A lustrum (/ˈlʌstrəm/, plural lustra) was a term for a five-year period in Ancient Rome.
The lustration was originally a sacrifice for expiation and purification offered by one of the censors in the name of the Roman people at the close of the taking of the census. The sacrifice was often in the form of an animal sacrifice, known as a suovetaurilia.
These censuses were taken at five-year intervals, thus a lustrum came to refer to the five-year inter-census period. Lustrum (from luo, Ancient Greek: λούω) is a lustration or purification of the whole Roman people performed by one of the censors in the Campus Martius, after the taking of the census was over. As this purification took place only once in five years, the word lustrum was also used to designate the time between two lustra.
The first lustrum was performed in 566 BC by King Servius, after he had completed his census, and afterwards it is said to have taken place regularly every five years after the census was over. In the earliest period of the republic, the business of the census and the solemnities of the lustrum were performed by the consuls. The first censors were appointed in 443 BC, and from this year down to 294 BC there had, according to Livy (X.47), only been 26 pairs of censors, and only 21 lustra, or general purifications, although if all had been regular, there would have been 30 pairs of censors and 30 lustra. Sometimes the census was not held at all, or at least not by the censors. The census might take place without the lustrum, and indeed two cases of this kind are recorded, in 459 and 214 BC. In these cases, the lustrum was not performed because of some great calamities that had befallen the republic.
The time when the lustrum took place has been calculated. Six ancient Romulian years, of 304 days each, were, with the difference of two days, equal to five solar years of 365 days each, with one leap year of 366 days; or the six ancient years made 1824 days, while the five solar years contained 1826 days. The lustrum, or the great year of the ancient Romans, was thus a cycle, at the end of which, the beginning of the ancient year nearly coincided with that of the solar year. As the coincidence, however, was not perfect, a month of 24 days was interposed in every eleventh lustrum. It is highly probable that the recurrence of such a cycle or great year was, from the earliest times, solemnized with sacrifices and purifications, and that King Servius did not introduce them, but merely connected them with his census, and thus set the example for subsequent ages, which however, as we have seen, was not observed with regularity.
The last lustrum was solemnized at Rome, in AD 74, in the reign of Vespasian.
The word should not be confused with the identically spelled, but differently pronounced, lustrum (/ˈlʊstrəm/ LUUS-trəm), a haunt of wild beasts, plural lustra (/ˈlʊstrɑː/ LUUS-trah), a den of vice.
William Wallis (20 November 1936 – 6 September 2013) was an English character actor and comedian who appeared in numerous radio and television roles, as well as in the theatre.
Wallis was born in Guildford in Surrey, the only son of Albert Wallis, a trainee fishmonger turned engineer, and his wife, Anne, a nurse. He attended Farnham Grammar School from 1948 to 1955, where he was head boy. He gained a State Scholarship to St John's College, Cambridge, and while at Cambridge met Peter Cook and David Frost. When Cook and the team took Beyond the Fringe to Broadway, Wallis took over the roles played by Alan Bennett.
Wallis appeared in a number of television programmes including Chelmsford 123, Doctor at Large (1971), ITV's production of The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole, the BBC's adaptation of John Masefield's book The Box of Delights (1984), the first series of Blackadder (drunken knight), Blackadder II (Ploppy the Jailer), Blackadder Goes Forth (Agent Brigadier Smith), Just Good Friends (A. J. Styles) and Yes, Prime Minister. One longstanding role was that of the hard-drinking Dr Nick McKenzie in the BBC drama Dangerfield, from 1995 until 1998. He appeared as Gestapo-man Werner Beck in award-winning War and Remembrance (1988). He also appeared briefly in the first episode of ITV's Midsomer Murders, apparently driving a Morgan sports car. In fact this was pushed by other cast members, as he did not hold a driving licence. He appeared in Not Only... But Also with Peter Cook and Dudley Moore, alongside comic actors John Wells and Joe Melia, singing the absurdist comic song "Alan a' Dale". He appeared in the original London cast of the unsuccessful Andrew Lloyd Webber/Alan Ayckbourn musical Jeeves in 1975. He presented and narrated a semi-dramatised documentary titled A Pleasant Terror on the life and works of M. R. James, broadcast by ITV in December 1995.
