Lower Manhattan

Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624,[1] at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018,[2] up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.[3]

Lower Manhattan

Downtown Manhattan
Lower Manhattan as seen across the East River from Brooklyn in 2015
Lower Manhattan as seen across the East River from Brooklyn in 2015
Location of Lower Manhattan
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
CityNew York City
 • Total382,654
ZIP Codes
10004, 10005, 10006, 10007, 10038, 10280, 10012, 10013, 10014
Area code(s)212, 332, 646, and 917
Median household income$201,953


The pre-9/11 Lower Manhattan skyline in May 2001, seen from the Empire State Building.

Lower Manhattan is defined most commonly as the area delineated on the north by 14th Street, on the west by the Hudson River, on the east by the East River, and on the south by New York Harbor (also known as Upper New York Bay). When referring specifically to the Lower Manhattan business district and its immediate environs, the northern border is commonly designated by thoroughfares about a mile-and-a-half south of 14th Street and a mile north of the island's southern tip: approximately around Chambers Street from near the Hudson east to the Brooklyn Bridge entrances and overpass.[4] Two other major arteries are also sometimes identified as the northern border of "Lower" or "Downtown Manhattan": Canal Street, roughly half a mile north of Chambers Street, and 23rd Street, roughly half a mile north of 14th Street.

The Lower Manhattan business district forms the core of the area below Chambers Street. It includes the Financial District (often referred to as Wall Street, after its primary artery) and the World Trade Center site. At the island's southern tip is Battery Park; City Hall is just to the north of the Financial District. Also south of Chambers Street are the planned community of Battery Park City and the South Street Seaport historic area. The neighborhood of TriBeCa straddles Chambers Street on the west side; at the street's east end is the giant Manhattan Municipal Building. North of Chambers Street and the Brooklyn Bridge and south of Canal Street lies most of New York's oldest Chinatown neighborhood. Many court buildings and other government offices are also located in this area. The Lower East Side neighborhood straddles Canal Street. North of Canal Street and south of 14th Street are the neighborhoods of SoHo, the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Greenwich Village, Little Italy, Nolita, and the East Village. Between 14th and 23rd streets are lower Chelsea, Union Square, the Flatiron District, as well as Gramercy, with the large residential development known as Peter Cooper Village—Stuyvesant Town situated on the eastern flank of this zone.

View of Lower Manhattan at sunset, from Jersey City, New Jersey. One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere.
View of Lower Manhattan at sunset, from Jersey City, New Jersey. One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere.


New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it "New York".
Cooper Union by David Shankbone
The Cooper Union at Astor Place, where Abraham Lincoln gave his famed Cooper Union speech, is one of the area's most storied buildings.
Manhattan 1931
Lower Manhattan pictured in 1931

Lenape and New Netherland

The area that would eventually encompass modern day New York City was inhabited by the Lenape people. These groups of culturally and linguistically identical Native Americans traditionally spoke an Algonquian language now referred to as Unami.

European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading post in Lower Manhattan, later called New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw-Amsterdam) in 1626.[5][6] The first fort was built at The Battery to protect New Netherland.[7]

Soon thereafter, most likely in 1626, construction of Fort Amsterdam began.[7] Later, the Dutch West Indies Company imported African slaves to serve as laborers; they helped to build the wall that defended the town against English and native attacks. Early directors included Willem Verhulst and Peter Minuit. Willem Kieft became director in 1638 but five years later was embroiled in Kieft's War against the Native Americans. The Pavonia Massacre, across the Hudson River in present-day Jersey City resulted in the death of 80 natives in February 1643. Following the massacre, Algonquian tribes joined forces and nearly defeated the Dutch. The Dutch Republic sent additional forces to the aid of Kieft, leading to the overwhelming defeat of the Native Americans and a peace treaty on August 29, 1645.[8]:37–40

On May 27, 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was inaugurated as director general upon his arrival. The colony was granted self-government in 1652, and New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653.[8]:57 The first mayors (burgemeesters) of New Amsterdam, Arent van Hattem and Martin Cregier, were appointed in that year.[9]

17th and 18th centuries

In 1664, the English conquered the area and renamed it "New York" after the Duke of York and the city of York in Yorkshire.[10][11]

At that time, people of African descent made up 20% of the population of the city, with European settlers numbering approximately 1,500,[12]:14 and people of African descent numbering 375 (with 300 of that 375 enslaved and 75 free).[12]:22 While it has been claimed that African slaves comprised 40% of the small population of the city at that time,[13] this claim has not been substantiated. During the mid 1600s, farms of free blacks covered 130 acres (53 ha) where Washington Square Park later developed.[14]

The Dutch briefly regained the city in 1673, renaming the city "New Orange", before permanently ceding the colony of New Netherland to the English for what is now Suriname in November 1674.

