Luoyang

Luoyang (Luòyáng) is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province. Governed as a prefecture-level city, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast. As of the final 2010 census, Luoyang had a population of 6,549,941 inhabitants with 1,857,003 people living in the built-up (or metro) area made of the city's five urban districts, all of which except the Jili District are not urbanized yet.[1]

Situated on the central plain of China, Luoyang is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization, and is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.

Names

The name "Luoyang" originates from the city's location on the north or sunny ("yang") side of the Luo River. Since the river flows from west to east and the sun is to the south of the river, the sun always shines on the north side of the river. Luoyang has had several names over the centuries, including "Luoyi" (洛邑) and "Luozhou (洛州)", though Luoyang has been its primary name. It has been called, during various periods, "Dongdu" (东都, meaning the Eastern Capital, during the Tang dynasty), "Xijing" (西京, meaning the Western Capital, during the Song dynasty), or "Jingluo" (京洛, meaning the general capital for China). During the rule of Wu Zetian, the city was known as Shendu (神都 divine capital)

History

天子驾六
Museum of Luoyang Eastern Zhou Royal Horse and Chariot Pits
Luoyang in Han Dynasty
Map of Luoyang during the Eastern Han dynasty when it was the capital of China

The greater Luoyang area has been sacred ground since the late Neolithic period. This area at the intersection of the Luo river and Yi River was considered to be the geographical center of China. Because of this sacred aspect, several cities – all of which are generally referred to as "Luoyang" – have been built in this area. In 2070 BC, the Xia dynasty king Tai Kang moved the Xia capital to the intersection of the Luo and Yi and named the city Zhenxun (斟鄩). In 1600 BC, Tang of Shang defeated Jie, the final Xia dynasty king, and built Western Bo (西亳), a new capital on the Luo River. The ruins of Western Bo are located in Luoyang Prefecture.

In the 1036 BC a settlement named Chengzhou (成周) was constructed by the Duke of Zhou for the remnants of the captured Shang nobility. The Duke also moved the Nine Tripod Cauldrons to Chengzhou from the Zhou dynasty capital at Haojing. A second Western Zhou capital, Wangcheng (also: Luoyi) was built 15 km (9.3 mi) west of Chengzhou. Wangcheng became the capital of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in 771 BC. The Eastern Zhou Dynasty capital was moved to Chengzhou in 510 BC. Later, the Eastern Han Dynasty capital of Luoyang would be built over Chengzhou. Modern Luoyang is built over the ruins of Wangcheng, which are still visible today at Wangcheng Park.[2]

In 25 AD, Luoyang was declared the capital of the Eastern Han Dynasty on November 27 by Emperor Guangwu of Han.[3] The city walls formed a rectangle 4 km south to north and 2.5 km west to east, with the Gu River, a tributary of the Luo River just outside the northern eastern walls. The rectangular Southern Palace and the Northern Palace were 3 km apart and connected by The Covered Way. In 26, the Altar of the Gods of the Soils and Grains, the Altar of Heaven, and the Temple of the eminent Founder, Emperor Gao of Former Han were inaugurated. The Imperial University was restored in 29. In 48, the Yang Canal linked the capital to the Luo. In 56, main imperial observatory, the Spiritual Terrace, was constructed.[4]

For several centuries, Luoyang was the focal point of China. In AD 68, the White Horse Temple, the first Buddhist temple in China, was founded in Luoyang. The temple still exists, though the architecture is of later origin, mainly from the 16th century. An Shigao was one of the first monks to popularize Buddhism in Luoyang.