Some of his most frequent appearances were on BBC Radio 4 for The Afternoon Play and the Classic Serial, but he was also in the cast of the long-running sketch show Week Ending, and in the first episode of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy in 1978, originating the roles of Mr. Prosser and Prostetnic Vogon Jeltz. He reprised the latter in the second episode and in one episode of the second series; however, due to unavailability, the roles of Jeltz and (briefly) Prosser were taken over by Toby Longworth. He played Winston Hayballs in Peter Tinniswood's Winston series. He also featured as the third party in the "...is approached by Ivor Cutler" series of short humorous pieces, including playing the Miner, the Farmer and the Sheet Metal Worker.
Wallis also read audiobooks, among them unabridged productions of Robert Harris's first two novels about the life of Cicero, Imperium (2006) and Lustrum (2009). The third and final novel, Dictator (2015) was not published until after Wallis's death. Wallis's role as narrator was taken over by David Rintoul.
His film appearances include The Bed Sitting Room (1969), The Romantic Englishwoman (1975), The Orchard End Murder (1980), Brazil (1985), The Whistle Blower (1986), The Great Escape II: The Untold Story (1988), The Fool (1990), Splitting Heirs (1993), Keep the Aspidistra Flying (1997) and The Other Boleyn Girl (2008).
He had two children with his first wife, the cellist Jean Spalding, and two children with his second wife, the artist and lecturer Dr Karen Wallis (née Mills), whom he married in 1979. He suffered from multiple myeloma, a form of bone marrow cancer, but was able to continue performing in audio and radio work. Wallis died at his home in Bath on 6 September 2013.Century
A century (from the Latin centum, meaning one hundred; abbreviated c.) is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered ordinally in English and many other languages.
A centenary is a hundredth anniversary, or a celebration of this, typically the remembrance of an event which took place a hundred years earlier.Decade
A decade is a period of 10 years. The word is derived (via French and Latin) from the Ancient Greek: δεκάς, romanized: dekas), which means a group of ten. Other words for spans of years also come from Latin: biennium (2 years), triennium (3 years), quadrennium (4 years), lustrum (5 years), century (100 years), millennium (1000 years).Dictator (Harris novel)
Dictator is a historical novel by British author Robert Harris, published in 2015, which concludes his trilogy about the life of the Roman lawyer, politician and orator Cicero (106–43 BC). Dictator follows the first novel Imperium (2006) and the second novel Lustrum (2009). It is both a biography of Cicero and a tapestry of Rome in the time of Pompey, Crassus, Cato, Caesar, Clodius and ultimately Octavian.In Harris's summary: "Thus Imperium describes the rise to power, Lustrum the years in power and Dictator the repercussions of power." All three novels were adapted for the stage in 2017 by Mike Poulton.Groninger Studentencorps Vindicat atque Polit
The Groninger Studenten Corps Vindicat atque Polit (Latin for Maintain and Refine) is one of the oldest Dutch student associations and was founded on February the 4th, 1815 as a reaction to attacks on students from local citizens. The first rector of the senate was B.J. Winter. Nowadays Vindicat is the second largest student organization in Groningen, a city in the North of The Netherlands, with nearly 2500 members.
Vindicat's Society building is located in the heart of Groningen and is called Mutua Fides (Mutual Trust or Confidence) and plays a large role in the social life of its members. Vindicat is also home to cultural and sport sub-organizations like GSR Aegir. In 2015, Vindicat celebrated its 200th anniversary with its 40th lustrum festival.
In 2005, a copy of Mutua Fides on a scale of 1:25 was built in the miniature city Madurodam.Imperium (Harris novel)
Imperium is a 2006 novel by English author Robert Harris. It is a fictional biography of Cicero, told through the first-person narrator of his secretary Tiro, beginning with the prosecution of Verres.
