 14–60
  • Dawid Kahane, Lvov Ghetto Diary. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990. ISBN 0-87023-726-8 (Published in Hebrew as Yoman getto Lvov, Jerusalem:Yad Vashem, 1978)
  • Dr Filip Friedman, Zagłada Żydów lwowskich, Centralna Żydowska Komisja Historyczna, Centralny Komitet Żydów Polskich, Nr 4, Łódź 1945
  • Weiss, Jakob, The Lemberg Mosaic. New York : Alderbrook Press, 2010. See also The Lemberg Mosaic (Wikipedia).
  • Chiger, Krystyna, The Girl in the Green sweater: A life in Holocaust's Shadow, Macmillan, 2010. ISBN 1429961252
  • Leon Weliczker Wells, The Janowska Road (original publication Macmillan, 1963). Amazon: Halo Pr, 1999. ISBN 089604159X

External links

Coordinates: 49°50′22″N 24°1′58″E / 49.83944°N 24.03278°E

Carmelite Church, Lviv

The Carmelite Church in Lviv was first mentioned in 1634 as the church of the monastery of the Barefoot Carmelites. In 1748 it was the scene of a notorious scuffle ("monomachia") between the Carmelites and their neighbours, the Capuchins.

The suburban location caused the church to be rather well fortified, yet it was ravaged by the Cossacks in the Khmelnytsky Revolt and the Swedes in the Great Northern War. The entire façade was redesigned in the 19th century.

Still, the building retains much of its original character and design, attributed to architect Jan Pokorowicz. Especially noteworthy are the 300-year-old black marble altar and a series of frescoes executed by Giuseppe Pedretti in the 1730s.

After 1789 the church has passed through a succession of owners, ending with the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church which reconsecrated the church to Michael the Archangel in 1991.

Church of Transfiguration, Lviv

The Church of the Transfiguration (Ukrainian: Преображенська церква, Preobrazhenska tserkva, or more formally Церква Преображення Господа Нашого Ісуса Христа, Tserkva preobrazhennia Hospoda Nashoho Isusa Khrysta) in Lviv, Ukraine is located in the city's Old Town, just north of the market square.

It was originally built as the Roman Catholic church of the Holy Trinity of the Trinitarian Order, between 1703 and 1731, in the style of French classicism but with a Baroque interior. In 1783, the monastery was abolished by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II and the church was used as a library of the Lviv University, until it was destroyed by Austrian artillery during the Spring of Nations in 1848.

The ruins of the church were rebuilt by the Greek Catholic Church, and most of the original design was kept. However, an apse was added to the short presbytery and domes that now dominate the facade were built on the churches towers. The interior underwent much deeper changes to adapt it the need of Eastern Rite liturgy.

The church was reconsecrated on 29 April 1906, as the Greek Catholic church of the Transfiguration of Our Lord Jesus Christ, by the Ukrainian Metropolitan of Lviv Andrey Sheptytsky, Bishop of Peremyshl Constantine (Chekhovych) and Bishop of Stanyslaviv Blessed Hryhory Khomyshyn. In the first half of the 20th century, the parish became one of the main cultural centres of the Ukrainian national movement. On 29 October 1989 this was the first parish to be restored with the imminent collapse of the Soviet Union.

Edward Gerstenfeld

Edward (Eduard) Issakovich Gerstenfeld (January 1915 in Lemberg – December 1943 (?) in Rostov-on-Don, USSR) was a Polish chess master.

Born into a Jewish family in Lviv, Galicia (then Austria-Hungary), he came 3rd, behind Henryk Friedman and Izaak Schächter, in the Lviv City championships in 1933. He came 3rd at Lviv 1933 (LKSz, Oskar Piotrowski won), 7th in the Lviv City-ch, and came first in the Lviv City-ch in 1935.

