Lu was from Pingzhou (平州) in the Xihe (西河) region of western China (present-day Lishi District of Lüliang, Shanxi). In 119 BCE, Emperor Wu of Han dispatched Lu along with Huo Qubing on an expedition north to attack the Xiongnu. After a successful campaign Lu was awarded the title General Fubo (伏波; literally "subduer of the waves"), a title later awarded to other illustrious military leaders such as Ma Yuan. Lu along with General Yang Pu was one of the leaders of the five armies who advanced towards Panyu (present-day Guangzhou) near the Giaochi border to conquer Nanyue and annex it into the Han empire. Thereafter, Lu also attacked the island of Hainan off the south eastern coast of the Chinese mainland. After a successful assault, he divided the new territory into the twin prefectures of Zhuya (珠崖郡) and Dan'er (儋耳郡) thus also annexing Hainan island into the Han empire. Despite these military successes, Lu was later demoted for an unspecified transgression. The last known military action he participated was an unsuccessful Northern campaign (under General Li Guangli) against the Xiongnu in 97 BCE.
The army of the Han dynasty was the primary military apparatus of China from 202 BC to 220 AD, with a brief interregnum by the reign of Wang Mang and his Xin dynasty from 9 AD to 23 AD, followed by two years of civil war before the refounding of the Han.Battle of Mobei
The Battle of Mobei (simplified Chinese: 漠北之战; traditional Chinese: 漠北之戰; pinyin: Mòbĕi zhī Zhàn; literally: 'Battle of the Northern Desert') was a military campaign fought in the northern part of the Gobi Desert. It was part of a major strategic offensive launched by the Han Dynasty in January, 119 BC, into the heartland of the nomadic Xiongnu. The battle was a success for the Han, whose forces were led by Wei Qing and Huo Qubing.Guangzhou
Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: 广州; traditional Chinese: 廣州; Cantonese pronunciation: [kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ̂u] or [kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ́u] (listen); Mandarin pronunciation: [kwàŋ.ʈʂóu] (listen)), also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status and is one of China's nine National Central Cities. In 2018 year end, the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year on year. Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city. There is a rapidly increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa. This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World".The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had initially settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou, China in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis.Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years (2013–2015), Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.Hainan
Hainan (海南) is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea. Hainan Island, separated from Guangdong's Leizhou Peninsula by the Qiongzhou Strait, is the largest and most populous island under PRC control (Taiwan, which is slightly larger, is also claimed but not controlled by the PRC) and makes up the majority of the province.
The province has an area of 33,920 square kilometers (13,100 sq mi), with Hainan Island making up 32,900 square kilometers (12,700 sq mi) (97%) and the rest divided among 200 islands scattered across three archipelagos. It was administered as part of Guangdong until 1988, when it became a separate province; around the same time, it was made the largest Special Economic Zone established by Deng Xiaoping as part of the Chinese economic reform.
There are a total of ten major cities and ten counties in Hainan Province. Haikou on the northern coast of Hainan Island is the capital while Sanya is a well-known tourist destination on the southern coast. The other major cities are Wenchang, Qionghai, Wanning, Wuzhishan, Dongfang, and Danzhou.