The ambassador Banchao restored the Silk Road in Eastern Han dynasty and this has made the capital city Luoyang the start of Silk Road

In 166 AD, the first Roman mission, sent by "the king of Da Qin [the Roman Empire], Andun" (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, r. 161–180 AD), reached Luoyang after arriving by sea in Rinan Commandery in what is now central Vietnam.[5]

The late 2nd century saw China decline into anarchy:

The decline was accelerated by the rebellion of the Yellow Turbans, who, although defeated by the Imperial troops in 184 AD, weakened the state to the point where there was a continuing series of rebellions degenerating into civil war, culminating in the burning of the Han capital of Luoyang on 24 September 189 AD. This was followed by a state of continual unrest and wars in China until a modicum of stability returned in the 220s, but with the establishment of three separate kingdoms, rather than a unified empire.[6]

In 190 AD, Chancellor Dong Zhuo ordered his soldiers to ransack, pillage, and raze the city as he retreated from the coalition set up against him by regional lords all across China. The court was subsequently moved to the more defensible western city of Chang'an. Following a period of disorder, during which warlord Cao Cao held the last Han emperor Xian in Xuchang (196–220), Luoyang was restored to prominence when his son Cao Pi, Emperor Wen of the Wei dynasty, declared it his capital in 220 AD. The Jin dynasty, successor to Wei, was also established in Luoyang.

When Jin was overrun by Xiongnu forces in 311 AD, it was forced to move its capital to Jiankang (modern day Nanjing). The Xiongnu warriors then sacked and nearly totally destroyed Luoyang. The same fate befell Chang'an in 316 AD.[7]

In winter 416, Luoyang fell to Liu Yu's general Tan Daoji. In 422, Luoyang was captured by Northern Wei. Liu Song general Dao Yanzhi took the city back, but by 439 the Wei conquered the city definitively. In 493 AD, Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei dynasty moved the capital from Datong to Luoyang and started the construction of the rock-cut Longmen Grottoes. More than 30,000 Buddhist statues from the time of this dynasty have been found in the caves. Many of these sculptures were two-faced. At the same time, the Shaolin Temple was also built by the Emperor to accommodate an Indian monk on the Mont Song right next to Luoyang City. The Yongning Temple (永宁寺), the tallest pagoda in China, was also built in Luoyang.

When Emperor Yang of Sui took control in 604 AD he founded the new Luoyang on the site of the existing city using a layout inspired by his father Emperor Wen of Sui's work in newly rebuilt Chang'an.[8][9]

During the Tang dynasty, Luoyang was Dongdu (东都), the "Eastern Capital", and at its height had a population of around one million, second only to Chang'an, which, at the time, was the largest city in the world.[10]

At the interval of Tang dynasty, the first and the only empress in Chinese history – Empress Wu, moved the capital of her Zhou Dynasty to Luoyang and named it as Shen Du (Capital of the God). She constructed the tallest palace in Chinese history, which is now in the site of Sui Tang Luoyang city.

During the short-lived Five Dynasties, Luoyang was the capital of the Later Liang (only for a few years before the court moved to Kaifeng) and Later Tang.

During the North Song dynasty, Luoyang was the 'Western Capital' and birthplace of Zhao Kuangyin, the founder of the Song dynasty. It served as a prominent culture center, housing some of the most important philosophers.

During the Jurchen Jin dynasty, Luoyang was the "Middle Capital".

Since the Yuan dynasty, Luoyang was no longer the capital of China in the rest of the ancient dynasties. The population was reduced to that of an average county. However, for one last time, Luoyang city was the capital of the Republic of China for a brief period of time during the Japanese invasion. By 1949, Luoyang's population was 75,000.

After the People's Republic of China was established, Luoyang was revived as a major heavy industrial hub. In the first five-year plan of China, 7 of 156 Soviet-aided major industrial programmes was launched in Luoyang's Jianxi District, including Dongfanghong Tractor Factory, Luoyang Mining Machines Factory and Luoyang Bearing Factory. Later, during the Third Front construction, a group of heavy industry factories was moved to or founded in Luoyang, including Luoyang Glass Factory. Industrial development significantly shifted Luoyang's demographic makeup, and about half of Luoyang's population are new immigrants after 1949 from outside the province or their descendants.

World Heritage

Ancient city sites

Administrative divisions

Luòyáng Museum
Luoyang Museum

The prefecture-level city of Luoyang administers 5 "built-up" urban districts, 1 additional district, 1 county-level city, and 9 more rural counties:

洛阳白马寺齐云塔
Qiyun Pagoda in White Horse Temple

During the 2010 census, the 5 "built-up" urban districts held a population of 1,857,003, making it the fourth-largest city in Henan. The entire area of Luoyang’s municipal government held 6,549,941 inhabitants total.

