Luigi Boccherini

Ridolfo Luigi Boccherini[1] (Italian pronunciation: [riˈdɔlfo luˈiːdʒi bokkeˈriːni] (listen); February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was an Italian composer and cellist of the Classical era whose music retained a courtly and "galante" style even while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers. He is best known for a minuet from his String Quintet in E, Op. 11, No. 5 (G 275), and the Cello Concerto in B flat major (G 482). The latter work was long known in the heavily altered version by German cellist and prolific arranger Friedrich Grützmacher, but has recently been restored to its original version.

Boccherini also composed several guitar quintets, including the "Fandango", which was influenced by Spanish music. His biographer Elisabeth Le Guin[2] noted among Boccherini's musical qualities "an astonishing repetitiveness, an affection for extended passages with fascinating textures but virtually no melodic line, an obsession with soft dynamics, a unique ear for sonority, and an unusually rich palette of introverted and mournful affects." Many of his other biographers and admirers see his music quite differently and in a much more appreciated light.

Luigi Boccherini
Pencil drawing of Luigi Boccherini by Etienne Mazas after a portrait bust

Biography

The Piazza San Martino, Lucca YORAG-771
The Piazza San Martino, Lucca in 1742 by Bernardo Bellotto
Monumento, istituto, Luigi Boccherini, Daphne Du Barry, Lucca
monumento to Luigi Boccherini, Lucca

Boccherini was born into a musical family in Lucca, Italy in 1743.[3] He was the third child of Leopoldo Boccherini, a cellist and double-bass player, and the brother of Giovanni Gastone Boccherini, a poet and dancer who wrote librettos for Antonio Salieri and Joseph Haydn.[4] Luigi received his first music lessons at age five by his father, who taught him cello, and then continued his studies at age nine with Abbé Vanucci, music director of a local cathedral, at San Martino.[5] When his son reached thirteen, Leopoldo Boccherini sent him to study in Rome with Giovanni Battista Costanzi.[5] In 1757 Luigi Boccherini and his father both went to Vienna, where the court employed them as musicians in the Burgtheater. In 1761 Boccherini went to Madrid, entering in 1770 the employ of Infante Luis Antonio of Spain (1727–1785), younger brother of King Charles III of Spain. There, Boccherini flourished under royal patronage, until one day when the King expressed his disapproval at a passage in a new trio, and ordered Boccherini to change it. The composer, no doubt irritated with this intrusion into his art, doubled the passage instead, which led to his immediate dismissal. Then he accompanied Don Luis (the Infante) to Arenas de San Pedro, a little town in the Gredos Mountains in Ávila; there and in the nearest town of Candeleda Boccherini wrote many of his most famous works.

Later patrons included the French ambassador to Spain, Lucien Bonaparte (1775–1840), as well as King Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia (1744–1797), himself an amateur cellist, flautist, and avid supporter of the arts. Boccherini fell on hard times following the deaths of his Spanish patron (1785), his two wives (1785 and 1805), and his four daughters (1796, 1802 and 1804). He died in Madrid in 1805, survived by two sons. His bloodline continues to this day in Spain.[6] His body lay buried in the Pontifical Basilica of St. Michael in Madrid until 1927, when Benito Mussolini had his remains repatriated and buried in the church of San Francesco in his native Lucca.

Works

LBoccherini
Luigi Boccherini playing the cello. Pompeo Batoni (c. 1764–1767)

Much of Boccherini's chamber music follows models established by Joseph Haydn; however, Boccherini is often credited with improving Haydn's model of the string quartet by bringing the cello to prominence, whereas Haydn had frequently relegated it to an accompaniment role. Some sources for Boccherini's style are in the works of a famous Italian cellist, Giovanni Battista Cirri, who was born before Boccherini and before Haydn, and in Spanish popular music.

A virtuoso cellist, Boccherini often played violin repertoire on the cello, at pitch, a skill he developed by substituting for ailing violinists while touring. This supreme command of the instrument brought him much praise from his contemporaries (notably Pierre Baillot, Pierre Rode, and Bernhard Romberg), and is evident in the cello parts of his compositions (particularly in the quintets for two cellos, treated often as cello concertos with string-quartet accompaniment).

He wrote a large amount of chamber music, including over one hundred string quintets for two violins, viola and two cellos (a type which he pioneered, in contrast with the then common scoring for two violins, two violas and one cello), a dozen guitar quintets, not all of which have survived, nearly a hundred string quartets, and a number of string trios and sonatas (including at least 19 for the cello). His orchestral music includes around 30 symphonies and 12 virtuoso cello concertos.