In the period between 1935 and 1939, he lived in Łódź. In 1935, Gerstenfeld shared 4th with Jakub Kolski, behind Izaak Appel and Achilles Frydman, in Łódź (quadrangular). He tied for 2nd-5th with A. Frydman, Schächter and Abram Szpiro in Łódź (pre-Olympic tournament, Friedman won), and took 15th in Warsaw (the 3rd Polish Chess Championship, Savielly Tartakower won). In 1936, he played a match against Szpiro in Łódź, shared 2nd with Schächter, behind Szpiro, at Częstochowa (POL-ch elim.), and tied for 2nd with Appel, behind A. Frydman, in Łódź (ŁTZGSz). In 1936/37, he shared 1st with Paulin Frydman and Appel in Łódź. In 1937, he took 5th in the Łódź City-ch, and tied for 9-10th in Jurata (the 4th POL-ch; Tartakower won). In 1938, he took 6th in Łódź (Vasja Pirc won).In summer 1939, before World War II broke out, he returned to Lviv. According to the secret agreement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany (Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact), Lviv was captured by the Soviets, and then incorporated to the Ukrainian SSR in Autumn 1939 (the German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation).

In March 1940, he took 4th in Lviv (Western Ukrainian championship, Abram Khavin won). In 1940, he tied for 16-17th in Kiev (the 12th Ukrainian Chess Championship, Isaac Boleslavsky won). In August 1940, he won in Lviv, followed by Appel, Friedman and Schächter. In 1940, he shared 1st with Mark Stolberg in Kiev (USSR-ch semi-final). In September–October 1940, Gerstenfeld took 17th in Moscow (the 12th USSR Chess Championship). The event was won by Andor Lilienthal and Igor Bondarevsky. In January/February 1941, he won ahead of Appel, Friedman, Emanuel Rubinstein and Schächter, in the Lviv City championships. In June 1941, he was at 3rd place in Rostov-on-Don (the 13th USSR-ch semi-final), when Operation Barbarossa, the German attack on the Soviet Union, interrupted the event.

The exact cause of his death remained unclear. According to one source, he became a victim of Nazi atrocities in Autumn 1942 (the Lemberg Ghetto or the Belzec extermination camp), but to others, he was shot by Nazis during the mass killing of Jewish people in Rostov-on-Don, Russia, in December 1943. Rostov-on-Don was liberated by the Soviet Army on 14 February 1943.

Emanuel Schlechter

Emanuel Schlechter (pseudonyms Eman, Olgierd Lech) (Emanuel Szlechter) (9 October 1904 – 1943) was born and died in Lwów. He was a Polish-Jewish artist, lyricist, screenwriter, librettist, writer, satirist, translator, composer and director.

His father was a house painter in Lwów. The family name of his mother was Begeleiter. Emanuel's brother was Emil Henryk Szlechter (1906-1995), an expert in the law of the Sumerian, Babylonian and Assyrian.

When Szlechter was 14 years old, he joined to Małopolskie Oddziały Armii Ochotniczej (Lesser Poland's Volunteer Army) and during summer 1920 he participated in defense of Lwów.After passing his matura exam around 1923 he studied law at the Jan Kazimierz University in Lwów and worked briefly in a law firm. His earliest lyrics were written for Leon Borunski's songs, staged at the Morskie Oko theater's Parada gwiazd show in 1930, performed and recorded by Syrena Rekord star Kazimierz Krukowski.

Forum Lviv

Forum Lviv is a shopping centre in Lviv, Ukraine, opened on September 25, 2015.

Government House, Lviv

The Lviv Oblast administration occupies the Neo-Renaissance building of the Austrian vice-regency from which the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was ruled. It was erected in the 1870s to a design by architects Sylwester Hawryszkiewicz and Feliks Księżarski. The building's centerpiece is a grand staircase designed by Leonard Marconi. In 1943 the edifice witnessed the official ceremony of the inauguration of SS Division Galicia. The Communist administration decided to retain the building's former function by assigning it to a local obkom. In front of the building stands a monument to Vyacheslav Chornovil who headed the regional administration in the early 1990s.

Herman Auerbach

Herman Auerbach (October 26, 1901, Tarnopol – August 17, 1942) was a Polish mathematician and member of the Lwów School of Mathematics.

Auerbach was professor at Lwów University. During the Second World War because of his Jewish descent he was imprisoned by the Germans in the Lwów ghetto. In 1942 he was murdered at Bełżec extermination camp.

In Darkness (2011 film)

In Darkness (Polish: W ciemności) is a 2011 Polish drama film written by David F. Shamoon and directed by Agnieszka Holland. It was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards.Based on true events during German occupation of Poland, the film tells about Leopold Socha, a sewer worker in the Polish city of Lwów. He used his knowledge of the city's sewer system to shelter a group of Jews who had escaped from the Lwów Ghetto during the Holocaust in Poland.