Map

Geography

As its name states, the Old Town of Luoyang is located on the north bank of the Luo, a southern tributary of the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The districts of the modern urban center include both banks and some of the surrounding mountains.

The countryside controlled by the municipal government includes still more rugged land: mountains comprise 45.51% of the total area; hills, 40.73%; and plains, 13.8%.[14]

Climate

Luoyang has a highly continental dry-winter humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cwa).

Culture

Guanlin Templ
Guanlin Temple in May 2007.
Sites

The Longmen Grottoes south of the city were listed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in November 2000. Guanlin—a series of temples built in honor of Guan Yu, a hero of the Three Kingdoms period—is nearby. The White Horse Temple is located 12 km (7.5 mi) east of the modern town.

The Luoyang Museum (est. 1958) features ancient relics dating back to the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties. The total number of exhibits on display is 1,700.[17] China's only tomb museum, the Luoyang Ancient Tombs Museum, opened to the public in 1987 and is situated north of the modern town.

The Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory (also known as the Dengfeng Observatory or the Tower of Chou Kong) stands 80 km (50 mi) south-east of Luoyang. It was constructed in 1276 during the Yuan Dynasty by Guo Shoujing as a giant gnomon for "the measurement of the sun's shadow". Prior to the Jesuit China Missions, it was used for establishing the summer and winter solstices in traditional Chinese astronomy.[18]

Cuisine

Luoyang is famed for its Water Banquet, which consists of 8 cold and 16 warm dishes all cooked in various broths, gravies, or juices.

Botany

Luoyang is also celebrated for the cultivation of peonies, its city flower. Since 1983, each mid-April the city hosts the Peony Culture Festival of Luoyang China. More than 19 million tourists visited Luoyang during the 2014 festival.[19]

Music

"Spring in Luoyang" (洛阳, Luòyáng Chūn), an ancient Chinese composition, became popular in Korea during the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) and is still performed in its dangak (Koreanized) version Nakyangchun (낙양춘). Lou Harrison, an American composer, has also created an arrangement of the work.

Dialect

Residents of Luoyang typically speak a dialect of Zhongyuan Mandarin. Although Luoyang's dialect was a prestige dialect of spoken Chinese from the Warring States period of the Zhou until the Ming Dynasty, it differs from the Beijing form of Mandarin which became the basis of the standard modern dialect.

Outer space

Asteroid (239200) 2006 MD13 is named after Luoyang.

Food

The Luoyang water table has two meanings: one is that all the hot dishes have soup-tang soup water; the other is that the hot dish Luoyang water mat has finished eating one after another, and then goes up one after another, and constantly updates like water. The characteristics of Luoyang Water Table are well-known, wide selection of materials, simple and versatile, diverse tastes, sour, spicy, sweet and salty, comfortable and delicious.

Education

Transportation

Twin towns and sister cities

Luoyang is twinned with:

Famous residents

See also

References

  1. ^ "China: Hénán". China Population. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  2. ^ China.org.cn, 2009
  3. ^ Robert Hymes (2000). John Stewart Bowman (ed.). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4.
  4. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2017). Fire over Luoyang: A History of the Later Han Dynasty 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. pp. 16–52. ISBN 9789004324916.
  5. ^ Hill (2009), p. 27.
  6. ^ Hill (2009), p. xvi,
  7. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
  8. ^ Marks, Robert B. (2011). China: Its Environment and History. ISBN 1442212756. p. 116
  9. ^ Schinz, Alfred (1996). The Magic Square: Cities in Ancient China. ISBN 3930698021. p. 167-169.
  10. ^ Abramson (2008), p. viii.
  11. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1003
  12. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1443
  13. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1442
  14. ^ 洛阳市人民政府网站 [Luòyángshì Rénmín Zhèngfǔ Wǎngzhàn, Luoyang Municipal People’s Government Website] op. cit. 北京2008年奥运火炬接力官方网站 [Běijīng 2008 Nián Àoyùn Huǒjù Jiēlì Guānfāng Wǎngzhàn, Beijing 2008 Torch Relay Official Website]. 〈洛阳地理及气候概况〉 ["Luòyáng Dìlǐ Jí Qìhòu Gàikuàng", "Overview of Luoyang’s Geography and Climate"]. 20 Mar 2008. Accessed 16 Jan 2014. (in Chinese)
  15. ^ 洛阳 – 气象数据 – 中国天气网. weather.com.cn. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  16. ^ 气候资源数据库. data.ac.cn. 2018-08-08.
  17. ^ China Culture. "Luoyang Museum Archived 2016-02-15 at the Wayback Machine".
  18. ^ Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China’’.
  19. ^ https://baike.baidu.com/item/中国洛阳牡丹文化节/1534157?fromtitle=洛阳牡丹花会&fromid=4516674&fr=aladdin

