Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt (Arabic: مصر السفلىMiṣr as-Suflā) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur. Historically, the Nile River split into seven branches of the delta in Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt was divided into nomes and began to advance as a civilization after 3600 BC.[1] Today, it contains two channels major that flow through the delta of the Nile River.

Lower Egypt

مصر السفلى
Unknown–c. 3150 BCE
Common languagesAncient Egyptian
Ancient Egyptian religion
• Unknown
Unknown (first)
• c. 3150 BCE
Unknown (last)
• Established
• Disestablished
c. 3150 BCE
Succeeded by
Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)
Today part of Egypt
Map of Lower Egypt showing important sites that were occupied during the Protodynastic Period of Egypt (clickable map)
Deshret, the Red Crown of Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt Nomes 01
Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes


In ancient times, Pliny the Elder, in Natural History (Book 5, chapter 11), said that upon reaching the delta the Nile split into seven branches (from east to west): the Pelusiac, the Tanitic, the Mendesian, the Phatnitic, the Sebennytic, the Bolbitine, and the Canopic. Today there are two principal channels that the Nile takes through the river's delta: one in the west at Rashid and one in the east at Damietta.

The delta region is well watered, crisscrossed by channels and canals.

The climate in Lower Egypt is milder than that of Upper Egypt owing primarily to its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Temperatures are less extreme and rainfall is more abundant.


Lower Egypt was known as Ta-Mehu which means "land of papyrus." It was divided into twenty districts called nomes, the first of which was at el-Lisht. Because Lower Egypt was mostly undeveloped scrubland, undeveloped for human life and filled with all types of plant life such as grasses and herbs, the organization of the nomes underwent several changes.

The capital of Lower Egypt was Memphis. Its patron Goddess was the cobra goddess Wadjet. Lower Egypt was represented by the Low Red Crown Deshret, and its symbols were the papyrus and the bee.

By about 3600 BC, neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile River had based their culture on the raising of crops and the domestication of animals.[2] Shortly after 3600 BC Egyptian society began to grow and advance rapidly toward refined civilization.[1] A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the pottery in the Southern Levant, appeared during this time. Extensive use of copper became common during this time.[1] The Mesopotamian process of sun-dried bricks, and architectural building principles—including the use of the arch and recessed walls for decorative effect—became popular during this time.[1]

Concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt also underwent a unification process.[1] Warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt occurred often.[1] During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta and merged both the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Egypt under his single rule.[3]

List of kings of the Predynastic Period of Lower Egypt

The Palermo stone, a royal annal written in the mid Fifth Dynasty (c. 2490 BC – c. 2350 BC) records a number of kings reigning over Lower Egypt before Narmer. These are completely unattested outside these inscriptions:


In contrast the following kings are attested through archeological finds from Sinai and Lower Egypt: Double Falcon, Crocodile.

List of nomes

Number Egyptian Name Capital Modern name of capital site English Translation
1 Aneb-Hetch Ineb Hedj / Men-nefer / Menfe (Memphis) Mit Rahina White Walls
2 Khensu Khem (Letopolis) Ausim Cow's thigh
3 Ahment Imu (Apis) Kom el-Hisn West
4 Sapi-Res Ptkheka Tanta Southern shield
5 Sap-Meh Zau (Sais) Sa el-Hagar Northern shield
6 Khaset Khasu (Xois) Sakha Mountain bull
7 A-ment (Hermopolis Parva, Metelis) Damanhur West harpoon
8 A-bt Tjeku / Per-Atum (Heroonpolis, Pithom) Tell el-Maskhuta East harpoon
9 Ati Djed (Busiris) Abu Sir Bara Andjeti
10 Ka-khem Hut-hery-ib (Athribis) Banha (Tell Atrib) Black bull
11 Ka-heseb Taremu (Leontopolis) Tell el-Urydam Heseb bull
12 Theb-ka Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos) Samanud Calf and Cow
13 Heq-At Iunu (Heliopolis) Materiya (suburb of Cairo) Prospering Sceptre
14 Khent-abt Tjaru (Sile, Tanis) Tell Abu Sefa Eastmost
15 Tehut Ba'h / Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva) Baqliya Ibis
16 Kha Djedet (Mendes) Tell el-Rubˁ Fish
17 Semabehdet Semabehdet (Diospolis Inferior) Tell el-Balamun The throne
18 Am-Khent Per-Bastet (Bubastis) Tell Bastah (near Zagazig) Prince of the South
19 Am-Pehu Dja'net (Leontopolis Tanis) Tell Nebesha or San el-Hagar Prince of the North
20 Sopdu Per-Sopdu Saft el-Hinna Plumed Falcon

