Luxury vehicle

A luxury vehicle is intended to provide passengers (and often the driver) with increased comfort, a higher level of equipment and increased perception of quality than regular cars (such as economy cars, which are intended as basic low-cost transportation devices) for an increased price. The term is subjective and can be based on either the qualities of the car itself or the brand image of its manufacturer.[1] Luxury brands are considered to have a higher status than premium brands,[2] however there is no fixed differentiation between the two.

Traditionally, luxury cars have been large vehicles, however contemporary luxury cars range in size from compact cars to large sedans and SUVs.[1]

Brands

Duesenberg
A Duesenberg, "one of the great luxury cars"[3] with custom body by Willoughby
Isotta-Fraschini 8A-Roadster Front-view
Italian Isotta Fraschini Tipo 8A S LeBaron Boattail Roadster, a 1930s luxury car[4]

Some car manufacturers market their luxury models using the same marque as the rest of their models. Other manufacturers market their luxury models separately under a different marque, for example Lexus (launched by Toyota in 1989)[5] and Bentley (purchased by Volkswagen in 1998).[6][7] Occasionally, a luxury car is initially sold under a mainstream marque and is later re-branded under a specific luxury marque (for example the Hyundai Genesis / Genesis G80).[8][9]

For mass-produced luxury cars, sharing of platforms or components with other models is common,[10] as per modern automotive industry practice.

Classification standards

Several car classification schemes which include a luxury category, such as:

  • Australia: Since the year 2000, the Federal Government's luxury car tax applies to new vehicles over a certain purchase price, with higher thresholds applying for cars considered as fuel efficient.[11][12] As of 2019, the thresholds were approximately AU$66,000 (US$51,000) for normal cars and AU$76,000 (US$58,000) for fuel efficient cars.[13]
  • Europe: Luxury cars are classified as F-segment vehicles in the European Commission classification scheme.[14][15][16]
  • Italy: The term "auto di lusso" is used for luxury cars.
  • France: The term "voiture de luxe" is used for luxury cars.[17]
  • Germany: The term German: Oberklasse (upper class) is used for luxury cars.[18]
  • Russia: The term (автомобиль представительского класса ("representative class vehicle, also translated as luxury vehicle) is used for luxury cars.[19]
  • Rental cars: The ACRISS Car Classification Code is a system used by many car rental companies to define equivalent vehicles across brands. This system includes "Luxury" and "Luxury Elite" categories (along with "Premium" and "Premium Elite" categoryies).[20] The criteria for a vehicle to be considered "luxury" is not published.

Market categories

Premium compact / entry-level luxury

The premium compact class is the category of the smallest luxury cars. It became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models.[21]

Examples include the Alfa Romeo Giulietta, Audi A3, Buick Verano, BMW 1 Series, Lexus CT 200h,[5] Infiniti Q30, Mercedes-Benz A-Class,[22][23] Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Volvo C30,[24] Volvo V40,[25][26] and BMW i3.[27] Premium compacts compete with well-equipped mid-size cars, and highly optioned premium compact cars can have pricing and features that operlaps with compact executive cars.[28]

2018 Mercedes-Benz A200 AMG Line Premium Automatic 1.3 Front

Mercedes-Benz A-Class
(2018–present)

2018 Lexus CT 200h Premier CVT 1.8 Front

Lexus CT 200h
(2011–present)

2017 Infiniti Q30 SE Diesel 1.5 Front

Infiniti Q30
(2015–present)

Compact executive / compact luxury

A compact executive car is a premium car smaller than an executive car. In European classification, compact executive cars are part of the D-segment. In North American terms, close equivalents are "compact premium car", "compact luxury car",[29] "entry-level luxury car" and "near-luxury car".[30]

2017 Alfa Romeo Giulia V6 Biturbo Quadrifoglio 2.9

Alfa Romeo Giulia
(2015–present)

Tesla Model 3 Monaco IMG 1212

Tesla Model 3
(2018–present)

Infiniti Q50 S HYBRID (V37) – Frontansicht, 14. Juni 2014, Düsseldorf

Infiniti Q50
(2013–present)

Executive / mid-size luxury

Executive car is a British term for an automobile larger than a large family car. In official use, the term is adopted by Euro NCAP, a European organization founded to test for car safety. It is a passenger car classification defined by the European Commission.