Boccherini's works have been catalogued by the French musicologist Yves Gérard (born 1932) in the Gérard catalog, published in London (1969), hence the "G" numbers applied to his output.

With a ministerial decree dated 27 April 2006, the Opera Omnia of the composer Luigi Boccherini was promoted to the status of Italian National Edition.

Boccherini's style is characterized by Rococo charm, lightness, and optimism, and exhibits much melodic and rhythmic invention, coupled with frequent influences from the guitar tradition of his adopted country, Spain.

Contemporary revival

Boccherini's works have been gaining more recognition since the late 20th century, in print, record, and concert hall. His "celebrated minuet" (String Quintet in E, Op. 11, No. 5 (G 275)) was popularized through its use in the film The Ladykillers. His famous "Musica notturna delle strade di Madrid" (String Quintet in C major, Op. 30 No. 6, G324), became popular through its frequent use in films such as Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World, and its use during the opening of the Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympic Games.

His distinctive compositions for string quintet (two violins, one viola, two cellos), long neglected after his death, have been brought back to life by the Quintet that bears his name in the second half of the 20th century, when two of its founding members discovered a complete collection of the first edition of the 141 string quintets in Paris and began playing and recording them around the world.

Recording

  • Flute Quintets, Op. 19, Auser Musici, Carlo Ipata, director, Hyperion CDA67646 (2008)

Media

String Quintet op.27 No 3, second movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (October 2001)
String Quintet op.27 No 1, first movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (November 2001)
String Quintet op.27 No 1, second movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (November 2001)
String Quintet Op10 No5, third movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet Op62 No4, first movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet Op62 No4, second movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet Op62 No4, third movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet Op62 No4, fourth movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet Op11 No1, first movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet Op11 No1, second movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet Op11 No1, third movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet Op11 No3, first movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet Op11 No3, second movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet Op11 No3, third movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet Op11 No3, fourth movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet op.11 No 2, first movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet op.11 No 2, second movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet op.11 No 2, third movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet op.11 No 2, fourth movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2001)
String Quintet op.13 No 1, first movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet op.13 No 1, second movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet op.13 No 1, third movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet op.13 No 1, fourth movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet op.18 No 1, first movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet op.18 No 1, second movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet op.18 No 1, third movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet op.18 No 1, fourth movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesizer (2002)
String Quintet op.18 No 4, first movement
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and sampler (2006)
String Trio op.6 No 4, first movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2013)
String Trio op.6 No 4, second movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2013)
String Trio op.6 No 4, third movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2013)
String Quintet op.30 No 1, first movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.30 No 1, second and last movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.30 No 2, first movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.30 No 2, second and last movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.30 No 3, first movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.30 No 3, second and last movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.30 No 4, first movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.30 No 4, second and last movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.30 No 5, first movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.30 No 5, second and last movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.31 No 3, first movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.31 No 3, second movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.31 No 3, third movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
String Quintet op.31 No 3, fourth movement FIRST RECORDING
Performed by Jacques Lochet, violin and synthesiser (2014)
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  • Research

    See also

    References

    1. ^ "BOCCHERINI, Luigi in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-05-10.
    2. ^ Le Guin, Boccherini's Body: An Essay in Carnal Musicology, 2006:3.
    3. ^ The standard modern full-length biography is by Jaime Tortella, Boccherini: un músico italiano en la España ilustrada, 2002; there is no comparable biography in English.
    4. ^ "Luigi Boccherini". Encyclopaedia Britannica. May 25, 2018. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved July 4, 2018.
    5. ^ a b Staff, Rovi. "Luigi Boccherini". AllMusic. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved July 4, 2018.
    6. ^ José Antonio Boccherini Sánchez and Christina Slot Wiefkers were explicitly thanked in Elisabeth Le Guin, Boccherini's Body: An Essay in Carnal Musicology, 2006:xxii.

    External links

    Boccherini Inlet

    Boccherini Inlet (71°50′S 72°20′W) is an ice-filled inlet, 18 nautical miles (33 km) long and 16 nautical miles (30 km) wide, lying between Bennett Dome (to the west) and Shostakovich Peninsula (lying southeast of Boccherini Inlet), which indents the south side of Beethoven Peninsula and forms the northern extremity of the Bach Ice Shelf in Alexander Island. It was first mapped from air photos taken by the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition, 1947–48, by D. Searle of the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey in 1960, and named by the UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee for Luigi Boccherini, the Italian composer.