According to China's territorial claims several territories in the South China Sea, including the Spratly Islands (Nansha) and Paracel Islands (Xisha), are notionally administered as part of the province.Han conquest of Nanyue
The Han conquest of Nanyue was a military conflict between the Han empire and the Nanyue kingdom in modern Guangdong, Guangxi, and Northern Vietnam. During the reign of Emperor Wu, the Han forces launched a punitive campaign against Nanyue and conquered it in 111 BC.Huo Qubing
Huo Qubing (140 BC – 117 BC) was a distinguished military general of the Western Han dynasty during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. He was the nephew of the general Wei Qing and Empress Wei Zifu (Emperor Wu's wife), and the half-brother of the statesman Huo Guang. Along with Wei Qing, he led a campaign into the Gobi Desert of what is now Mongolia to defeat the Xiongnu nomadic confederation, winning decisive victories such as the Battle of Mobei in 119 BC.Li Ling
Li Ling (Chinese: 李陵, died 74 BC), courtesy name Shaoqing (少卿), was a Han Dynasty general, who served under the reign of Emperor Wu (汉武帝) and later defected to the Xiongnu after being defeated in an expedition in 99 BC.Long Biên
Long Biên (Vietnamese), also known as Longbian (龙编; 龍編; Lóngbiān; Lung-pien; lit. "Dragons Interweaving"), was the capital of the Chinese Jiao Province and Jiaozhi Commandery during the Han dynasty. It was located on the Red River in modern-day Bac Ninh. After Ly Bi's successful revolt in AD 544, it served as the capital of Van Xuan. When the Sui dynasty of China retook the territory in 603, the Sui general Liu Fang moved the capital to nearby Tống Bình. Long Biên flourished as a trading port in the late 8th and early 9th centuries. Thăng Long was founded in 1010 at the site of earlier Chinese fortresses nearby. This grew into modern Hanoi, which incorporated Long Biên as one of its districts.Lu (surname 路)
Lu (Chinese: 路; pinyin: Lù) is a Chinese surname. It is also spelled Lo according to the Cantonese pronunciation. Lu 路 is listed 138th in the Song Dynasty classic text Hundred Family Surnames. Lu 路 is the 116th most common surname in China, with a total population of 2.35 million.Lü Jia (Nanyue)
Lü Jia (Chinese: 呂嘉; Wade–Giles: Lü Chia; died 111 BC), or Lữ Gia in Vietnamese, also called Bảo Công (保公), was the prime minister of Nanyue (Nam Việt) during the reigns of its three last kings (Zhao Yingqi, Zhao Xing and Zhao Jiande).
The Shiji only mentions that Lü Jia served as prime minister during three kings; members of his clan often intermarried with the royal family, over 70 of his kinsmen served as officials in various parts of the Nanyue government. Lü had high prestige in Nanyue, and was overshadowing the king. According to Vietnamese legend, he was a Lạc Việt chief born in Lôi Dương, Cửu Chân (mordern Thọ Xuân District, Thanh Hóa Province, Vietnam).
In 113 BC, Emperor Wu of Han sent Anguo Shaoji (安國少季) to Nanyue to summon Zhao Xing and the Queen Dowager Jiu to Chang'an for an audience with the Emperor. The Queen Dowager was a Han Chinese from Handan. Before she married Zhao Yingqi, she had affair with Anguo Shaoji. Nanyue people did not trust the Queen Dowager; and at that time, king Zhao Xing was young. Fearful of losing her position of authority, the Queen Dowager decided to fully submit to the Han dynasty. It was strongly opposed by Lü and other ministers. Lü decided to revolt; he said he was ill and did not meet with Han envoy. The Queen Dowager wanted to kill Lü, but was stopped by the king. Lü gathered soldiers and planned to revolt. Getting the information, in 112 BC, Emperor Wu dispatched Han Qianqiu (韓千秋) with 2000 soldiers to arrest him. During this time, Lü staged a coup and executed the queen dowager and the king. He crowned Prince Zhao Jiande as new king, and declared war on the Han dynasty.In 111 BC, Han generals Lu Bode and Yang Pu attacked Nanyue and captured the capital Panyu (mordern Guangzhou). Lü fled with Zhao Jiande, but was captured and executed.Lü's tomb was in mordern Ân Thi District, Hưng Yên Province, Vietnam where he is worshipped by local people together with his brother Lang Công.Nanyue
Nanyue or Nam Viet (南越, Chinese pinyin: Nányuè, Vietnamese: Nam Việt, Zhuang: Namzyied) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan. Nanyue was established in 204 BC at the collapse of the Qin dynasty by Zhao Tuo, then Commander of Nanhai. At first, it consisted of the commanderies Nanhai, Guilin, and Xiang.
In 196 BC, Zhao Tuo paid obeisance to the Emperor Gaozu of Han, and Nanyue was referred to by Han leaders as a "foreign servant", synecdoche for a vassal state. Around 183 BC, relations between the Nanyue and the Han dynasty soured, and Zhao Tuo began to refer to himself as an emperor, suggesting Nanyue's sovereignty. In 179 BC, relations between the Han and Nanyue improved, and Zhao Tuo once again made submission, this time to Emperor Wen of Han as a subject state. The submission was somewhat superficial, as Nanyue retained autonomy from the Han, and Zhao Tuo was referred to as "Emperor" throughout Nanyue until his death. In 113 BC, fourth-generation leader Zhao Xing sought to have Nanyue formally included as part of the Han Empire. His prime minister Lü Jia objected vehemently and subsequently killed Zhao Xing, installing his elder brother Zhao Jiande on the throne and forcing a confrontation with the Han dynasty. The next year, Emperor Wu of Han sent 100,000 troops to war against Nanyue. By the year's end, the army had destroyed Nanyue and established Han rule. The kingdom lasted 93 years and had five generations of kings.