The book is the first in a trilogy. The second volume, Lustrum, was published in October 2009. The third volume, Dictator, was published in 2015. Publication of the sequels was delayed whilst Harris worked on other books, including his contemporary political novel, The Ghost, inspired by the resignation of Tony Blair. Once the trilogy was complete it was adapted for the stage by Mike Poulton in 2017.
The book was serialised as the Book at Bedtime on BBC Radio 4 from 4 to 15 September 2006, read by Douglas Hodge. An abridged audiobook on compact disc is available, read by British actor Oliver Ford Davies. Unabridged audiobooks on compact disc are also available, read by Simon Jones and Bill Wallis.
A theatrical adaptation of the trilogy by Mike Poulton was performed by the Royal Shakespeare Company in the Swan Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon in 2017, and transferred to the Gielgud Theatre in London in 2018. The two plays were directed by RSC Artistic Director Gregory Doran, with Richard McCabe as Cicero.Imperium (play cycle)
Imperium: the Cicero Plays is a stage adaptation of the Cicero trilogy of novels by Robert Harris (Imperium, Lustrum and Dictator). It was premiered by the Royal Shakespeare Company at the Swan Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon from 16 November 2017 to 10 February 2018, directed by Gregory Doran and with Richard McCabe as Cicero. It played at the Gielgud Theatre in London from 14 June to 8 September 2018.Lustrum (disambiguation)
Lustrum (plural lustra) was a term for a five-year period in Ancient Rome.
Lustrum may also refer to:
Lustrum (novel), a novel by Robert Harris in his trilogy about Cicero
Lustrum (celebration): in the Netherlands, it is customary for universities and student organisations to celebrate each fifth anniversary. Such a celebration is called a Lustrum.Lustrum (novel)
Lustrum (US: Conspirata; 2009) is a historical novel by British author Robert Harris. It is the sequel to Imperium and the middle volume of a trilogy about the life of Cicero (106–43 BC). For its 2010 release in the United States, and Italy, it was retitled Conspirata.
The book continues in the format of the first novel, with the story told in the first-person from the point of view of Cicero's secretary Tiro. It follows on immediately from Imperium, starting with the beginning of Cicero's consulship and ending with his exile as a result of the enmity of Clodius.
The novel was shortlisted for the 2010 Walter Scott Prize. It and the other novels in the trilogy were also adapted for the stage in 2017 by Mike Poulton.Nereus Rowing Club
The Amsterdam Student Rowing Club (ASR) Nereus, (Dutch De Amsterdamsche Studenten Roeivereeniging (ASR) Nereus) is a rowing club in Amsterdam, Netherlands which was founded in 1885 by J. Schölvinck as a subsidiary organization of The Corps, an Amsterdam student fraternity.
Within a short period of time, Nereus started proving itself by achieving big successes and winning its first event in 1888 followed by a winning streak of four Varsity victories 1891–1894. After obtaining national recognition, Nereus finally made its mark on the international rowing scene by winning at Hamburg in 1891 and by winning the Thames Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta in 1895.
Nereus has provided rowers for the Netherlands' national Olympic crews, of which the golden men's eight in Atlanta (1996), the silver quad in Sydney (2000), the silver men's eight, bronze lightweight women's double and women's eight in Athens (2004) are examples. At the Beijing Olympics (2008), as well as the Rio de Janeiro Olympics (2016),, Nereus lightweight women's double won the gold medal. One of the more notable members of Nereus is head coach Diederik Simon who has won two silver medals at the 2000 Sydney games and 2004 Athens games. Simon's most prestigious achievements come from his 1996 Gold in the men's eight at the 1996 Atlanta games, and his wins in the Oude Vier or Old four at the Varsity (rowing regatta). Other Notable members include Tone Wieten who currently holds the RowPerfect 2-kilometre world record with a time of five minutes and thirty-three seconds, Robert Lücken, and Boaz Meylink.
Nereus has won the most prestigious and oldest student rowing event of The Netherlands, The Varsity, which is modelled after the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race, a total of 43 times.