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons: New York, 1966) p. 52-53.
  2. ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishing: New York, 1966) p. 51.
  3. ^ Carl Roebuck, The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishers: New York, 1966), p. 53.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Breasted (1909) p.36

Menes killed every one in egypt imported people from greek and made them slaves.

Centralized government

A centralized government (also centralised government) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which federal states, local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject. In a national context, centralization occurs in the transfer of power to a typically sovereign nation state. Menes, an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period, is credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt, and as the founder of the first dynasty (Dynasty I), became the first ruler to institute a centralized government.All constituted governments are, to some degree, necessarily centralized, in the sense that a theoretically federal state exerts an authority or prerogative beyond that of its constituent parts. To the extent that a base unit of society — usually conceived as an individual citizen — vests authority in a larger unit, such as the state or the local community, authority is centralized. The extent to which this ought to occur, and the ways in which centralized government evolves, forms part of social contract theory.


Deshret, from Ancient Egyptian, was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and for the desert Red Land on either side of Kemet (Black Land), the fertile Nile river basin. When combined with the Hedjet (White Crown) of Upper Egypt, it forms the Pschent (Double Crown), in Ancient Egyptian called the sekhemti.

The Red Crown in Egyptian language hieroglyphs eventually was used as the vertical letter "n" . The original "n" hieroglyph from the Predynastic Period, and the Old Kingdom was the sign depicting ripples of water.

Double Falcon

Double Falcon (also possibly Dju and Nebwy) was a ruler of Lower Egypt from Naqada III. He may have reigned during the 32nd century BCE. The length of his reign is unknown.

Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)

The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is the era immediately following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the end of the Naqada III archaeological period until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Thinis to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king. Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art, architecture and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period.

Before the unification of Egypt, the land was settled with autonomous villages. With the early dynasties, and for much of Egypt's history thereafter, the country came to be known as the Two Lands. The pharaohs established a national administration and appointed royal governors. The buildings of the central government were typically open-air temples constructed of wood or sandstone. The earliest Egyptian hieroglyphs appear just before this period, though little is known of the spoken language they represent.


Hedjet (Ancient Egyptian: ḥḏt "White One") is the formal name for the white crown of pharaonic Upper Egypt. After the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, it was combined with the deshret, the red crown of Lower Egypt, to form the pschent, the double crown of Egypt. The symbol sometimes used for the white crown was the vulture goddess Nekhbet shown next to the head of the cobra goddess Wadjet, the uraeus on the pschent.


Hsekiu, alternatively Seka, is mentioned in the Palermo Stone as a Predynastic Egyptian pharaoh (king) who ruled in Lower Egypt. As there is no other evidence of such ruler, he may be a mythical king preserved through oral tradition, or may even be completely fictitious.


Khabash, also Khababash or Khabbash, resided at Sais in the fifth nome of Lower Egypt in the fourth century BCE. During the second Persian occupation of Egypt (343–332 BCE) he led a revolt against the Persian rule in concert with his eldest son, from ca. 338 to 335 BCE, a few years before the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great. It is said that Nectanebo II, the exiled last native ruler of Egypt, may have helped in these events, but he was possibly sidelined for good as a result of the failure of the revolt.Little is known about Khabash. He is referred to as "Lord of both lands", i.e. King of Upper and Lower Egypt, and as "Son of Ra", another pharaonic title, and given the throne name of Senen-setep-en-Ptah in a decree by Ptolemy Lagides, who became King Ptolemy I Soter in 305 BCE.

Sometime in the 330s BCE, an Egyptian ruler called Kambasuten – who is widely recognized as Khabash – led an invasion into the kingdom of Kush which was defeated by king Nastasen as recorded in a stela now in the Berlin museum. An Apis bull sarcophagus bearing his name was found at Saqqara and dated to his regnal Year 2.