The Kingdom of Nanyue's founding preserved the order of the Lingnan region during the chaos surrounding the collapse of the Qin dynasty. It allowed the southern region to avoid much of the hardship experienced by the northern, predominantly Han Chinese regions. The kingdom was founded by leaders originally from the Chinese heartland, and was responsible for bringing Chinese bureaucracy and more advanced agriculture and handicraft techniques to the inhabitants of the southern regions, as well as knowledge of the Chinese language and writing system. Nanyue leaders promoted a policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue Tribes" (Chinese: 和集百越), and encouraged fellow Han Chinese to immigrate from their Yellow River homeland to the south. They supported mutual assimilation of the two cultures and peoples, and promulgated Han culture and the Chinese language throughout the region, though many elements of original Yue culture were preserved.In Vietnam, the rulers of Nanyue are referred to as the Triệu dynasty. The name "Vietnam" is derived from Nam Việt, the Vietnamese pronunciation of Nanyue.Qiedihou
Qiedihou (Chinese: 且鞮侯; r. 101–96 BCE), whose name was probably Qiedi, was a Chanyu of the Xiongnu Empire, and the successor to Xulihu. Reigned during the reign of the Han emperor Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC). he was the younger brother of Xulihu, who died after just one-year reign during a campaign against a newly built Chinese fort Shuofang in Ordos.Qiedihou reigned during one of the most aggressive periods in Chinese history, and one of the many troubled periods in Xiongnu history. In 101 BCE Qiedihou, wishing to establish relations with the Han, said immediately after accession to the throne: “I am a child. How can I view the Han Emperor as an enemy when I have a venerable old man in front of me?” He returned to the Han all detained ambassadors.Qin campaign against the Yue tribes
As trade was an important source of wealth for the Yue tribes of coastal China, south of the Yangtze River attracted the attention of Emperor Qin Shi Huang to undertake a series of military campaigns to conquer it. Lured by its temperate climate, fertile fields, maritime trade routes, and relative security from the warring factions from the west and northwest, the wealth and access to luxury tropical products from Southeast Asia motivated the First Emperor to send an army to conquer the Yue kingdoms. The emperor craved for the resources of the Baiyue and dispatched military expeditions against the region between 221 and 214 BC. It would take Emperor Qin Shi Huang five successive military excursions before finally defeating the Yue in 214 BC.Southward expansion of the Han dynasty
The Southward expansion of the Han dynasty were a series of Chinese military campaigns and expeditions in what is now modern Southern China and Northern Vietnam. Military expansion to the south began under the previous Qin dynasty and continued during the Han era. Campaigns were dispatched to conquer the Yue tribes, leading to the annexation of Minyue by the Han in 135 BC and 111 BC, Nanyue in 111 BC, and Dian in 109 BC.
Han Chinese culture took root into the newly conquered territories and the Baiyue and Dian tribes were eventually assimilated or displaced by the Han Empire. Evidence of Han dynasty influences are apparent in artifacts excavated in the Baiyue tombs of modern southern China. This sphere of influence eventually extended to various ancient Southeast Asian kingdoms, where contact led to the spread of Han Chinese culture, trade and political diplomacy. The increased demand for Chinese silk also led to the establishment of the Silk Road connecting Europe, the Near East, and China.Temple of the Five Lords
The Temple of the Five Lords (Chinese: 五公祠; pinyin: Wŭgōng Cí), also known as the "Temple of the Five Officials", is a memorial shrine to five exiled officials from the Tang and Song dynasties that is located to the southeast of the city of Haikou on the island of Hainan, China. During the times of these dynasties, Hainan was perceived as a remote part of the empire and was used as a place for banishment for disgraced court officials. All five officials commemorated at the temple encountered such a fate, typically after losing power struggles within the imperial court.