The club's first boathouse was built in 1886 along the River Amstel. It was situated closer to the centre of Amsterdam than the present one. The old boathouse was demolished during the Second World War. The current boathouse was opened in 1953. A miniature version of the Nereus boathouse can be found in Madurodam.
Membership of Nereus was originally confined to members of The Amsterdam Student Corps, also the ‘Corps’. Changes in Dutch society in the 1970s and decreasing membership levels caused Nereus to welcome non-Corps members as well as merging with its female counterpart Thetis.
Nereus celebrated its 26th lustrum on its 130th dies natalis on December 11, 2015.Pentad
Pentad or pentade may refer to:
the number five, 5
Pentad (computing), a 5-bit group
a series of five years (Aristotle 1857: the decade is composed ... of two pentads), like the lustrum
72 pentads (七十二候) in East Asia calendars, the solar term
Kenneth Burke's method of analyzing motivation, the dramatistic pentad
Pentad (chord), Pentachord, a five note chord
a group of five signs or symptoms for diagnosis of various medical conditions, Medical pentadsRSC Anderlecht (women)
RSC Anderlecht Féminin is a Belgian women's football team, currently playing at the Super League Vrouwenvoetbal. It formerly played the Belgian First Division and the BeNe League, that was folded in 2015. The team was founded in 1971 as Brussels Dames 71.
The team won one Belgian championship and four national cups as Brussels D71 between 1984 and 1991, and three championships and five cups as Anderlecht between 1994 and 2005, including doubles in 1987 and 1998, with the 1994-1999 lustrum being its most successful period. With ten titles Anderlecht is the Cup's most successful team. Since 2004 it has been the championship's runner-up in five occasions, most recently in 2011.Twenty years after their last championship they again won the title in 2018.Ralph Gibson
Ralph Gibson (born January 16, 1939) is an American art photographer best known for his photographic books. His images often incorporate fragments with erotic and mysterious undertones, building narrative meaning through contextualization and surreal juxtaposition.Robert Harris (novelist)
Robert Dennis Harris (born 7 March 1957) is an English novelist. He is a former journalist and BBC television reporter. Although he began his career in non-fiction, his fame rests upon his works of historical fiction. Beginning with the best-seller Fatherland, Harris focused on events surrounding the Second World War, followed by works set in ancient Rome. His most recent works centre on contemporary history. Harris was educated at Selwyn College, Cambridge, where he was president of the Union and editor of the student newspaper Varsity.Roman censor
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.The power of the censors was absolute: no magistrate could oppose their decisions, only another censor who succeeded them could cancel it.
The censors' regulation of public morality is the origin of the modern meaning of the words censor and censorship.Taurian Games
The Taurian Games (Latin Ludi Taurii or Ludi Taurei, rarely Taurilia) were games (ludi) held in ancient Rome in honor of the di inferi, the gods of the underworld. They were not part of a regularly scheduled religious festival on the calendar, but were held as expiatory rites religionis causa, occasioned by religious concerns.Ludi Taurii are recorded in 186 BC as a two-day event. Varro mentions them as occurring in the late Republic. During the reign of Antoninus Pius, they were held every five years from 140 to 160 AD, within a period beginning on the day after the Ides of May and continuing through the Kalends of June. Some scholars extrapolate that like the lustrum (purification ritual), the Ludi Taurii were regularly quinquennial. Others caution that the five-year schedule under Antoninus Pius, attested by the Fasti Ostienses, is never mentioned in other sources. The limited evidence suggests the Ludi Taurii were important mainly in the context of religious revivalism during the Augustan and Antonine eras.The Taurian Games were horse races, or less likely chariot races, on a course around turning posts (metae). In the 19th century, they were sometimes confused with the archaic Tarentine Games (ludi tarentini), which were replaced by the Saecular Games. Horse racing along with the propitiation of underworld gods was characteristic of "old and obscure" Roman festivals such as the Consualia, the October Horse, and sites in the Campus Martius such as the Tarentum (where the ludi tarentini originated) and the Trigarium. The Ludi Taurii were the only games held in the Circus Flaminius.If the games are Etruscan in origin, as Festus and Servius claim, taurii probably comes from the Etruscan word tauru, "tomb." The design of the turning posts (metae) on a Roman race course was derived from Etruscan funerary monuments. Festus, however, offers an etiology based on Latin taurus, "bull."Tees Viaduct
The A19 Tees Viaduct or Tees Flyover is a high level six-lane dual carriageway road bridge in the North East of England carrying the main A19 trunk road north-south across the River Tees.The bridge is located between Middlesbrough and Stockton-on-Tees just north of the A19's interchange with the A66 trunk road and carries the north-south traffic through Teesside avoiding the main towns but is also used extensively by local traffic.