2015 Hyundai Genesis (DH) Ultimate Pack sedan (16331265353)

Genesis G80 (2016–present)

Luxury saloon / full-size luxury sedan

The next category of luxury cars is known in Great Britain as a luxury saloon or luxury limousine,[31][32][33][34] and is known in the United States as a full-size luxury sedan or large luxury sedan.[35][36][37][38] It is the equivalent of the European F-segment and German Oberklasse segment.

Many of these luxury saloons are the flagship for the marque and therefore include the newest automotive technology.[39] Several models are available in long-wheelbase versions, which provide additional rear legroom and often a higher level of standard features.[40]

Examples of luxury saloons / full-size luxury sedans include the BMW 7 Series,[41] Cadillac CT6[42][43] Genesis G90,[42] Mercedes-Benz S-Class,[41] Lexus LS,[42] and Porsche Panamera.[41]

2013 Mercedes-Benz S 500 L (V 222) sedan (2015-07-26) 01 (cropped)

Mercedes-Benz W222 S-Class (2013–present)

2016-03-01 Geneva Motor Show 1147

BMW M760Li xDrive
(2015–present)

Ultra-luxury

Luxury cars costing over US$100,000 (as of 2007) can be considered as "ultra-luxury cars".[44] Examples include the Rolls-Royce Phantom, Maybach 57 and Bentley Arnage.[44][45] Exotic cars which are targeted towards performance rather than luxury are not usually classified as ultra-luxury cars, even when their cost is greater than US$100,000.[44]

Several entry-level models from low-volume luxury car manufacturers, such as the Bentley Continental Flying Spur and the Rolls-Royce Ghost have been described as "entry-opulent" cars.[46]

Many ultra-luxury cars are produced by brands with a long history of manufacturing luxury cars.[47][48] The history of a brand and the exclusivity of a particular model can result in price premiums compared to luxury cars with similar features from less prestigious manufacturers.[49]

V12 engines (or W12 engines for Volkswagen Group brands) are common in ultra-luxury cars.[50][51][52]

Rolls Royce Phantom 2015 (22719825307)

Rolls-Royce Phantom VII
(2012–2017)

2007 Bentley Arnage T 01

Bentley Arnage
(2007–2009)

Майбах в Алма-Ате

Maybach 57
(2002–2012)

Luxury SUV/Crossover

1986 Jeep Grand Wagoneer white-a Mason-Dixon Dragway 2014
Jeep Wagoneer (1986–1991 model shown)
2018 Lincoln Navigator front 9.22.18
Lincoln Navigator (2018–present model shown) luxury SUV

Long before the luxury SUV segment became popular in the 1990s, the vehicle in this segment was the 1966 Jeep Super Wagoneer,[53][54][55](p3) which was marketed at the time as a station wagon. It was the first off-road SUV to offer a V8 engine, automatic transmission, and luxury car trim and equipment.[56] Standard equipment included bucket seating, a center console, air conditioning, seven-position tilt steering wheel, a vinyl roof and gold colored trim panels on the body sides and tailgate.[55](p3) By the late 1970s, optional equipment included an electric sunroof,[55](p4) The 1978 Jeep Wagoneer Limited was the spiritual successor to the Super Wagoneer and was the first four-wheel drive car to use leather upholstery.[55](p5)

Another precursor to the luxury SUV is the Range Rover, which was released in 1970. It was the first road-going vehicle to have a permanent four-wheel drive system, split tailgate, clamshell bonnet and continuous waistline.[57] The Range Rover had long-travel coil spring suspension and an aluminium V8 engine.[58] Development of the Range Rover began in 1951.[59]

In the mid 1990s, the SUV market expanded with new entrants. By the mid-1990s, the Ford Explorer and Jeep Grand Cherokee were the market leaders for SUVs.[60] The fastest growing sector of this market was for the so-called luxury SUVs, which included the Jeep Grand Cherokee ... the Grand Cherokee's allure: "This vehicle is proof you can have a true off-road vehicle without giving up luxuries and amenities" with the Jeep providing a crucial new intangible factor for buyers—image.[61]

The SUV models generated higher profit-margins than passenger cars, and automakers introduced new luxury models during the late 1990s,[62] starting with Lincoln Navigator in 1997,[63] besides traditional models like the Grand Cherokee. For some manufacturers such as Porsche and BMW, luxury SUVs were the first SUV models they produced. Luxury SUVs catered particularly to the U.S. market where station wagons were unpopular, often being produced in North America (such as BMW Spartanburg) instead of the luxury marque's home country. Some of these models were a unibody construction, instead of the body-on-frame construction traditionally used by off-road vehicles.