Notable buildings of the temple complex are the Five Lords Ancestral Hall proper (Chinese: 五公祠; pinyin: Wŭgōng Cí), the Guanjia Hall (Chinese: 观稼堂; pinyin: Guānjià Táng; literally: 'observe the crops hall'), the Xuepu Hall (Chinese: 学圃堂; pinyin: Xuépŭ Táng; literally: 'gardening study hall'), the East Hall (Chinese: 东斋; pinyin: Dōng Zhāi) and West Hall (Chinese: 西斋; pinyin: Xī Zhāi, also known as Chinese: 五公精舍; pinyin: Wŭgōng Jīngshè), the Sugong Ancestral Hall (Chinese: 苏公祠; pinyin: Sūgōng Cí), the Ancestral Hall of the Two Fubo Generals (Chinese: 两伏波祠; pinyin: Liǎng Fúbō Cí), the Bai Pavilion (Chinese: 拜亭; pinyin: Bài tíng; literally: 'worship pavilion'), the Dongzhuo Pavilion (Chinese: 洞酌亭; pinyin: Dòngzhuó Tíng; literally: 'deliberation pavilion'), the Suquan Pavilion (Chinese: 粟泉亭; pinyin: Sùquán Tíng; literally: 'millet spring pavilion'), the Xixin Hall (Chinese: 洗心轩; pinyin: Xǐxīn Xuān; literally: 'heart washing hall'), and the Youxian Cave (Chinese: 游仙洞; pinyin: Yóuxiān Dòng; literally: 'wandering immortal cave').
In total, the temple complex covers an area of 2800 square meters.The temple's main building is the Five Lords Ancestral Hall. It is a red two-story wooden structure that stands more than 9 m
meters tall and has a total floor space of 560 square meters. A historical inscription on a board placed over the front entrance on the second floor declares it the "first building in Hainan". The earliest buildings of the
complex were erected during the reign of Wanli Emperor (1572–1620) of
the Ming Dynasty. The temple has undergone a major restoration during the reign of the Qing emperor Guanggxu (in 1889) followed by minor repairs that were carried out later.
The five officials commemorated in the temple are the Tang chancellor Li Deyu (Chinese: 李德裕, 787—850), and the four Song ministers Li Gang (Chinese: 李纲, 1083–1140), Li Guang (Chinese: 李光, 1078–1159), Zhao Ding (Chinese: 赵鼎, 1085–1147, also known for his poetry), and Hu Quan (Chinese: 胡铨, 1102–1180). Each of the officials had been banished to Hainan Province after having fallen out of the court's favor and is now represented by a stone statue placed on the temple grounds.
The Ancestral Hall of the Two Fubo Generals is dedicated to the two generals Lu Bode (Chinese: 路博德; pinyin: Lù Bódé, captured Hainan in 110 BC) of the Western Han Dynasty and Ma Yuan (Chinese: 馬援; pinyin: Mǎ Yuán, 14 BC – 49 AD) of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Both generals played important roles in establishing Chinese rule over Hainan and were recognized by their emperors with the honorary title "Fubo General" (Chinese: 伏波将军; pinyin: fúbō jiāngjūn) for their achievements.
The Sugong Temple is located to the southeast of the Temple of Five Lords. It commemorates Su Shi (Chinese: 苏轼), a renowned poet and statesman of the Song Dynasty, who was also banished to Hainan.
The temple is located near the administrative border between the City of Haikou and Qiongshan District, about 5 kilometers away from the city center of Haikou.Timeline of Vietnam under Chinese rule
This is a timeline of Vietnamese history until the end of the Chinese era.Triệu dynasty
The Triệu dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà Triệu; 家趙) ruled the kingdom of Nányuè / Nam Việt ("South Yuè") (Chinese: 南越), which consisted of parts of southern China as well as northern Vietnam. Its capital was Panyu, in modern Guangzhou. The founder of the dynasty, called Triệu Đà or Zhao Tuo, was a military governor for the Qin Empire. He asserted his independence in 207 BC when the Qin collapsed. The ruling elite included both ethnic Chinese and native Yue, with intermarriage and assimilation encouraged. Triệu Đà conquered the Vietnamese state of Âu Lạc and led a coalition of Yuè states in a war against the Han Empire, which had been expanding southward. Subsequent rulers were less successful in asserting their independence and the Han conquered the kingdom in 111 BC.Zhao Jiande
Zhao Jiande (Chinese: 趙建德; pinyin: Zhào Jiàndé; Jyutping: Zīu6 Gīn3dek1, Vietnamese: Triệu Kiến Đức, ?–111 BC) was the last king of Nanyue. His rule began in 112 BC and ended in the next year.
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