List of Egyptian castles, forts, fortifications and city walls

Many buildings in Egypt can be put under the classification of Castles, Citadels, Forts, Fortifications.

List of ancient Egyptian sites

This is a list of ancient Egyptian sites, throughout all of Egypt and Nubia. Sites are listed by their classical name whenever possible, if not by their modern name, and lastly with their ancient name if no other is available.

Middle Egypt

Middle Egypt (Arabic: مصر الوسطى‎ Misr al-Wista) is the section of land between Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt, stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis in the north. At the time, Ancient Egypt was divided into Lower and Upper Egypt, though Middle Egypt was technically a subdivision of Upper Egypt. It was not until the 19th century that archaeologists felt the need to divide Upper Egypt in two. As a result, they coined the term "Middle Egypt" for the stretch of river between Cairo and the Qena Bend. It was also associated with a region termed Heptanomis (; Greek: ἡ Επτανομίς, in Ptol. iv. 5. § 55; more properly Ἑπτὰ Νομοί or Ἑπταπολίς, in Dionysius Periegetes 251; and sometimes ἡ μεταζύ[γή]; meaning "Seven Nomes", a "nome" being a subdivision of ancient Egypt), generally as the district which separates the Thebaïd from the Delta.

Middle Egypt today can be identified as the part of the Nile Valley that, while geographically part of Upper Egypt, is culturally closer to Lower Egypt. For instance, in terms of language, the Egyptian Arabic of people in Beni Suef and northwards shares features with Cairene and particularly rural Delta Arabic rather than with the Sa'idi Arabic spoken further south, and are often not considered Sa'idis.

Nome (Egypt)

A nome (, from Ancient Greek: νομός, nomós, “district”) was a territorial division in ancient Egypt.

Each nome was ruled by a nomarch (Ancient Egyptian: heri-tep a'a). The number of nomes changed through the various periods of the history of ancient Egypt.


Pharaoh (, US also ; Coptic: ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Pǝrro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator. He owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt from invaders as the commander-in-chief of the army. Religiously, the pharaoh officiated over religious ceremonies and chose the sites of new temples. He was responsible for maintaining Maat (mꜣꜥt), or cosmic order, balance, and justice, and part of this included going to war when necessary to defend the country or attacking others when it was believed that this would contribute to Maat, such as to obtain resources.During the early days prior to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Deshret or the "Red Crown", was a representation of the kingdom of Lower Egypt, while the Hedjet, the "White Crown", was worn by the kings of the kingdom of Upper Egypt. After the unification of both kingdoms into one united Egypt, the Pschent, the combination of both the red and white crowns was the official crown of kings. With time new headdresses were introduced during different dynasties like the Khat, Nemes, Atef, Hemhem crown, and Khepresh. At times, it was depicted that a combination of these headdresses or crowns would be worn together.

Prenomen (Ancient Egypt)

The prenomen, cartouche name or throne name (Ancient Egyptian: 𓆥 nswt-bjtj of the Sedge and Bee) of ancient Egypt was one of the five royal names of pharaohs. The first pharaoh to have a Sedge and Bee name was Den during the First Dynasty.Most Egyptologists believe that the Prenomen was a regnal name.

The first part of the title, ni-su, seems to have referred to the eternal institution of kingship itself. It was, in fact, the word for "king" in expressions[.] The word bjt, on the other hand, more properly referred to the ephemeral holder of the position. In this way, both the divine and the mortal were referenced in the phrase, along with the obvious dual division of the northern and southern lands. For these reasons, the translation "Dual King" is preferred today. Others think that it originally represented the birth name of the rulers.The term "of the Sedge and Bee") is written by the hieroglyphs representing a sedge, representing Upper Egypt (𓇓 Gardiner M23) and a bee, representing Lower Egypt (𓆤 L2), each combined with the feminine ending t (𓏏 X1), read as nsw.t and bj.t respectively; the adjectival nisba ending -j is not represented in writing.During the first three dynasties, the prenomen was depicted either alone or in pair with the Nebty name. Semerkhet was the first pharaoh who devoted his prenomen to the Two Ladies. From Pharaoh Huni, the probable last king of the Third Dynasty onward, the prenomen was encircled by the cartouche (the elongated form of the shen ring).