On the southern bank the bridge crosses the marshalling yard railway lines and the main Thornaby-Middlesbrough section of Tees Valley Line, the B6541 (Old A66/A67, Stockton Road) and the A66 road.
On the northern bank the bridge crosses the Teesdale Way long-distance cycle/footpath, Lustrum Beck, a service road, footpath (disused railway line) and the main roundabout on the Portrack Interchange.Tulsa (book)
Tulsa is a collection of black-and-white photographs by Larry Clark of the life of young people in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Its publication in 1971 "caused a sensation within the photographic community", leading to a new interest in autobiographical work.
Later better known for directing the movie Kids, Clark was a Tulsa native and a drug addict during the period (1963–1971) when he took the photographs. The book is prefaced by the statement:i was born in tulsa oklahoma in 1943. when i was sixteen i started shooting amphetamine. i shot with my friends everyday for three years and then left town but i've gone back through the years. once the needle goes in it never comes out. L.C.
Tulsa, Clark's first book, was published in 1971 by Lustrum Press, owned by Ralph Gibson. It has been claimed that thanks to Gene Pitney's 1960 song "Twenty Four Hours from Tulsa", Tulsa then represented "young love and family values"; Clark's book challenged this with scenes of young people having sex, shooting up drugs, and playing with guns.
Clark has said that he "didn't take these photographs as a voyeur, but as a participant in the phenomenon", and commentary on the book has emphasized how Clark did not just live with the teenagers portrayed but "did drugs with them, slept with them, and included himself in the photographs"; this conferred an authenticity on the work, which brought it great praise.Criticism of Tulsa has not been limited to a visceral rejection of images of drugtaking, casual sex, and gunplay; Martin Parr and Gerry Badger say that the "incessant focus [of Tulsa and Clark's 1983 book Teenage Lust] on the sleazy aspect of the lives portrayed, to the exclusion of almost anything else — whether photographed from the 'inside' or not — raises concerns about exploitation and drawing the viewer into a prurient, voyeuristic relationship with the work."Unit of time
A unit of time or midst unit is any particular time interval, used as a standard way of measuring or expressing duration. The base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI), and by extension most of the Western world, is the second, defined as about 9 billion oscillations of the caesium atom. The exact modern definition, from the National Institute of Standards and Technology is:
The duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom.Historically units of time were defined by the movements of astronomical objects.
Sun based: the year was the time for the earth to revolve around the sun. Year-based units include the olympiad (four years), the lustrum (five years), the indiction (15 years), the decade, the century, and the millennium.
Moon based: the month was based on the moon's orbital period around the earth.
Earth based: the time it took for the earth to rotate on its own axis, as observed on a sundial. Units originally derived from this base include the week at seven days, and the fortnight at 14 days. Subdivisions of the day include the hour (1/24th of a day) which was further subdivided into minutes and finally seconds. The second became the international standard unit (SI units) for science.
Celestial sphere based: as in sidereal time, where the apparent movement of the stars and constellations across the sky is used to calculate the length of a year.These units do not have a consistent relationship with each other and require intercalation. For example, the year cannot be divided into 12 28-day months since 12 times 28 is 336, well short of 365. The lunar month (as defined by the moon's rotation) is not 28 days but 28.3 days. The year, defined in the Gregorian calendar as 365.24 days has to be adjusted with leap days and leap seconds. Consequently, these units are now all defined as multiples of seconds.
Units of time based on orders of magnitude of the second include the nanosecond and the millisecond.
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