    Cello Concerto No. 2 (Boccherini)

    Boccherini's Cello Concerto No. 2 in A major, G. 475 naturally takes the back seat to the Friedrich Grützmacher ever-famous arrangement of the B-flat Concerto. But no less attention was given to the A Major Concerto. This Concerto was arranged and reorchestrated by at least a half a dozen hands: Ottorino Respighi and Gaspar Cassadó are the most noted. Resphighi reorchestrated the Concerto, and changed the "Tutti" sections; adding winds and brass. Cassadó, on the other hand, rewrote the Concerto altogether. He wrote a Guitar Concerto for his colleague Andrés Segovia. Cassadó's arrangement features a string quartet, like a Concerto Grosso; and trumpet fanfares give the Concerto a Rodrigian feel.

    Cello Concerto No. 9 (Boccherini)

    Luigi Boccherini's Cello Concerto No. 9 in B-flat Major, G. 482 was written in either the late 1760s or early 1770s. Boccherini, a talented cellist, composed twelve concertos for his instrument. German cellist Friedrich Grützmacher chose this concerto to be arranged to fit the style of a Romantic virtuoso concerto, in 1895, and in this form, widely heard, it bears only a tenuous resemblance to the original manuscript.The Boccherini Ninth Cello Concerto has long been an integral part of standard cello instruction, because of creeping use of the full 4+ octave range of the cello, rather than large jumps between different finger positions.

    Grützmacher merged Boccherini's Ninth Cello Concerto with other Boccherini Cello Concertos. Besides the extensive cuts in the outer movements, Grützmacher decided to rid the Concerto of its original second movement, replacing it with that of the Seventh Cello Concerto (in G Major, G.480). The Fourth Cello Concerto (In C Major, G.477) makes an appearance in bars 40-46 of the first movement, and in bars 85-96 and 151-163 of the Rondo; borrowing from the respective movements. The arpeggios of the Fifth Cello Concerto's (in D Major, G478) first movement are featured in their minor form in bars 47-53 of the first movement. Grützmacher also took the liberty of writing his own cadenzas. Despite all the changes, this Concerto holds up as one of Boccherini's best known works. English cellist Jacqueline du Pré made a recording of this edition of the Concerto.Nevertheless, Boccherini's original work is slowly beginning to resurface. Well-known cellists like Maurice Gendron, Yo-Yo Ma, and Raphael Wallfisch have all made recordings of this long overshadowed work. Nowadays, the two works are distinguished by their origin: Original vs. arr. Grützmacher.

    Clementina

    Clementina may refer to:

    Clementina (given name)

    Clementine literature

    Clementina (character), Bobbie Wickham's cousin in the Jeeves series;

    Clementina (play), a 1771 tragedy play by Hugh Kelly;

    Clementina (zarzuela), a 1786 Spanish zarzuela written by Ramón de la Cruz and composed by Luigi Boccherini;

    Clementina, São Paulo.

    Clementina (zarzuela)

    Clementina, although wrongly and popularly known as La Clementina, is a zarzuela in two acts by Luigi Boccherini. The Spanish-language libretto was by Ramón de la Cruz. It premiered at the end of 1786 at the Palace Puerta de la Vega, Madrid.

    Clementina is the only complete stage work by Boccherini. It was written when the zarzuela was close to the end of its period of greatest success, before this genre, at the beginning of the 19th century, was nearly forgotten in favour of the Italian opera. The librettist of Clementina, Ramón de la Cruz, had attempted to introduce innovations in the zarzuela, using folk elements instead of the more usual mythological subjects. The music is predominantly cheerful and turned towards comical sides, with pathetic fragments when it tries to describe unrequited love.

    This work was written on commission of the Duchess-Countess of Osuna-Benavente, a maecenas lover of music and arts who owned a private orchestra, under whose protection De La Cruz worked. Clementina premiered in Madrid in the palace of the Countess, probably performed by amateur singers. Boccherini composed the music in less than one month. A further performance of Clementina took place in 1799, again in Madrid, in the Coliseo de los Caños del Peral, this time with very known artists: Catalina Tordesillas (Clementina), Manuela Monteis (Damiana), Joaquina Arteaga (Narcisa), Lorenza Correa (Cristeta), Vicente Sanchez (Don Urbano) e Manuel Garcia Parra (Don Lazzaro).In modern times, Clementina was revived in Venice (La Fenice, 18 September 1951), in Munich (Cuvilliés Theatre, 1960) and in Aranjuez (Spain). A further performance was produced in Lucca in 2005.