The Pschent (; Greek ψχεντ) was the double crown worn by rulers in ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians generally referred to it as sekhemty (sḫm.ty), the Two Powerful Ones. It combined the Red Deshret Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Hedjet Crown of Upper Egypt.

The Pschent represented the pharaoh's power over all of unified Egypt. It bore two animal emblems: an Egyptian cobra, known as the uraeus, ready to strike, which symbolized the Lower Egyptian goddess Wadjet; and an Egyptian vulture representing the Upper Egyptian tutelary goddess Nekhbet. These were fastened to the front of the Pschent and referred to as the Two Ladies. Later, the vulture head sometimes was replaced by a second cobra.


Raet (Rˁỉ.t) or Raet-Tawy (Rˁỉ.t-tȝ.wỉ) is an ancient Egyptian solar goddess, the female aspect of Ra. Her name is simply the female form of Ra's name; the longer name Raet-Tawy means "Raet of the Two Lands" (Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt).

Tiu (pharaoh)

Tiu, also known as Teyew, is mentioned in the Palermo Stone as a Predynastic Egyptian king who ruled in Lower Egypt. As there is no other evidence of such ruler, he may be a mythical king preserved through oral tradition, or may even be completely fictitious.

Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt (Arabic: صعيد مصر‎ Ṣaʿīd Miṣr, shortened to الصعيد aṣ-Ṣaʿīd; Egyptian Arabic: [es.sˤe.ˈʕiːd], Coptic: ⲙⲁⲣⲏⲥ) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

Upper and Lower Egypt

In Egyptian history, the Upper and Lower Egypt period (also known as the Two Lands) was the final stage of prehistoric Egypt and directly preceded the nation's unification. The conception of Egypt as the Two Lands was an example of the dualism in ancient Egyptian culture and appeared frequently in texts and imagery, including in the titles of Egyptian pharaohs.

The Egyptian title zmꜣ-tꜣwj (Egyptological pronunciation sema-tawy) is usually translated as "Uniter of the Two Lands" and was depicted as a human trachea entwined with the papyrus and lily plant. The trachea stood for unification, while the papyrus and lily plant represent Lower and Upper Egypt.

Standard titles of the Pharaoh included the prenomen, literally "Of the Sedge and Bee" (nswt-bjtj, the symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt) and "Lord of the Two Lands" (written nb-tꜣwj). (Queens regnant were addressed as "Pharaoh" and male.) Queens consort might use a feminine versions of the second title, "Lady of The Two Lands" (nbt-tꜣwj), Mistress of the Entire Two Lands (hnwt-tꜣwy-tm), and Mistress of the Two Lands (hnwt-tꜣwy).


Wadjet ( or ; Ancient Egyptian: wꜢḏyt "Green One"), known to the Greek world as Uto (Koinē Greek: Οὐτώ ) or Buto (Βουτώ ) among other names including Wedjat, Uadjet, and Udjo was originally the ancient local goddess of the city of Dep. It became part of the city that the Egyptians named Per-Wadjet "House of Wadjet" and the Greeks called Buto (now Desouk), which was an important site in prehistoric Egypt and the cultural developments of the Paleolithic.

Wadjet was said to be the patron and protector of Lower Egypt, and upon unification with Upper Egypt, the joint protector and patron of all of Egypt "goddess" of Upper Egypt. The image of Wadjet with the sun disk is called the uraeus, and it was the emblem on the crown of the rulers of Lower Egypt. She was also the protector of kings and of women in childbirth. Wadjet was said to be the nurse of the infant god Horus. With the help of his mother Isis, they protected Horus from his treacherous uncle, Set, when they took refuge in the swamps of the Nile Delta. Wadjet was closely associated in ancient Egyptian religion with the Eye of Ra, a powerful protective deity. The hieroglyph for her eye is shown below; sometimes two are shown in the sky of religious images. Per-Wadjet also contained a sanctuary of Horus, the child of the sun deity who would be interpreted to represent the pharaoh. Much later, Wadjet became associated with Isis as well as with many other deities.

In the relief shown to the right, which is on the wall of the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut at Luxor, there are two images of Wadjet: one of her as the uraeus with her head through an ankh and another where she precedes a Horus hawk wearing the Pschent, representing the pharaoh whom she protects.

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