The new English rulers of the formerly Dutch New Amsterdam and New Netherland renamed the settlement back to New York. As the colony grew and prospered, sentiment also grew for greater autonomy. In the context of the Glorious Revolution in England, Jacob Leisler led Leisler's Rebellion and effectively controlled the city and surrounding areas from 1689–1691, before being arrested and executed.

By 1700, the Lenape population of New York had diminished to 200.[15] By 1703, 42% of households in New York had slaves, a higher percentage than in Philadelphia or Boston.[16]

The 1735 libel trial of John Peter Zenger in the city was a seminal influence on freedom of the press in North America. It would be a standard for the basic articles of freedom in the United States Declaration of Independence.

New York City harbor print
View of New York harbor, ca. 1770

By the 1740s, with expansion of settlers, 20% of the population of New York were slaves, totaling about 2,500 people.[17] After a series of fires in 1741, the city became panicked that blacks planned to burn the city in a conspiracy with some poor whites. Historians believe their alarm was mostly fabrication and fear, but officials rounded up 31 blacks and 4 whites, all of whom were convicted of arson and executed. City officials executed 13 blacks by burning them alive and hanged 4 whites and 18 blacks.[18]

In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by George II of Great Britain as King's College in Lower Manhattan.[19]

The Stamp Act and other British measures fomented dissent, particularly among the Sons of Liberty, who maintained a long-running skirmish with locally stationed British troops over Liberty Poles from 1766 to 1776. The Stamp Act Congress met in New York City in 1765 in the first organized resistance to British authority across the colonies. After the major defeat of the Continental Army in the Battle of Long Island, General George Washington withdrew to Manhattan Island, but with the subsequent defeat at the Battle of Fort Washington the island was effectively left to the British. The city became a haven for loyalist refugees, becoming a British stronghold for the entire war. Consequently, the area also became the focal point for Washington's espionage and intelligence-gathering throughout the war.

In 1771, Bear Market was established along the Hudson River shoreline on land donated by Trinity Church, and replaced by Washington Market in 1813.[20]

New York City was greatly damaged twice by fires of suspicious origin during British military rule. The city became the political and military center of operations for the British in North America for the remainder of the war and a haven for Loyalist refugees. Continental Army officer Nathan Hale was hanged in Manhattan for espionage. In addition, the British began to hold the majority of captured American prisoners of war aboard prison ships in Wallabout Bay, across the East River in Brooklyn. More Americans lost their lives from neglect aboard these ships than died in all the battles of the war. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783. George Washington triumphantly returned to the city that day, as the last British forces left the city.

Starting in 1785, the Congress met in New York City under the Articles of Confederation. In 1789, New York City became the first national capital of the United States under the new United States Constitution. The Constitution also created the current Congress of the United States, and its first sitting was at Federal Hall on Wall Street. The first United States Supreme Court sat there. The United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified there. George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall.[21] New York City remained the capital of the U.S. until 1790, when the role was transferred to Philadelphia.

19th century

Brooklyn Museum - Sidney's Map Twelve Miles Around New York - Norman Friend
Norman Friend. Sidney's Map Twelve Miles Around New York, 1849. Chromo lithograph, Brooklyn Museum

New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury and, later, with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the North American interior.[22][23] Immigration resumed after being slowed by wars in Europe, and a new street grid system, the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, expanded to encompass all of Manhattan. Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street.[24]

In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then an independent city), Manhattan and outlying areas.[25] The borough of Brooklyn incorporated the independent City of Brooklyn, recently joined to Manhattan by the Brooklyn Bridge in Lower Manhattan. Municipal governments contained within the boroughs were abolished, and the county governmental functions, housed in Lower Manhattan after unification, were absorbed by the City or each borough.[26]

20th century

View from Woolworth Building 1913 New York City
View from the Woolworth Building in 1913
Aerial view of East River, Lower Manhattan, New York Harbor, 1981
View from an airplane in 1981

Washington Market was located between Barclay and Hubert Streets, and from Greenwich Street to West Street.[27] It was demolished in the 1960s and replaced by a new Independence Plaza, Washington Market Park and other developments.