Further reading

  • Abramson, Marc. Ethnic Identity in Tang China. University of Pennsylvania Press (Philadelphia), 2008. ISBN 978-0-8122-4052-8.
  • Cotterell, Arthur. The Imperial Capitals of China: An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. Pimlico (London), 2008. ISBN 978-1-84595-010-1.
  • Hill, John E. Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE. BookSurge (Charleston), 2009. ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1.
  • Jenner, W. J. Memories of Loyang. Clarendon Press (Oxford), 1981.
  • Yang Hsüan-chih. Lo-yang ch‘ien-lan chi, translated by Wang Yi-t‘ung as A Record of Buddhist Monasteries in Lo-yang. Princeton University Press (Princeton), 1984. ISBN 0-691-05403-7.

External links

Preceded by
Zongzhou
Primary capital of China
771–256 BCE
Succeeded by

then Xianyang
Preceded by
Chang'an
Primary capital of China
25–190 CE
Succeeded by

then Chang'an
Emperor Xian of Han

Emperor Xian of Han (2 April 181 – 21 April 234), personal name Liu Xie, courtesy name Bohe, was the 14th and last emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty in China. He reigned from 28 September 189 until 11 December 220.Liu Xie was a son of Liu Hong (Emperor Ling) and was a younger half-brother of his predecessor, Liu Bian (Emperor Shao). In 189, at the age of eight, he became emperor after the warlord Dong Zhuo, who had seized control of the Han central government, deposed Emperor Shao and replaced him with Liu Xie. The newly enthroned Liu Xie, historically known as Emperor Xian, was in fact a puppet ruler under Dong Zhuo's control. In 190, when a coalition of regional warlords launched a punitive campaign against Dong Zhuo in the name of freeing Emperor Xian, Dong Zhuo ordered the destruction of the imperial capital, Luoyang, and forcefully relocated the imperial capital along with its residents to Chang'an. After Dong Zhuo's assassination in 192, Emperor Xian fell under the control of Li Jue and Guo Si, two former subordinates of Dong Zhuo. The various regional warlords formally acknowledged Emperor Xian's legitimacy but never took action to save him from being held hostage.

In 195, Emperor Xian managed to escape from Chang'an and return to the ruins of Luoyang during a feud between Li Jue (Han dynasty) and Guo Si, where he soon became stranded. A year later, the warlord Cao Cao led his forces into Luoyang, received Emperor Xian, took him under his protection, and escorted him to Xu, where the new imperial capital was established. Although Cao Cao paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian, he was actually the de facto head of the central government. He skillfully used Emperor Xian as a "trump card" to bolster his legitimacy when he attacked and eliminated rival warlords in his quest to reunify the Han Empire under the central government's rule. Cao Cao's success seemed inevitable until the winter of 208–209, when he lost the decisive Battle of Red Cliffs against the southern warlords Sun Quan and Liu Bei. The battle paved the way for the subsequent emergence of the Three Kingdoms later of Wei, Shu and Wu.

In late 220, some months after Cao Cao's death, Cao Cao's successor, Cao Pi, forced Emperor Xian to abdicate the throne to him. He then established the state of Cao Wei with himself as the new emperor – an event marking the formal end of the Han dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. The dethroned Emperor Xian received the noble title Duke of Shanyang (山陽公) from Cao Pi and spent the rest of his life in comfort and enjoyed preferential treatment. He died on 21 April 234,[1] about 14 years after the fall of the Han dynasty.