During the mid-2000s, SUVs from luxury car brands grew at almost 40 percent in the United States to more than 430,000 vehicles (excluding SUV-only brands like Hummer and Land Rover), at a time when luxury car sales suffered a 1% decline, and non-luxury SUV sales were flat. By 2004, 30 percent of major luxury brands' U.S. sales were SUVs. Crossover SUVs became increasingly popular in the mid-2000s, and manufacturers also began to produce luxury versions of crossovers. The Lexus RX was the earliest luxury crossover on the market, and it has since been the best-selling luxury vehicle in the US.[64] Some luxury crossovers are built on a platform shared with sedans or hatchbacks, for example the Infiniti FX is based upon the Nissan FM platform that also underpins other Infiniti cars.[65][66] While early luxury crossovers released in the late 1990s have resembled traditional boxy SUVs, more recent crossovers, such as the Infiniti FX and BMW X6, have been designed with a sporting appearance.[67][68][69]

Despite the increased popularity of crossover models, luxury versions of traditional SUVs remain in production, often being badge-engineered versions of their non-luxury SUVs. Examples include the Lexus LX, Infiniti QX80 and Lincoln Navigator, which are the premium versions of the Toyota Land Cruiser, Nissan Patrol and Ford Expedition respectively.[70]

Research data from the mid-2000s suggested that luxury SUV buyers did not consider traditional luxury cars (e.g. sedans and coupes), therefore the SUV is becoming the key to bringing new customers to the luxury dealerships.[71]

Characteristics

Features

Luxury cars have traditionally emphasized higher levels comfort and safety,[72] with manufacturers often introducing new safety technologies and comfort amenities on luxury models before they trickle down to mass-market models. Numerous "smart car" features were found on luxury cars as early as 2009.[73]

Luxury vehicles can be a status symbol for conspicuous consumption;[73] however many European luxury car buyers shy away from conspicuous consumption, therefore brands offer buyers the option of removing exterior badges that identify the model name or engine size.[74]

The suspension system of most luxury cars is tuned to prioritise ride quality over handling, however some cars are marketed as "sports luxury" and have greater emphasis on handling characteristics.[75][76]

Layout and powertrain

Traditionally, luxury cars have used a front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) layout. The FR layout is more expensive to produce and produces lower fuel economy than a front-wheel drive layout, however it allows for larger engines (particularly straight-six, V8, and V12) to be used.[74][77][78][79]

Since the introduction of the Bentley Continental GT in 2003, an increasing number of luxury cars have used all-wheel drive.

Many American luxury cars from the 1970s to the 1990s switched to a front-wheel drive layout with transverse engine, due to the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises which eliminated many FR platforms in favor of the more economical front-wheel drive (FF) layout. From the early 2000s, several of these American luxury cars reverted to FR layouts.[80][81][82][83]

History

European manufacturers

Revival04 005a
Bugatti Royale (1927–1933)

Prior to World War II, a wide array of European producers made luxury cars, including Rolls-Royce Limited, Bugatti, Delage, Delahaye, Talbot-Lago and Isotta Fraschini, Aston Martin, Maybach.

France was a leading producer of powerful luxury automobiles prior to World War II.[84] After World War II, the French government used puissance fiscale tax regulations to encourage manufacturers to build cars with small engines, and French motorists to buy them.[84] The Maserati-powered Citroën SM and the Citroën C6 were arguably the last domestic French luxury cars.[85][86] In the 2010s, some French manufacturers have attempted to develop luxury cars, however the lack of a historical legacy has hindered these efforts.[87] In 2014, Citroën introduced DS Automobiles sub-brand to market luxury cars.[88][89]

Following World War II, Germany rose to become an export powerhouse, building on success with the Mercedes-Benz brand, later joined by BMW, which now owns Rolls-Royce Motor Cars, and Volkswagen, which now owns Audi, Bentley, and Lamborghini.