Lower Manhattan retains one of the most irregular street grid plans in the borough. Throughout the early decades of the 1900s, the area experienced a construction boom, with major towers such as 40 Wall Street, the American International Building, Woolworth Building, and 20 Exchange Place being erected.

On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Greenwich Village took the lives of 146 garment workers, which would eventually lead to great advancements in the city's fire department, building codes, and workplace regulations.

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. Interborough Rapid Transit (the first New York City Subway company) began operating in 1904. The area's demographics stabilized, labor unionization brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under Fiorello La Guardia, and his controversial parks commissioner, Robert Moses, ended the blight of many tenement areas, expanded new parks, remade streets, and restricted and reorganized zoning controls, especially in Lower Manhattan.

In the 1950s, a few new buildings were constructed in Lower Manhattan, including an 11-story building at 156 William Street in 1955.[28] A 27-story office building at 20 Broad Street, a 12-story building at 80 Pine Street, a 26-story building at 123 William Street, and a few others were built in 1957.[28] By the end of the decade, Lower Manhattan had become economically depressed, in comparison with Midtown Manhattan, which was booming. David Rockefeller spearheaded widespread urban renewal efforts in Lower Manhattan, beginning with constructing One Chase Manhattan Plaza, the new headquarters for his bank. He established the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association (DLMA) which drew up plans for broader revitalization of Lower Manhattan, with the development of a world trade center at the heart of these plans. The original DLMA plans called for the "world trade center" to be built along the East River, between Old Slip and Fulton Street. After negotiations with New Jersey Governor Richard J. Hughes, the Port Authority decided to build the World Trade Center on a site along the Hudson River and the West Side Highway, rather than the East River site.

When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site.[29] Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City.[30] The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.[31]

Through much of its history, the area south of Chambers Street was mainly a commercial district, with a small population of residents—in 1960, it was home to about 4,000.[32] Construction of Battery Park City, on landfill from construction of the World Trade Center, brought many new residents to the area. Gateway Plaza, the first Battery Park City development, was finished in 1983. The project's centerpiece, the World Financial Center, consists of four luxury highrise towers. By the turn of the century, Battery Park City was mostly completed, with the exception of some ongoing construction on West Street. Around this time, Lower Manhattan reached its highest population of business tenants and full-time residents.

In 1993, the Downtown Lower Manhattan Association (D-LMA), led by Robert Douglass, contributed to a city Planning Department plan calling for the revitalization of Lower Manhattan. The plan included recommended zoning changes, tax incentives to encourage new tenants and the conversion of commercial buildings into apartments. It also called for the creation of a “business improvement district”, The Alliance for Downtown New York, to help spur the area’s renewal. Between 1995 and 2014, 15.8 million square feet of office space has been converted to residential or hotel use. As a result, Lower Manhattan’s residential population rose from 14,000 to 60,000.[33]

Stonewall Inn 5 pride weekend 2016
The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots and the cradle of the modern gay rights movement.[34][35][36]

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement[34][37][38][39] and the modern fight for LGBT rights.[40][41]

Since the early twentieth century, Lower Manhattan has been an important center for the arts and leisure activities. Greenwich Village was a locus of bohemian culture from the first decade of the century through the 1980s. Several of the city's leading jazz clubs are still located in Greenwich Village, which was also one of the primary bases of the American folk music revival of the 1960s. Many art galleries were located in SoHo between the 1970s and early 1990s; today, the downtown Manhattan gallery scene is centered in Chelsea. From the 1960s onward, Lower Manhattan has been home to many alternative theater companies, constituting the heart of the Off-Off-Broadway community. Punk rock and its derivatives emerged in the mid-1970s largely at two venues: CBGB on the Bowery, the western edge of the East Village, and Max's Kansas City on Park Avenue South. At the same time, the area's surfeit of reappropriated industrial lofts played an integral role in the development and sustenance of the minimalist composition, free jazz, and disco/electronic dance music subcultures. The area's many nightclubs and bars—though mostly shorn of the freewheeling iconoclasm, pioneering spirit, and do-it-yourself mentality that characterized the pre-gentrification era—still draw patrons from throughout the city and the surrounding region. In the early twenty-first century, the Meatpacking District, once the sparsely populated province of after-hours BDSM clubs and transgender prostitutes, gained a reputation as New York's trendiest neighborhood.[42]