G36 Nanjing–Luoyang Expressway

The Nanjing–Luoyang Expressway (Chinese: 南京—洛阳高速公路), commonly referred to as the Ningluo Expressway (Chinese: 宁洛高速公路) is an expressway that connects the cities of Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, and Luoyang, Henan. It is 2,354.7 km (1,463.1 mi) in length.

The expressway was fully completed on 30 September 2006. It passes through the following cities:

Nanjing, Jiangsu

Bengbu, Anhui

Fuyang, Anhui

Zhoukou, Henan

Pingdingshan, Henan

Luoyang, Henan

He Jin

He Jin (pronunciation ) (died 22 September 189), courtesy name Suigao, was a military general and regent of the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He was an elder half-brother of Empress He, the empress consort of Emperor Ling, and a maternal uncle of Emperor Shao. In 189, he and his sister shared power as regents when the young Emperor Shao was put on the throne following Emperor Ling's death. During the time, the conflict between He Jin and the influential eunuch faction intensified. The eunuch faction lured He Jin into a trap in the imperial palace and assassinated him. While He Jin's subordinates slaughtered the eunuch faction in revenge, the warlord Dong Zhuo took advantage of the power vacuum to enter the imperial capital Luoyang and seize control of the Han central government. The subsequent breakdown of central command brought forth the beginning of massive civil wars which led to the end of the Han dynasty and the start of the Three Kingdoms period.

Jianxi District

Jianxi District (simplified Chinese: 涧西区; traditional Chinese: 澗西區; pinyin: Jiànxī Qū) is a district of the city of Luoyang, Henan province, China.

Jianxi District established in July 1955, locate the west of Jian River and Xigong District is east by the Jian River. Jiangxi is a manufacturing center.

Longmen Grottoes

The Longmen Grottoes (simplified Chinese: 龙门石窟; traditional Chinese: 龍門石窟; pinyin: Lóngmén Shíkū; literally: 'Dragon's Gate Grottoes') or Longmen Caves are some of the finest examples of Chinese Buddhist art. Housing tens of thousands of statues of Buddha and his disciples, they are located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south of present-day Luoyang in Henan province, China. The images, many once painted, were carved as outside rock reliefs and inside artificial caves excavated from the limestone cliffs of the Xiangshan (香山) and Longmenshan, running east and west. The Yi River (Chinese: 伊河) flows northward between them and the area used to be called Yique (伊阙; 'The Gate of the Yi River'). The alternative name of "Dragon's Gate Grottoes" derives from the resemblance of the two hills that check the flow of the Yi River to the typical "Chinese gate towers" that once marked the entrance to Luoyang from the south.

There are as many as 100,000 statues within the 2,345 caves, ranging from 1 inch (25 mm) to 57 feet (17 m) in height. The area also contains nearly 2,500 stelae and inscriptions, hence the name “Forest of Ancient Stelae", as well as over sixty Buddhist pagodas. Situated in a scenic natural environment, the caves were dug from a 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) stretch of cliff running along both banks of the river. 30% date from the Northern Wei and 60% from the Tang dynasty, caves from other periods accounting for less than 10% of the total. Starting with the Northern Wei Dynasty in 493 AD, patrons and donors included emperors, Wu Zetian, members of the royal family, other rich families, generals, and religious groups.In 2000 the site was inscribed upon the UNESCO World Heritage List as “an outstanding manifestation of human artistic creativity,” for its perfection of an art form, and for its encapsulation of the cultural sophistication of Tang China.

Luoyang Beijiao Airport

Luoyang Beijiao Airport (IATA: LYA, ICAO: ZHLY) is an airport serving the city of Luoyang in Henan Province, China. In 2009, Luoyang airport was the 4th busiest airport in China in terms of traffic movement. This is mainly because the airport houses an exercising terminal of Civil Aviation Flight University of China.

Luoyang Glass

Luoyang Glass Company Limited or Luoyang Glass (SEHK: 1108, SSE: 600876) is a state-owned enterprise in Luoyang, Henan, China, which is involved with the production and sales of float sheet and flat glass and reprocessing of automobile glass.