In the Soviet Union, the manufacturer ZiL (then called Zis) began producing limousines in the mid-1930s and GAZ and joined the luxury car market in the early 1950s.

American manufacturers

Prior to World War II, Americans manufacturers built the Duesenberg, Packard, Pierce Arrow, Stutz, Stearns-Knight, Cadillac, Chrysler, Lincoln and Cord luxury models. Most of them had a V8, V12 or V16 engine.

From 1946 to the late 1990s, Cadillac was the highest selling brand of luxury cars in the U.S. and Lincoln Motor Company was the second-highest.[90] Since the late 1990s, Japanese and German brands have sold the most luxury cars in the U.S. In 2010, BMW was the best-selling luxury vehicle manufacturer by sales, with Audi and Mercedes-Benz the second and third highest selling luxury brands.[91]

In the late 2000s, the Cadillac CTS and Cadillac DTS led to a resurgence in the brand's luxury sedans.[92] The equivalent sedan from the Ford group, the 2008 Lincoln MKS, was also regarded as a significant improvement over previous models.[93]

American-built luxury cars have largely been intended for the North American market only, with few models achieving sales success in other countries.

The personal luxury car is an America-specific category of car that reached peak popularity in the 1970s. The cars were stylized, mass produced 2 door coupés or convertibles, relying on standard components.[94]

Asian manufacturers

Japanese manufacturers have been producing luxury cars since the 1950s, including the Toyota Crown (1955-present),[95][96] Prince/Nissan Gloria (1959-2004), Nissan Cedric (1960-2015), Mitsubishi Debonair (1964-1998), Nissan President (1965-2010), Toyota Century (1967-present), Mazda Luce/929 (1969-1991) and Honda Legend (1985-present).

Since the 1980s, overseas sales of a Japanese luxury cars have increased, challenging the traditional European luxury brands.[97]

Several Asian manufacturers have created sub-brands for the marketing of luxury cars. The first of these was the 1986 launch of Acura (a Honda sub-brand), followed by Lexus (Toyota) in 1989, Infiniti (Nissan) in 1989 and Genesis (Hyundai) in 2015.[97]

Global financial crisis

The late-2000s global financial crisis was the first time since the Great Depression of the 1930s that the luxury car market suffered considerably, something not seen in previous economic downturns. Many such customers saw their net worth decline following the collapse in financial markets and real-estate values.[73][98] For example, some of the steepest dropoffs came at the high end, including the BMW 7 Series and Rolls-Royce Phantom, and in 2010 Mercedes-Benz unexpectedly dropped the price of the W212 E-Class. The unusually sharp decline in luxury car sales have led observers to believe that there is a fundamental shift and reshaping of the luxury automotive market, with one industry official suggesting that the marques no longer command the premiums that they used to, and another saying that conspicuous consumption was no longer attractive in poor economic conditions.[97] Additionally, mainstream brands have been able to offer amenities and devices such as leather, wood, and anti-lock brakes, previously found only on luxury cars, as the costs decline.[97]

However, luxury vehicle sales did not collapse as much as their non-luxury counterparts.[99][100] This was aided by growing interest in luxury vehicles from emerging markets such as China and Russia.[97]

Sales in the entry-level luxury segment remained strong throughout the GFC, due to prices being lowered to compete with well-equipped non-luxury cars.[101][102] For example, in Canada, several luxury manufacturers set sales records in August 2009, due mostly to aggressive incentives on entry-level luxury vehicles.[103][104] In September 2009, BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Lexus and Audi all saw their Canadian sales increase by more than 10 per cent compared to a year earlier, despite overall Canadian auto sales being down 3.5 per cent compared to September 2008.

See also

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Acura TLX

The Acura TLX is a compact executive / entry-level luxury sedan manufactured by Acura, the luxury vehicle division of Honda, since 2014.

Cadillac Series 60

The Cadillac Series 60 was Cadillac's mid-priced entry in the luxury vehicle market when it appeared in 1936. It was replaced by the Series 61 in 1939, but a model that was derived from it, the Sixty Special, continued off and on through 1993.