21st century

UA Flight 175 hits WTC south tower 9-11 edit.jpeg
United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the original World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.

On September 11, 2001, two of the four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center, and the towers collapsed. The 7 World Trade Center was not struck by a plane, but collapsed because of heavy debris falling from the impacts of planes and the collapse of the North Tower. The other buildings of the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and soon after demolished. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage to surrounding buildings and skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, and resulted in the deaths of 2,606 people, in addition to those on the planes. Many rescue workers and residents of the area also developed several life-threatening illnesses and some have since died.[43]

Following September 11, Lower Manhattan lost much of its economy and office space but has since rebounded significantly. Private sector employment reached 233,000 at the end of 2016, the highest levels since the end of 2001. This was largely due to growth and diversification in the local workforce with gains in employment sectors like Technology, Advertising, Media and Information, as well as Hotel, Restaurants, Retailing, and Health care.[44] As of 2016, Lower Manhattan's business district is home to approximately 700 retail stores and 500 bars and restaurants.[45]

The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation has consummated plans to rebuild downtown Manhattan by adding new streets, buildings, and office space. The National September 11 Memorial at the site was opened to the public on September 11, 2011, while the National September 11 Museum was officially inaugurated by President Barack Obama on May 15, 2014.[46] As of the time of its opening in November 2014, the new One World Trade Center, formerly known as the Freedom Tower, is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere[47] and the fourth-tallest in the world, at 1,776 feet (541 m);[48] while other skyscrapers are under construction at the site.

The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park, formerly known as Liberty Plaza Park, began in the Financial District on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide.[49]

On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy ravaged portions of Lower Manhattan with record-high storm surge from New York Harbor, severe flooding, and high winds, causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of Manhattanites and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. The storm and its effects have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of Manhattan and the New York City metropolitan region to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.[50]

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001.[51] The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.[52]

There are currently 61,000 residents south of Chambers Street [53] and more than 62 percent of the population is between 18-44. Lower Manhattan is home to more young professionals than Greenpoint, the East Village and Downtown Brooklyn and on par with Downtown Jersey City and Williamsburg.[54]

In June 2015, The New York Times wrote that Lower Manhattan's dining scene was experiencing a renaissance.[55] Currently, there are 416 casual dining and 129 full service dining restaurants.[56] The Village Voice, based at 80 Maiden Lane in the Financial District and historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.[57]

On October 31, 2017, a man drove a pickup truck into the Hudson River Park's bike path between Houston Street and Chambers Street, killing eight people and injuring at least 15.[58] Most of those who were hit were bicyclists. It was the first deadly terrorist attack in Manhattan since 9/11.[59][60]

Since 2010, a Little Australia has emerged and is growing in the Nolita neighborhood of Lower Manhattan.[61]

Historical sites

Chinatown manhattan 2009
Chinatown, the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere.[62][63]

Before the September 11 attacks, the Twin Towers were iconic of Lower Manhattan's global significance as a financial center. The new office towers built since the attack (including One World Trade Center) have transformed the skyline of Lower Manhattan. The 9/11 Memorial & Museum at the former World Trade Center site has become a popular draw for visitors.

The area contains many historical buildings and sites, including Castle Garden, originally the fort Castle Clinton, Bowling Green, the old United States Customs House, now the National Museum of the American Indian, Federal Hall, where George Washington was inaugurated as the first U.S. President, Fraunces Tavern, New York City Hall, the Museum of American Finance, the New York Stock Exchange, renovated original mercantile buildings of the South Street Seaport (and a modern tourist building), the Brooklyn Bridge, South Ferry, embarkation point for the Staten Island Ferry and ferries to Liberty Island and Ellis Island, and Trinity Church. Lower Manhattan is home to some of New York City's most spectacular skyscrapers, including the Woolworth Building, 40 Wall Street (also known as the Trump Building), the Standard Oil Building at 26 Broadway, and the American International Building.