Luoyang Longmen railway station

The Luoyang Longmen railway station (simplified Chinese: 洛阳龙门站; traditional Chinese: 洛陽龍門站; pinyin: Luòyáng-Lóngmén Zhàn) is a railway station of Xuzhou–Lanzhou High-Speed Railway. The station is located in Luoyang, Henan, China. It was previous known as Luoyang South Station (simplified Chinese: 洛阳南站; traditional Chinese: 洛陽南站; pinyin: Luòyáng-nán Zhàn).

Luoyang dialect

The Luoyang dialect is a dialect of Zhongyuan Mandarin spoken in Luoyang and nearby parts of Henan province. Although it served as the prestige dialect of Chinese from the Warring States period into the Ming Dynasty, it differs greatly from modern Standard Mandarin, which is based instead on the Beijing dialect.

Luoyang railway station

Luoyang railway station (simplified Chinese: 洛阳站; traditional Chinese: 洛陽站; pinyin: Luòyáng Zhàn) is a station on Longhai railway in Luoyang, Henan.

Northern Wei

The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire (), also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba (Tabgach) clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 AD (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. Described as "part of an era of political turbulence and intense social and cultural change", the Northern Wei Dynasty is particularly noted for unifying northern China in 439: this was also a period of introduced foreign ideas, such as Buddhism, which became firmly established.

During the Taihe period (477–499) of Emperor Xiaowen, court advisers instituted sweeping reforms and introduced changes that eventually led to the dynasty moving its capital from Datong to Luoyang, in 494. The Tuoba renamed themselves the Han people surname Yuan (元) as a part of systematic Sinicization. Towards the end of the dynasty there was significant internal dissension resulting in a split into Eastern Wei and Western Wei.

Many antiques and art works, both Taoist art and Buddhist art, from this period have survived. It was the time of the construction of the Yungang Grottoes near Datong during the mid-to-late 5th century, and towards the latter part of the dynasty, the Longmen Caves outside the later capital city of Luoyang, in which more than 30,000 Buddhist images from the time of this dynasty have been found.

Pang Xi

Pang Xi (fl. 190s–210s) was an official serving under the warlords Liu Yan, Liu Zhang (Liu Yan's son) and Liu Bei during the Eastern Han dynasty of China.

Song County

Song County or Songxian (Chinese: 嵩县; pinyin: Sōng Xiàn) is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Luoyang, in the west of Henan Province, China. It contains the southernmost point of Luoyang's administrative area. It was the first capital of China during the Xia Dynasty.

Sui dynasty

The Sui dynasty (Chinese: 隋朝; pinyin: Suí cháo) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Chinese in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (Five Barbarians) within its territory. It was succeeded by the Tang dynasty, which largely inherited its foundation.

Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Chang'an (which was renamed Daxing, 581–605) and later Luoyang (605–618). Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various centralized reforms, most notably the equal-field system, intended to reduce economic inequality and improve agricultural productivity; the institution of the Three Departments and Six Ministries system; and the standardization and re-unification of the coinage. They also spread and encouraged Buddhism throughout the empire. By the middle of the dynasty, the newly unified empire entered a golden age of prosperity with vast agricultural surplus that supported rapid population growth.

A lasting legacy of the Sui dynasty was the Grand Canal. With the eastern capital Luoyang at the center of the network, it linked the west-lying capital Chang'an to the economic and agricultural centers of the east towards Hangzhou, and to the northern border near modern Beijing. While the pressing initial motives were for shipment of grains to the capital, and for transporting troops and military logistics, the reliable inland shipment links would facilitate domestic trades, flow of people and cultural exchange for centuries. Along with the extension of the Great Wall, and the construction of the eastern capital city of Luoyang, these mega projects, led by an efficient centralized bureaucracy, would amass millions of conscripted workers from the large population base, at heavy cost of human lives.

After a series of costly and disastrous military campaigns against Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, ended in defeat by 614, the dynasty disintegrated under a series of popular revolts culminating in the assassination of Emperor Yang by his ministers in 618. The dynasty, which lasted only thirty-seven years, was undermined by ambitious wars and construction projects, which overstretched its resources. Particularly, under Emperor Yang, heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties would eventually induce widespread revolts and brief civil war following the fall of the dynasty.