The Series 60 was the brainchild of new Cadillac manager, Nicholas Dreystadt. Debuting in 1936, it filled a gaping price gap between the LaSalles and Series 70 Cadillac models. Initially it rode on a 121.0 in (3,073 mm) wheelbase and shared the B body with cars from LaSalle, Buick, and Oldsmobile. This went up to 124.0 in (3,150 mm) in 1937-38.

The exterior featured a new Harley Earl-designed look with a tall, slender grille and split vee-shaped windshield. This body used Fisher Body's new Turret Top one-piece roof and Bendix dual-servo brakes. "Knee-Action" independent suspension, first introduced by Cadillac in 1934, was a welcome novelty for the mid-price market at the time.Under the hood was the new (less expensive) Monobloc V8. This 322 cu in (5.3 L) engine produced 125 hp (93 kW), just 10 less than that in the larger Cadillacs. The Series 60 immediately became the company's best-selling model, making up half of all Cadillacs sold the first year.

The next year, displacement on all Monobloc Cadillacs was 346 cu in (5.7 L). This new engine produced 135 hp (101 kW), more than all V8 Cadillacs of just a few years earlier. The Series 60 was superseded by the Series 61 and disappeared after 1938.

Chauffeur

A chauffeur is a person employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle, especially a luxury vehicle such as a large sedan or limousine. A woman employed to drive a passenger motor vehicle is a chauffeuse.

Originally, such drivers were often personal employees of the vehicle owner, but now in many cases specialist chauffeur service companies or individual drivers provide both driver and vehicle for hire, although there are service companies that just provide the driver.

DS 4

The DS 4 is a compact car, and it is the second model in the then new premium (luxury vehicle) DS sub brand created by Citroën, now an independent brand. It was officially launched internationally in 2011, but already on sale in some countries by the end 2010. Based upon the Citroën C4 II, it features raised suspension to resemble a compact SUV and repositioned door handles to give a coupe like silhouette. The rear windows are fixed, and do not slide or open outwardsAt launch, the petrol engines that powered the DS 4 were all a product of a collaboration between PSA and BMW, all being 1,598 cc four cylinder, 16 valve units. The base VTi 120 was normally aspirated and put out 120 PS (88 kW). As its name implies it came with variable valve timing. The next engine up was the THP 155, essentially a turbo charged version of the VTi.

It put out 156 PS (115 kW) thanks to a twin scroll turbocharger and dual overhead cams, and used a six speed manual transmission. The most powerful engine option was the THP 200, a variation of the THP 155, but with an output of 200 PS (147 kW). Citroën initially offered two diesel engines in the DS 4 – the HDi 110, a 1,560 cc four cylinder that put out 112 PS (82 kW) and the four cylinder HDi 160 also found in the sedan Citroën C5.

It has a displacement of 1,997 cc and put out 163 PS (120 kW).

The current engine line up differs significantly. The DS 4 is available with Start&Stop technology and Citroën says that the battery has been optimized to withstand up to 600,000 starting cycles. The boot is 385 litres or 1021 litres with the back seats folded down. The DS 4's styling has been very well received by the international press.

It was elected Most Beautiful Car of the Year at the International Automobile Festival, beating BMW’s new F10 5 Series and Honda's new CR-Z hybrid car. German magazine Auto Bild, and its partner magazines throughout Europe, have given it 1st Prize for Design, in its category in the contest Design Award.

Daihatsu Sigra

The Daihatsu Sigra (Japanese: ダイハツ・シグラ, Daihatsu Shigura) is a mini MPV designed by Daihatsu and manufactured by Astra Daihatsu Motor in Indonesia since 2016. It was previewed by the UFC, UFC-2 and UFC-3 concept cars that was shown in 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively. The Sigra is also sold by Toyota as the Toyota Calya (Japanese: トヨタ・カリヤ, Toyota Kariya). It shares the platform with the Ayla and Perodua Axia. It is positioned below the Xenia and competes with the Datsun Go+. It was unveiled on 2 August 2016 and launched at the 24th Gaikindo Indonesia International Auto Show on 11 August 2016. Both cars are manufactured at the Karawang plant, which the company claims have 94% local content.The Sigra and Calya was built to meet the Low Cost Green Car (LCGC) regulation by the Indonesian government that abolished the luxury vehicle tax to the cars. The "Calya" name was taken from the Sanskrit word meaning "perfect", while "Sigra" means "fast response".