Among the commercial districts of Lower Manhattan no longer in existence was Radio Row on Cortlandt Street, which was demolished in 1966 to make way for construction of the former World Trade Center.


Union Square New York by David Shankbone
The park and surrounding neighborhood of Union Square, located between 14th and 17th Streets, may be considered a part of either Lower or Midtown Manhattan.

Downtown in the context of Manhattan, and of New York City generally, has different meanings to different people, especially depending on where in the city they reside. Residents of the island or of The Bronx generally speak of going "downtown" to refer to any southbound excursion to any Manhattan destination.[64] A declaration that one is going to be "downtown" may indicate a plan to be anywhere south of 14th Street—the definition of downtown according to the city's official tourism marketing organization[64]—or even 23rd Street.[65][66] The full phrase Downtown Manhattan may also refer more specifically to the area of Manhattan south of Canal Street.[32] Within business-related contexts, many people use the term Downtown Manhattan to refer only to the Financial District and the corporate offices in the immediate vicinity. For instance, the Business Improvement District managed by the Alliance for Downtown New York defines Downtown as South of Murray Street (essentially South of New York City Hall), which includes the World Trade Center area and the Financial District. The phrase Lower Manhattan may apply to any of these definitions: the broader ones often if the speaker is discussing the area in relation to the rest of the city; more restrictive ones, again, if the focus is on business matters or on the colonial and early post-colonial history of the island.

As reflected in popular culture, "Downtown" in Manhattan has historically represented a place where one could "forget all your troubles, forget all your cares, and go Downtown," as the lyrics of Petula Clark's 1964 hit "Downtown" celebrate (although Tony Hatch, the songwriter of the track, later clarified that he naively believed Times Square to be "downtown," and was the actual inspiration for the hit single). The protagonist of Billy Joel's 1983 hit "Uptown Girl" contrasts himself (a "downtown man") with the purportedly staid uptown world.[67] Likewise, the chorus of Neil Young's 1995 single "Downtown" urges "Let's have a party, downtown all right."


Photos NewYork1 032
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street is, by a significant margin, the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies,[68][69] at $23.1 trillion as of April 2018.[70]

Lower Manhattan is the fourth largest business district in the United States, after Midtown Manhattan, the Chicago Loop, and Washington, D.C.[71] Anchored by Wall Street, New York City functions as the financial capital of the world and has been called the world's most economically powerful city.[72][73][74][75][76][77] Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the corporate headquarters of NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013.[78] Wall Street investment banking fees in 2012 totaled approximately US$40 billion.[79][80]

Other large companies with headquarters in Lower Manhattan include, in alphabetical order:

Prior to the September 11 attacks, One World Trade Center served as the headquarters of Cantor Fitzgerald.[96] Prior to its dissolution, the headquarters of US Helicopter were in Lower Manhattan.[97] When Hi Tech Expressions existed, its headquarters were in Lower Manhattan.[98][99]

Government and infrastructure

The headquarters of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is located in Four World Trade Center of the World Trade Center complex.[100]

The city hall and related government infrastructure of the City of New York are located in Lower Manhattan, next to City Hall Park. The Jacob K. Javits Federal Building is located in Civic Center. It includes the Federal Bureau of Investigation New York field office.[101]

Many New York City Subway routes converge downtown. The largest hub, Fulton Center, was completed in 2014 after a $1.4 billion reconstruction project necessitated by the September 11, 2001 attacks, and involves at least five different sets of platforms. This transit hub was expected to serve 300,000 daily riders as of late 2014.[102] The World Trade Center Transportation Hub and PATH station opened in 2016.[103] Ferry services are also concentrated downtown, including the Staten Island Ferry at the Whitehall Terminal, NYC Ferry at Pier 11/Wall Street (and Battery Park City Ferry Terminal starting in 2020), and service to Governors Island at the Battery Maritime Building.