Janowska concentration camp

Janowska concentration camp (Polish: Janowska, Russian: Янов or "Yanov", Ukrainian: Янівський табір) was a Nazi German labor, transit and extermination camp established in September 1941 in occupied Poland on the outskirts of Lwów (Second Polish Republic, today Lviv, Ukraine). The camp was labeled Janowska after the nearby street ulica Janowska in Lwów, renamed Shevchenka (Ukrainian: Шевченка) after the city was ceded to the Ukrainian SSR at the end of war in Europe. The camp was liquidated by the Germans in November 1943 ahead of the Red Army's counteroffensive. According to Soviet prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials, Janowska was a pure death camp, although it also housed a factory. Modern estimates put the total number of prisoners who passed through Janowska at over 100,000. The number of victims murdered at the camp is estimated at 35,000–40,000.:255

King Cross Leopolis

King Cross Leopolis is a shopping mall located in Lviv, opened on March 26, 2010. With a total area of 116 546 m², it is the largest mall in western Ukraine.

Kryvka Church

St. Nicholas's Church is the centerpiece of the Lviv Museum of Folk Architecture and Culture, better known as Shevchenkivskyi Hay. This traditional tripartite timber church, encircled by a wooden fence, was transferred to Lviv from Kryvka village, Turkivskyi Raion in 1930. It was originally built by Boiko carpenters in 1763. During the First World War the church was damaged by a shell that pierced the upper gallery.

Leon Sperling

Leon Sperling (August 7, 1900 – December 15, 1941) was a Polish Jewish Olympic footballer.Sperling was born in Kraków, and was Jewish. He was a football forward, playing on the left wing. Sperling represented Cracovia, the team he led in 1921, 1930, and 1932 to the Championship of Poland. He also played in 16 games for the Polish National Team, including Poland's lone game at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games. He was regarded as a highly skilled dribbler. Sperling is one of Cracovia Kraków's legends.

Sperling was shot to death by the Nazis in the Lwów Ghetto in December 1941. His Jewish teammate, Józef Klotz, was also killed in the Holocaust.

Rudolf Weigl

Rudolf Stefan Jan Weigl (2 September 1883 – 11 August 1957) was a Polish biologist and inventor of the first effective vaccine against epidemic typhus. He founded the Weigl Institute in Lviv, where he conducted vaccine research.There, during the Holocaust, he harboured Jews, thereby risking execution by the Germans. His vaccines were also smuggled into the Lwów Ghetto and the Warsaw Ghetto, saving countless additional Jewish lives.

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wiesenthal (31 December 1908 – 20 September 2005) was a Jewish Austrian-Polish Holocaust survivor, Nazi hunter, and writer. He studied architecture and was living in Lwów at the outbreak of World War II. He survived the Janowska concentration camp (late 1941 to September 1944), the Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp (September to October 1944), the Gross-Rosen concentration camp, a death march to Chemnitz, Buchenwald, and the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp (February to 5 May 1945).

After the war, Wiesenthal dedicated his life to tracking down and gathering information on fugitive Nazi war criminals so that they could be brought to trial. In 1947, he co-founded the Jewish Historical Documentation Centre in Linz, Austria, where he and others gathered information for future war crime trials and aided refugees in their search for lost relatives. He opened the Documentation Centre of the Association of Jewish Victims of the Nazi Regime in Vienna in 1961 and continued to try to locate missing Nazi war criminals. He played a small role in locating Adolf Eichmann, who was captured in Buenos Aires in 1960, and worked closely with the Austrian justice ministry to prepare a dossier on Franz Stangl, who was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1971.

In the 1970s and 1980s, Wiesenthal was involved in two high-profile events involving Austrian politicians. Shortly after Bruno Kreisky was inaugurated as Austrian chancellor in April 1970, Wiesenthal pointed out to the press that four of his new cabinet appointees had been members of the Nazi Party. Kreisky, angry, called Wiesenthal a "Jewish fascist", likened his organisation to the Mafia, and accused him of collaborating with the Nazis. Wiesenthal successfully sued for libel, the suit ending in 1989. In 1986, Wiesenthal was involved in the case of Kurt Waldheim, whose service in the Wehrmacht and probable knowledge of the Holocaust were revealed in the lead-up to the 1986 Austrian presidential elections. Wiesenthal, embarrassed that he had previously cleared Waldheim of any wrongdoing, suffered much negative publicity as a result of this event.