Genesis Championship

The Genesis Championship is a men's professional golf tournament in South Korea. The inaugural event was held at the Jack Nicklaus Golf Club Korea from 21 to 24 September 2017. Prize money was KRW1,500,000,000, the largest for any Korean Tour event. The winner received KRW300,000,000 and an automatic entry to the CJ Cup and Genesis Open on the PGA Tour. The 2018 event was held from 24 to 27 May.

The tournament is sponsored by Genesis Motors, the luxury vehicle division of Hyundai Motor Group.

Genesis Motor

Genesis Motor is the luxury vehicle division of the South Korean vehicle manufacturer Hyundai Motor Group. Initially envisioned along with the plan for Hyundai's new luxury sedan Hyundai Genesis in 2004, the Genesis brand was officially announced as a standalone marque on 4 November 2015. Genesis models are designed in Rüsselsheim, Germany, Namyang, South Korea, and Irvine, United States; and produced in Ulsan, South Korea.Manfred Fitzgerald, former director of brand and design at Lamborghini, is executive vice president. Luc Donckerwolke, former design director of Volkswagen subsidiaries Bentley, Lamborghini and Audi, is head of design operations. Peter Schreyer, formerly at Volkswagen and principal designer of the VW Golf, New Beetle, and the Audi TT, is a president and heads design management. Albert Biermann, former head of BMW M performance division, oversees tuning and performance in his role as executive vice president of performance development and high performance vehicles. Sang-yup Lee, former designer of the C-6 Chevrolet Corvette and Bentley Continental GT, and Alexander (Sasha) Selipanov, former designer of the Bugatti Chiron, lead exterior and advanced design. Fayez Rahman, former development leader at BMW, is vice-president of architecture development. Bozhena Lalova, on a secondment from Mercedes-Benz, heads colour and trim.

HQM Sachsenring GmbH

HQM Sachsenring GmbH is a Zwickau-based company that supplies chassis and body parts to the automotive industry. The company was named after the Sachsenring race track. Founded as VEB Sachsenring after the end of World War II, Sachsenring was one of the only manufacturers of vehicles in East Germany, its best known product being the Trabant. Following the reunification of Germany in 1990, Sachsenring transitioned from a government-owned company under a centrally-planned economy to a private corporation in a free market economy.

After three years in bankruptcy, Sachsenring AG was purchased in February, 2006 by Härterei und Qualitätsmanagement GmbH (HQM) of Leipzig. Formerly the dominant- and only- major automaker in East Germany, Sachsenring has since departed from making motor vehicles. Today, it supplies, among other things, the Volkswagen factory with parts for the Golf and Passat models.

K series

K series may refer to:

Lincoln K series, a line of luxury vehicle

Scania K series, a series of bus chassis with longitudinal rear-mounted engines

Skoda K series, a heavy howitzer

K series engine (disambiguation), including:

Honda K engine

Mazda K engine

Rover K engine

International Harvester K and KB series, a line of heavy trucks of the 1940s

QI (K series), the eleventh series of quiz show QI

K-series (trains), a type of train in China

"K" series, a set of messages in the military Variable Message Format data protocol

K Series (TV series), a television programming block on Puthuyugam TV

Karim Habib

Karim Antoine Habib (born 1970) is a Canadian automotive designer of Lebanese descent, currently the head of design for the Japanese luxury vehicle manufacturer Infiniti. He previously worked for the BMW group. He was the Chief Designer of the BMW marque, from 2012 to 2017.

Limousine

A limousine ( or ) is a luxury vehicle driven by a chauffeur with a partition between the driver's compartment and the passenger's compartment.

A car with a partition and a greatly lengthened wheelbase is called a "stretch limousine".

In some countries like USA, Germany, Canada, a "limousine service" is a pre-booked hire car with driver, regardless of the type of vehicle.

In German-speaking countries, a Limousine is simply a sedan, while a lengthened-wheelbase car is called Stretch-Limousine.