See also


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External links

Coordinates: 40°42′28″N 74°00′43″W / 40.7078°N 74.0119°W

2017 New York City truck attack

On October 31, 2017, a man drove a rented pickup truck into cyclists and runners for about one mile (1.6 kilometers) of the Hudson River Park's bike path alongside West Street from Houston Street south to Chambers Street in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The vehicle-ramming attack killed eight people, mostly tourists, and injured eleven others. After crashing the truck into a school bus, the driver exited, apparently wielding two guns (later found to be a paintball gun and a pellet gun). He was shot in the abdomen by a policeman and arrested. A flag and a document indicating allegiance to the terrorist group Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) were found in the truck.A federal grand jury indicted 29-year-old Sayfullo Habibullaevich Saipov, who had immigrated to the United States from Uzbekistan in 2010, with eight murders in the aid of racketeering, twelve attempted murders in the aid of racketeering, destruction of a motor vehicle and providing material support for a terrorist organization.

Albany Street (Manhattan)

Albany Street is a short street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. The street runs west-to-east from the Battery Park City Esplanade along the Hudson River to Greenwich Street, passing through South End Avenue and West Street on the way. The street has a walkway connection to the Rector Street Bridge which crosses West Street.

Canal Street (Manhattan)

Canal Street is a major east–west street in Lower Manhattan, New York City, running from East Broadway between Essex and Jefferson Streets in the east, to West Street between Watts and Spring Streets in the west. It runs through the neighborhood of Chinatown, and forms the southern boundaries of SoHo and Little Italy as well as the northern boundary of Tribeca. The street acts as a major connector between Jersey City, New Jersey, via the Holland Tunnel (I-78), and Brooklyn, New York City, via the Manhattan Bridge. It is a two-way street for most of its length – from West Street to the Manhattan Bridge – with two unidirectional stretches between Forsyth Street and the Manhattan Bridge.

Chambers Street (Manhattan)

Chambers Street is a two-way street in the New York City borough of Manhattan.

Church Street (Manhattan)

Church Street is a short, but heavily travelled, north-south street in Lower Manhattan in New York City. Its southern end is at Trinity Place, of which it is a continuation, and its northern end is at Canal Street.

Trinity Place begins at Battery Place and runs uptown, passing west of Trinity Church, the Trinity and United States Realty Buildings and Zuccotti Park. It then forms the southern part of the eastern boundary of the World Trade Center site before becoming Church Street, which continues as the eastern boundary. A few blocks before Canal Street, Church Street connects to the southern end of Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue), with a roadway branching off Church Street. When not obstructed by construction on the World Trade Center site, Trinity Place, Church Street, and Avenue of the Americas form a continuous northbound four-lane through-route from Lower Manhattan to Central Park.

Church Street is named after Trinity Church, a historic Gothic-style parish church on Broadway at Wall Street, Extended in 1784, Church Street was in existence as early as 1761. Part of the street was owned by the church, but was given to the city in 1804. Trinity Place is also a namesake of the church, being named so in 1834, prior to which it was known at various times as "Lumber Street" and "Lombard Street". Prior to 1869, the south end of the street was at Fulton Street, three blocks north of Trinity Place; then, over several years, a connection was cut through those blocks, both streets were widened, and Trinity Place was extended south to Morris Street. The work, plagued by delays and, allegedly, corruption, was completed by the end of 1872.

Dey Street

Dey Street is a short street in Lower Manhattan, in New York City. It passes the west side of the World Trade Center site and the World Trade Center Transportation Hub. It runs for one block between Church Street and Broadway. It originally ran to West Street, but the western reaches were demolished to make way for the World Trade Center in the late 1960s. It now extends to Greenwich Street. 15 Dey Street is the site of the first transcontinental telephone call.

Financial District, Manhattan

The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, also known as FiDi, is a neighborhood located on the southern tip of Manhattan island in New York City. It is bounded by the West Side Highway on the west, Chambers Street and City Hall Park on the north, Brooklyn Bridge on the northeast, the East River to the southeast, and The Battery on the south.

The City of New York was created in the Financial District in 1624, and the neighborhood roughly overlaps with the boundaries of the New Amsterdam settlement in the late 17th century. The district comprises the offices and headquarters of many of the city's major financial institutions, including the New York Stock Exchange and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Anchored on Wall Street in the Financial District, New York City has been called both the most financially powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the New York Stock Exchange is the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization. Several other major exchanges have or had headquarters in the Financial District, including the New York Mercantile Exchange, NASDAQ, the New York Board of Trade, and the former American Stock Exchange.