With a reputation as a storyteller, Wiesenthal was the author of several memoirs containing tales that are only loosely based on actual events. In particular, he exaggerated his role in the capture of Eichmann in 1960. Wiesenthal died in his sleep at age 96 in Vienna on 20 September 2005 and was buried in the city of Herzliya in Israel. The Simon Wiesenthal Center, located in Los Angeles, is named in his honor.

Union of Lublin Mound

Union of Lublin Mound (Ukrainian: Копець Люблінської унії; Polish: Kopiec Unii Lubelskiej) is an artificial hill, 29 m high, in Lviv, modern day Ukraine created in 1869-1890 to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Union of Lublin. It is located on the summit of Lviv High Castle.

In the second half of the 19th century Poles living under Russian, Prussian and Austrian rule as a result of partitions of Poland, were looking for every opportunity to celebrate important events from the Polish history, reminding them of Poland's past glories.

At the time Austria-Hungary had the most liberal policy towards ethnic minorities. The province of Galicia, created from the areas taken over from Poland, with Polish as one of the official languages, was the most obvious location for such celebrations. Lviv, Galicia's capital (now western Ukraine), was chosen for the occasion. The city's Polish population of all ages and classes offered voluntary labour to build the mound. The work was carried out without any prior engineering advice, using locally available materials, including stones from the ruins of High Castle. In 1906 a part of the mound collapsed and had to be rebuilt.

There is an observation platform at the top of the mound (altitude 413 m), offering a vantage viewpoint over Lviv.

Yanov torah

The Yanov Torah is a hand-written copy of the Torah assembled from the individual sheaves of Torah manuscripts, smuggled into the Janowska concentration camp during the Holocaust in World War II. The Janowska, also known as the Yanov death camp, located not far from the Lwów Ghetto, was a place of execution of tens of thousands of Polish Jews between September 1941 and November 1943. A Sefer Torah, the holiest book within Judaism venerated by Jews, was reassembled by prisoners from manuscripts unearthed at the Lwów's Jewish cemetery. Following World War II it was smuggled out of the then Soviet Union, and brought to Los Angeles. It has been donated to the rabbinical programs at Hebrew Union College, where it is taken on tour to various synagogues and assemblies, so that the story of its history can be told.

Zygmunt Steuermann

Zygmunt Steuermann (1899–1941) was a Polish football player and one of the most renowned members of the Hasmonea Lwów Football Club. Born February 5, 1899 in Sambor, then in Austro-Hungarian Galicia, Steuermann was a member of a Polonized Jewish family. Already at the age of 12 he joined the local Korona Sambor. During World War I he fled to Vienna, where he continued his training in a variety of sport clubs, including Gersthof Wien, Germania Wien and Amateure Wien. After the war he returned to Poland and in 1920 started a semi-professional career in Korona Sambor. During the following year he moved to Lwów (modern Lviv, Ukraine), where he joined the ŻKS Lwów sports club. In 1923 he was transferred to Hasmonea Lwów, the most important Jewish football club in Poland and one of the four Lwów-based clubs playing in the first league. He remained one of the most notable players of that club until 1932, when he joined Legia Warsaw.

He also played twice in the Poland national football team scoring four goals: three in a match against Turkey in 1926 and one against the USA in 1928. He was one of only two first-timers in the history of Polish national football team to score a hat-trick in the first match, the other being Józef Korbas (in 1937 against Bulgaria).

During the Nazi and Soviet invasion of Poland he fled Warsaw and settled in his home town which was then annexed by the USSR. He returned to Korona Sambor which was soon afterwards closed down and recreated as Dinamo Sambor by the Soviet authorities. Following the Nazi take-over of eastern Poland, he was arrested and sent to the Lemberg Ghetto, where he died in December 1941.

Łucja Frey

Łucja Frey or Łucja Frey-Gottesman (November 3, 1889 in Lwów – 1942?) was a Polish physician and neurologist, known for describing the syndrome later named after her. She was one of the first female academic neurologists in Europe. Frey perished during the Holocaust in 1942 in Lwów ghetto aged 53.

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