Lincoln K series

The Lincoln K series (also called the Lincoln Model K, in line with Ford nomenclature) is a luxury vehicle that was produced by the Lincoln Motor Company. The second motor line produced by the company, the Model K was developed from the Model L, including a modernized chassis on a longer wheelbase. In 1931, Lincoln introduced a V-12 engine, becoming a feature of the company for nearly 20 years.

One of the most exclusive vehicles produced in the United States during the 1930s, the Model K competed against the Cadillac V-12 and V-16, Chrysler Imperial, and the Duesenberg Model J. Alongside multiple body configurations produced by Lincoln in its Detroit assembly facility, bare chassis were provided for coachbuilders for bespoke bodywork (in line with Rolls-Royce, Bentley, and Bugatti).

After the 1939 model year, Lincoln ended production of the Model K, selling leftover vehicles as 1940 models. For 1941 and 1942, the Lincoln Custom was sold as an indirect successor to the Model K, offered as an 8-passenger limousine or touring sedan produced as a long-wheelbase version of the Lincoln-Zephyr. Since World War II, various Lincoln sedans (the Continental or its Town Car successor) have been produced as long-wheelbase sedans or factory limousines, but no direct model line has been developed as a successor to the Model K (as of 2020 production).

Luxury

Luxury may refer to:

Luxury goods, an economic good or service for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises

Luxury tax, tax on products not considered essential, such as expensive cars

Luxury tax (sports), surcharge put on the aggregate payroll of a sports team to the extent to which it exceeds a predetermined guideline level set by the league

Luxury vehicle, expensive automobiles

Luxury train, expensive tourist trains

Luxury yacht, expensive privately owned, professionally crewed yacht

Luxury real estate, niche real estate market dealing with the highest economic group of property buyers

Luxury resort, exclusive vacation facilities

Luxury box, term for a special seating section in arenas, stadiums and other sports venues

Luxury magazine, magazines devoted to fine craft and luxury goods

Maybach Zeppelin

The Maybach Zeppelin was the Maybach company's Repräsentationswagen model from 1929 to 1939. Named for the company's famous production of Zeppelin engines prior to and during World War I, it was an enormous luxury vehicle which weighed approximately 3000 kg (6600 lb). This weight was so great that German drivers required an additional goods vehicle licence for vehicles over 2½ tons. Along with the Voisin, and behind the Daimler Double Six, this was Europe's joint second luxury V12 car in production.

Mitsubishi Model A

The Mitsubishi Model A is the only car built by the Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Company, a member of the Mitsubishi corporate group which would eventually evolve into Mitsubishi Motors, and the first series production automobile manufactured in Japan. It was the brainchild of Koyata Iwasaki, Mitsubishi's fourth president and the nephew of founder Yataro Iwasaki, who foresaw the vast potential of motorized vehicles and the role they would play in the economic development of Japan. Envisioned as a luxury vehicle for high echelon government officials and top executives, the Model A had to be reliable, comfortable and a showcase of Japanese craftsmanship. After the war in 1964, Mitsubishi would use this approach again to build an exclusive sedan for government officials and top level executives with the Mitsubishi Debonair.

Based on the Fiat Tipo 3, it was a four-door seven-seat sedan using a town car bodystyle powered by a front-mounted 26 kW (35 hp) 2.8-litre straight-4 engine driving the rear wheels, and was capable of speeds up to 60 miles per hour (97 km/h). 22 were built at the company's Kobe shipyard, including prototypes, between 1917 and 1921.

Because it was expensive to produce—it was built entirely by hand, with the interior rear compartment furnished with lacquered white cypress—it could not compete with cheaper American and European competition, and Mitsubishi halted production after four years. Concentrating instead on its successful Fuso commercial vehicles, the Model A would be the company's last passenger car until the Mitsubishi 500 of 1960.

At Mitsubishi's Auto Gallery (a museum of the company's most historically significant vehicles, established at their R&D Center in Okazaki in 1989) there is a replica on display, assembled in 1972 using materials of the time. It has a slightly shorter wheelbase, and uses a water-cooled 977 cc four-cylinder OHV engine instead of the larger 2.8-litre original.