    Georges de Saint-Foix

    Georges de Saint-Foix (2 March 1874 – 26 May 1954) was a French musicologist, connoisseur of Mozart and specialist of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. He is the son of the Count of Saint-Foix of the same name, the very same one who in 1858 served as a guide to Gustave Flaubert in Carthage while he was preparing his novel Salammbô. A student at the Schola Cantorum of Paris, he studied the violin and music theory with Vincent D'Indy. A jurist by training, he became one of the most brilliant French musicologists of the first half of the twentieth by making himself known by his studies on Mozart, Cherubini, Bach, Clementi, Gluck and Boccherini.

    Giovanni Battista Costanzi

    Giovanni Battista Costanzi (1704-1778) was an Italian composer and cellist. He succeeded Stefano Fabri as maestro di cappella of the Cappella Giulia at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.

    Also known as teacher of Luigi Boccherini, to him is dedicated the opera house main theatre in Rome.

    Julius Berger (cellist)

    Julius Berger (born 1954) is a German cellist, musicologist and an academic of chamber music and cello at the Leopold Mozart Centre of the Augsburg University. He recorded the sonatas and concertos by Luigi Boccherini, but also contemporary music by John Cage, Toshio Hosokawa, Adriana Hölszky and Sofia Gubaidulina. He is the artistic director of music festivals.

    Le donne letterate

    Le donne letterate composed by Antonio Salieri (1750–1825), is an Italian opera in three acts, stylistically it is an opera buffa and is very similar to the mid-18th century librettos of Carlo Goldoni. The libretto by Giovanni Gastone Boccherini, dancer, poet and stage manager, brother of the composer Luigi Boccherini, was based on Molière's Les Femmes Savantes (The Learned Ladies).

    This opera was the first of Salieri's to be publicly performed, as well as his first collaboration with Boccherini. This was Salieri's second complete opera.

    List of compositions by Luigi Boccherini

    The following is a complete list of compositions of classical composer Luigi Boccherini. Boccherini's works have been catalogued by the French musicologist Yves Gérard (born 1932) in the Gérard catalog, published in London (1969), hence the "G" numbers for his output.

    Louis Picquot

    Louis Picquot (1804 – 1870) was a 19th-century French musicographer, author of the first biography of Luigi Boccherini and a catalogue of Boccherini's works.

    Musica notturna delle strade di Madrid

    Musica notturna delle strade di Madrid (Night Music of the Streets of Madrid), Opus 30 No. 6 (G. 324), is a quintettino (quintet) for stringed instruments (ca. 1780), by Luigi Boccherini, the Italian composer in service to the Spanish Court from 1761 to 1805.

    Quattro versioni originali della "Ritirata notturna di Madrid"

    Quattro versioni originali della "Ritirata notturna di Madrid" is an arrangement of a movement from Luigi Boccherini's Musica notturna delle strade di Madrid by Italian composer Luciano Berio. The full title of the composition is Quattro versioni originali della "Ritirata notturna di Madrid" di Luigi Boccherini, sovrapposte e transcritte per orchestra (Italian: Four Original Versions from Luigi Boccherini's "Withdrawal by Night in Madrid", superimposed and transcribed for orchestra). This arrangement was composed in 1975.

    Romantic guitar

    The early romantic guitar, the guitar of the Classical and Romantic period, shows remarkable consistency from 1790 to 1830. Guitars had six or more single courses of strings while the Baroque guitar usually had five double courses (though the highest string might be single). The romantic guitar eventually led to Antonio de Torres Jurado's fan-braced Spanish guitars, the immediate precursors of the modern classical guitar.

    From the late 18th century the guitar achieved considerable general popularity though, as Ruggero Chiesa stated, subsequent scholars have largely ignored its place in classical music. It was the era of guitarist-composers such as Fernando Sor, Ferdinando Carulli, Mauro Giuliani and Matteo Carcassi. In addition several well-known composers not generally linked with the guitar played or wrote for it: Luigi Boccherini and Franz Schubert wrote for it in several pieces, Hector Berlioz was a proficient guitarist who neither played keyboards nor received an academic education in music, the violin virtuoso Niccolò Paganini played guitar informally and Anton Diabelli produced a quantity of guitar compositions (see List of compositions by Anton Diabelli).