The dynasty is often compared to the earlier Qin dynasty for unifying China after prolonged division. Wide-ranging reforms and construction projects were undertaken to consolidate the newly unified state, with long-lasting influences beyond their short dynastic reigns.

Xigong District

Xigong District (Chinese: 西工区; pinyin: Xīgōng Qū) is a district of the city of Luoyang, Henan province, China.

Xigong District is located in the center of Luoyang City, and is the economy, finance and business center of the city.

Xin'an County

Xin'an County (Chinese: 新安县; pinyin: Xīn'ān Xiàn) is a county in the west of Henan Province, bordering Shanxi Province to the north across the Yellow River. It is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Luoyang, and contains its northernmost point.

Yanshi

Yanshi (simplified Chinese: 偃师; traditional Chinese: 偃師; pinyin: Yǎnshī) is a county-level city administered by the prefecture-level city of Luoyang in western Henan province, China. Yanshi lies on the Luo River and is the easternmost county-level division of Luoyang.

Yiyang County, Henan

Yiyang is a county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Luoyang city, Henan province, China, historically called Shou'an County (simplified Chinese: 寿安县; traditional Chinese: 壽安縣). Fuchang County of the Tang and Song dynasties was located in Yiyang. In 1072 Fuchang was merged into Shou'an, and in 1186 Shou'an was renamed as Yiyang.

Yuan Shao

Yuan Shao (pronunciation ) (died 28 June 202), courtesy name Benchu, was a warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He occupied the northern territories of China during the civil wars that occurred towards the end of the Han dynasty. He was also an elder half-brother of Yuan Shu, a warlord who controlled the Huai River region, though the two were not on good terms with each other.

One of the most powerful warlords of his time, Yuan Shao spearheaded a coalition of warlords against Dong Zhuo, who held Emperor Xian hostage in the imperial capital, Luoyang, but failed due to internal disunity. In 200, he launched a campaign against his rival Cao Cao but was defeated at the Battle of Guandu. He died of illness two years later in Ye (in present-day Handan, Hebei). His eventual failure despite his illustrious family background and geographical advantages was commonly blamed on his indecisiveness and inability to heed the advice of his advisers.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinLuòyáng
Gwoyeu RomatzyhLuohyang
Wade–GilesLo4-yang2
IPA[lwô.jǎŋ]
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationLohk-yèuhng
IPA[lɔ̀ːk̚.jœ̏ːŋ]
JyutpingLok6-joeng4
Southern Min
Tâi-lôLo̍k-iông
Climate data for Luoyang (1971–2000 normals, extremes 1951–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
24.3
(75.7)
31.2
(88.2)
35.5
(95.9)
40.6
(105.1)
44.2
(111.6)
41.9
(107.4)
41.7
(107.1)
38.2
(100.8)
34.8
(94.6)
27.0
(80.6)
23.5
(74.3)
44.2
(111.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
2.9
(37.2)
8.6
(47.5)
15.9
(60.6)
21.3
(70.3)
26.0
(78.8)
27.0
(80.6)
25.9
(78.6)
21.1
(70.0)
15.4
(59.7)
8.6
(47.5)
2.6
(36.7)
14.7
(58.4)
Record low °C (°F) −17.4
(0.7)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−9.1
(15.6)
−3.6
(25.5)
4.4
(39.9)
12.2
(54.0)
16.5
(61.7)
13.5
(56.3)
6.9
(44.4)
−2.3
(27.9)
−8.6
(16.5)
−14.9
(5.2)
−18.2
(−0.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 9.0
(0.35)
15.9
(0.63)
26.4
(1.04)
36.9
(1.45)
50.2
(1.98)
62.9
(2.48)
140.2
(5.52)
97.4
(3.83)
84.1
(3.31)
45.2
(1.78)
19.5
(0.77)
11.8
(0.46)
599.5
(23.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1mm) 3.5 5.1 6.2 7.0 6.9 8.0 12.2 10.7 9.4 7.8 5.0 3.4 85.2
Source: Weather.com.cn,[15] data.ac.cn[16]
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