Panther De Ville

The Panther De Ville is a neo-classic luxury vehicle which was produced by Panther Westwinds, the British specialty maker, from 1974 to 1985. The De Ville was conceived by Robert Jankel to appeal to the taste of nouveau riche customers, including singer Elton John and actor Oliver Reed. About 60 De Villes were hand-built, including eleven two-door convertibles (for many years Britain's most expensive listed production car), and one pink and gold six-door limousine.With a wheelbase of 142 inches (3,600 mm), the tubular-framed De Ville used a straight-six engine or a V12 engine from Jaguar Cars. The flowing wing lines and big headlights of the De Ville were styled to imitate the Bugatti Royale. The cockpit of the De Ville was modern, without the exterior's pretense of pre-war styling.The Panther De Ville was equipped with Jaguar suspension, power steering and automatic transmission, so it was an easy car to drive and quite quick, although poor aerodynamics tended to keep the top speed low. Interiors were lavish and often featured TV sets and drinks bars. The doors of the De Ville were from the BMC 1800 family car.A Panther De Ville was used in Disney's 1996 live-action movie 101 Dalmatians and 102 Dalmatians as Cruella de Vil's car. The Jaguar engine in the car was replaced with a small-block Chevrolet V8.The Panther de Ville was hand painted by Alexander Mitchell

Pimpmobile

A pimpmobile is a large luxury vehicle, usually a 1960s, '70s or '80s-model Lincoln, Cadillac, Buick or Chrysler vehicle, that has been customized in a garish, extravagant and kitsch or campy style. The style is largely an American phenomenon. Aftermarket features or modifications such as headlight covers, hood ornaments, expensive stereo systems, unusual paint colors, and shag carpet interiors were used by car owners to advertise their wealth and importance. Once considered a pejorative, these customized vehicles were popular with pimps, drug dealers, and gang leaders in the ghettos of large cities of the United States in the late 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, especially New York City, Kansas City, Chicago, Oakland and Los Angeles as a symbol of their wealth and power. By the 1990s and 2000s, pimpmobiles included any large, extravagantly customized vehicle, such as a customized SUV truck.

Roewe

Roewe is a vehicle marque created by the Chinese automaker SAIC Motor in 2006. Roewe vehicles were initially based on technology acquired from defunct British carmaker MG Rover. SAIC was unable to purchase the rights to the Rover brand name (which was bought by Ford instead) and created the Roewe marque as a replacement. The MG name is preferred in most markets outside China.

Roewe can be considered an indigenous Chinese luxury vehicle brand name alongside others such as Hongqi.

Ɛ̃fini

ɛ̃fini (アンフィニ (Anfini)) was a luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Mazda that operated between 1991 and 1997 in Japan only. Its inception as a brand emerged in the late 1980s when Mazda diversified its sales channels in the Japanese market with the launch of three new marques. The company created Autozam, Eunos, and ɛ̃fini, in addition to the Mazda and Ford brands already marketed there. This selective marketing experiment ended in the mid-1990s due to economic conditions, largely attributed to the collapse of the Japanese asset price bubble in 1991. As a brand, ɛ̃fini encompassed most, if not all dealers formerly under Mazda's "Auto" dealer chain. Pronounced like the French word infini, the name is written with a tilde over the lowercase Greek ε (as in ɛ̃), and can therefore be assumed to be IPA, the pronunciation symbols universally taught in Japan, and quite often used in product naming.

The ɛ̃fini marque was a luxury-oriented brand, as opposed to the more mainstream, fun to drive Eunos brand, traditional Mazda, and entry level Autozam. The vehicles sold didn't comply with Japanese government exterior and engine displacement regulations which classed all vehicles sold as ɛ̃fini as exclusive luxury products. The length of the MS-6 was the same as the MS-8 at 4,695 mm (184.8 in). Both shared the V6 2.0 L, while the MS-6 offered the convenience of a hatchback bodystyle, and the MS-8 offered space efficiency of bench seats for both front and rear passengers and the open-air feeling of a hardtop sedan bodystyle.

The ɛ̃fini name and logo are not to be confused with several limited-edition second generation (FC) RX-7s, the "Infini" edition (marked with an infinity sign "∞"), from the late 1980s.

From 1991 until 1997, when the ɛ̃fini dealership was integrated into Mazda locations, Citroën products were sold to Japanese buyers, as well as Mazda's Eunos locations. Currently, there are a few Japanese Mazda dealerships that still maintain the sales channels, but sell Mazda-branded products.

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