    Stabat Mater (Boccherini)

    The Stabat Mater is a musical setting of the Stabat Mater sequence, composed by Luigi Boccherini in 1781 and revised in 1801.

    Boccherini (1743–1805) was a musician best known for chamber music (string quintets). His vocal work is played less often. He worked as a cantatrice and wrote numerous religious works (including one mass, two motets and two oratorios).

    His Stabat Mater was a command passed in 1781, when was patroned by the King of Spain's younger brother Luis of Spain, Count of Chinchón. It was conceived for a liturgical service at Palacio de la Mosquera, Arenas de San Pedro, where they were living. The text is a text dating from the 13th century and attributed to Jacopone da Todi which meditates on the suffering of Mary during the crucifixion. The first version consisted of one soprano voice accompanied by a string quintet (two violins, one viola, two cellos). It consists of 11 parts and lasts around three quarters of an hour. The musician rewrote it around twenty years later (in 1801) when he added an overture for two voices: a contralto and a tenor. The definitive work is known as opus 61 of the musician.

    Stabat mater dolorosa, Grave assai

    Cujus animam gementem, Allegro

    Quae moerebat et dolebat, Allegretto con moto

    Quis est homo, Adagio assai – Recitativo

    Pro peccatis suae gentis, Allegretto

    Eja mater, fons amoris, Larghetto non tanto

    Tui nati vulnerati, Allegro vivo

    Virgo virginum praeclara, Andantino

    Fac ut portem Christi mortem, Larghetto

    Fac me plagis vulnerari, Allegro comodo

    Quando corpus morietur, Andante lento

    String Quintet in E major, Op. 11, No. 5 (Boccherini)

    The String Quintet in E major, Op. 11, No. 5 (G 275), by Luigi Boccherini was written in 1771 and published in 1775. Being one of his most famous works, the quintet is famous for its minuet third movement (often referred to as "The Celebrated Minuet") which is most-often played as a standalone piece outside of the context of the full quintet.

    String quintet

    A string quintet is a musical composition for five string players. As an extension to the string quartet (two violins, a viola, and a cello), a string quintet includes a fifth string instrument, usually a second viola (a so-called "viola quintet") or a second cello (a "cello quintet"), or occasionally a double bass.

    Notable examples of classic "viola quintets", in four movement form include those of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Other examples were written by composers including Johannes Brahms and Felix Mendelssohn.

    A famous "cello quintet" is Franz Schubert's Quintet in C major. Antonín Dvořák's Quintet Op. 77 uses a double bass, and Mozart's famous Eine kleine Nachtmusik may be performed with this instrumentation (the double bass being optional).

    Alternative additions include clarinet or piano (see clarinet quintet, piano quintet); and other closely related chamber music genres include the string quartet (much more common), the string trio, and the string sextet. A more unusual form of string quintet is the violin quintet composed of 3 violins, a viola and a cello (thus a string quartet with an additional violin).

    The term string quintet may refer to a group of five players that performs such works. The ensemble was standard in 17th century Italy and can be seen as early as 1607 in Claudio Monteverdi's opera, L'Orfeo. It can also be applied to the standard five-part orchestral string section: first violins, second violins, violas, cellos, and double basses.

    String sextet

    In classical music, a string sextet is a composition written for six string instruments, or a group of six musicians who perform such a composition. Most string sextets have been written for an ensemble consisting of two violins, two violas, and two cellos.

    Among the earliest works in this form are the six string sextets Op. 23 of Luigi Boccherini, written in 1776. Other notable string sextets include the Opp. 18 and 36 of Johannes Brahms, the Op. 48 of Antonín Dvořák, the Souvenir de Florence (Op. 70) of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Verklärte Nacht (Op. 4) by Arnold Schoenberg, the op. 10 of Erich Wolfgang Korngold, Erwin Schulhoff's String Sextet (1924) and the String Sextet (1989) of Charles Wuorinen.

    More unusual combinations for a string sextet:

    three violins, viola and two cellos: Ferdinand David (1810-1873), op. 38, Gaetano Brunetti (1744-1798), op. 1

    three violins, two violas and cello: Jan Brandts Buys (1868-1933), op. 40.

    Yves Gérard

    Yves Gérard (Yves-René-Jean Gérard) is a French musicologist.

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