The Financial District is part of Manhattan Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10004, 10005, 10006, and 10038. It is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department.

Fulton Center

Fulton Center is a transit center and retail complex centered at the intersection of Fulton Street and Broadway in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The name also refers to the $1.4 billion project by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), a public agency of the state of New York, to rehabilitate the New York City Subway's Fulton Street station. The work involved constructing new underground passageways and access points into the complex, renovating the constituent stations, and erecting a large station building that doubles as a part of the Westfield World Trade Center mall.

The project, first announced in 2002, was intended to improve access to and connections among the New York City Subway services stopping at the Fulton Street station. Funding for the construction project, which began in 2005, dried up for several years, with no final approved plan and no schedule for completion. Plans for the transit center were revived by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The project used to be referred to as the Fulton Street Transit Center, but was re-branded the Fulton Center in May 2012 because of a heightened emphasis on retail. The complex officially opened on November 10, 2014, along with the adjacent Dey Street Passageway.

Through the Dey Street Passageway, the complex connects to the World Trade Center, the Westfield World Trade Center mall, PATH station, and observation deck, and provides connections to the Chambers Street–World Trade Center/Park Place/Cortlandt Street (2, ​3​, A, ​C, ​E​, ​N, ​R, and ​W) and WTC Cortlandt (1) stations, as well as the PATH's World Trade Center station. Westfield Corporation operates the retail space as an extension of the Westfield World Trade Center, a block to the west.

Interstate 78 in New York

Interstate 78 (I-78) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Union Township, Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, to New York City. In the U.S. state of New York, I-78 extends 0.90 miles (1.45 km). The entirety of I-78 consists of the Holland Tunnel, which crosses under the Hudson River from New Jersey and ends at an exit rotary in Lower Manhattan. The tunnel and its approaches are maintained by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

I-78 was planned to take a longer route when the Interstate System within New York City was originally proposed in the late 1950s. The proposed route of I-78 was to head east via the Williamsburg Bridge to the John F. Kennedy International Airport and then north over the Throgs Neck Bridge to I-95 in the Bronx. One unbuilt section of I-78, the Lower Manhattan Expressway, would have connected the Holland Tunnel to the Williamsburg and Manhattan Bridges. Another unbuilt section, the Cross-Brooklyn and Bushwick Expressways, would have extended southeast across Brooklyn, connecting to what is now Nassau Expressway (New York State Route 878 or NY 878). A third section would have connected the Nassau Expressway, at the southern edge of Queens near JFK Airport, to the southern end of what is now I-295, in central Queens. Due to opposition from the communities along the expressways' routes, these sections of I-78 were not built, except for a short section in Lower Manhattan that was built but never used.

Little Italy, Manhattan

Little Italy (Italian: Piccola Italia) is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, once known for its large population of Italian Americans. Today the neighborhood consists of only a few Italian stores and restaurants. It is bounded on the west by Tribeca and Soho, on the south by Chinatown, on the east by the Bowery and Lower East Side, and on the north by Nolita.

Live at the Lower Manhattan Ocean Club

Live at the Lower Manhattan Ocean Club is a live album by David Murray. It was originally released as two volumes on the India Navigation label in 1978 and re-released in 1989 on a single CD (with a slightly edited final track). It features a live performance by Murray, Lester Bowie, Fred Hopkins and Phillip Wilson recorded in concert at the Lower Manhattan Ocean Club, NYC.

Lower Manhattan Development Corporation

The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation was formed in November 2001, following the September 11 attacks, to plan the reconstruction of Lower Manhattan and distribute nearly $10 billion in federal funds aimed at rebuilding downtown Manhattan. It is a subsidiary of the Empire State Development Corporation, which is a New York state public-benefit corporation.

Lower Manhattan Hospital

New York-Presbyterian / Lower Manhattan Hospital is a not-for-profit, acute care, teaching hospital in New York City and is the only hospital in Lower Manhattan south of Greenwich Village. It is part of the NewYork-Presbyterian Healthcare System and one of the main campuses of NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital.

The Lower Manhattan Hospital operates 170 beds, and offers a full range of inpatient and outpatient services, as well as community outreach and education. It is also a leader in the field of emergency preparedness and disaster management. The Hospital serves the area’s diverse neighborhoods including Wall Street, Battery Park City, Chinatown, SoHo, TriBeCa, Little Italy, and the Lower East Side. It is the closest acute care facility to the Financial District, to the seat of the City government, and to some of New York’s most popular tourist attractions.

Lower Manhattan–Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project

The Lower Manhattan–Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project was a proposed public works project in New York City, New York, that would use the Long Island Rail Road's Atlantic Branch and a new tunnel under the East River to connect a new train station near or at the World Trade Center Transportation Hub site with John F. Kennedy International Airport and Jamaica station on the LIRR. It would allow for a one-seat, 36-minute-long ride between JFK Airport and Lower Manhattan, cut commuting times from Long Island by up to 40% and reduce crowding on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line (2 and ​3 trains), IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 and ​5 trains), IND Eighth Avenue Line (A and ​C trains), and BMT Broadway Line (N, R, and ​W trains) in Manhattan.The Lower Manhattan–Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project was a priority of former New York Governor George Pataki. His successor, former Governor Eliot Spitzer said that he did not view the project as a top priority, compared to construction of the Second Avenue Subway, LIRR East Side Access, or replacement of the Tappan Zee Bridge, and wanted a careful evaluation of the benefits of the costly project.

M5 and M55 buses

The M5 and M55 constitute a public transit corridor in Manhattan, New York City, United States, running along the Fifth / Sixth Avenues / Riverside Drive Line as well as the southern portion of the Broadway Line after the discontinuation of the M6. The routes primarily run along Broadway, Fifth and Sixth Avenues, and Riverside Drive from South Ferry, Lower Manhattan to Washington Heights. The M5 covers the northern portion of the route north of 31st Street, while the M55 operates along the southern portion of the route south of 44th Street. The two routes overlap in Midtown Manhattan. The portion along Broadway south of East 8th Street was originally a streetcar line.

The whole line was a single route, the M5, until January 2017, when the M55 was created.


Nolita, sometimes written as NoLIta, and deriving from "North of Little Italy" is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Nolita is situated in Lower Manhattan, bounded on the north by Houston Street, on the east by the Bowery, on the south roughly by Broome Street, and on the west by Lafayette Street. It lies east of SoHo, south of NoHo, west of the Lower East Side, and north of Little Italy and Chinatown.

Petrosino Square

Lieutenant Joseph Petrosino Square is small triangular park in lower Manhattan in New York City, bounded by Cleveland Place and Lafayette and Kenmare Streets, two blocks north of the old police headquarters at 240 Centre Street, at the juncture of the Little Italy, Nolita, and SoHo neighborhoods. Formerly Kenmare Square, it changed its name in 1987 in honor of Lieutenant Joseph Petrosino, an early 20th century NYPD official dedicated to investigating and combating, among other adversaries, the Black Hand, an early version of the Mafia in America.

The park underwent a $2 million renovation in 2008–2011, and is the site of a controversial CitiBike docking station.

St. Joseph Chapel (New York City)

St. Joseph's Chapel is a mission parish of St. Peter's Church, the oldest Catholic parish in New York State. Established in 1983, it is located at 385 South End Avenue, Manhattan, New York City.

St. Patrick's Old Cathedral

The Basilica of Saint Patrick's Old Cathedral, or Old St. Patrick's, is located at 260–264 Mulberry Street between Prince and Houston Streets in the Nolita neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, with the primary entrance currently located on Mott Street. Built between 1809 and 1815, and designed by Joseph-François Mangin in the Gothic Revival style, it was the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York until the current Saint Patrick's Cathedral opened in 1879. Liturgies are celebrated in English, Spanish, and Chinese.

The church was designated a New York City landmark in 1966, and the cathedral complex was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. It was declared a minor basilica by Pope Benedict XVI on March 17, 2010.

Lower Manhattan
below 14th St
(CB 1, 2, 3)
Midtown (CB 5)
West Side (CB 4, 7)
East Side (CB 6, 8)
Upper Manhattan
above 110th St
(CB 9, 10, 11, 12)

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