Louverval

In 1918 it was the site of a minor battle between the Australian 11th Battalion and the Germans during World War I in which Charles Pope won a posthumous Victoria Cross. It is the location of the Cambrai Memorial to the Missing (Louverval Military Cemetery).

Coordinates: 50°08′22″N 3°0′045″E / 50.13944°N 3.01250°E Louverval is a village in the Doignies commune in the Nord department in northern France.

11th Battalion (Australia)

The 11th Battalion was an Australian Army battalion that was among the first infantry units raised during World War I for the First Australian Imperial Force. It was the first battalion recruited in Western Australia, and following a brief training period in Perth, the battalion sailed to Egypt where it undertook four months of intensive training. In April 1915 it took part in the invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula, landing at Anzac Cove. In August 1915 the battalion was in action in the Battle of Lone Pine. Following the withdrawal from Gallipoli, the battalion returned to Egypt where it was split to help form the 51st Battalion. In March 1916, the battalion was deployed to the Western Front in France and Belgium where it took part in trench warfare until the end of the war in November 1918.

The battalion was disbanded in 1919, but since 1921 has been re-activated and merged several times as a reserve unit, initially as the 11th Battalion (City of Perth Regiment), which fought a brief campaign against the Japanese on New Britain during World War II. Other units that have maintained the traditions of the original 11th Battalion include the 11th/44th Battalion (City of Perth Regiment), 'A' (City of Perth) Company, 1st Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment and the current 11th/28th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment.

2nd Division (Australia)

The 2nd Division commands all the Reserve brigades in Australia. These are the 4th in Victoria, the 5th in New South Wales, the 9th in South Australia and Tasmania, the 11th in Queensland, the 13th in Western Australia, and the 8th spread across the country. The division is also responsible for the security of Australia's northern borders through its Regional Force Surveillance Units.

The division was first formed in Egypt in July 1915 during World War I as part of the First Australian Imperial Force (1st AIF). The division took part in the Gallipoli campaign, arriving in the latter stages and then traversed to the Western Front in France and Belgium where it had the distinction of taking part in the final ground action fought by Australian troops in the war. After the war ended and the AIF was demobilised, the 2nd Division name was revived and assigned to a Citizens Military Forces (reserve) unit in 1921.

During the inter-war years, the division was based in New South Wales with its headquarters Parramatta. During World War II, the 2nd Division undertook defensive duties on the east coast until mid-1942 when it was sent to Western Australia. In May 1944, the division was disbanded as the war situation no longer required large numbers of garrison troops to be held back in Australia. Post war, the division was re-raised in 1948, and except for a period from 1960 to 1965, the division has existed in one form or another since then.

5th Division (Australia)

The 5th Division was an infantry division of the Australian Army which served during the First and Second World Wars. The division was formed in February 1916 as part of the expansion of the Australian Imperial Force infantry brigades. In addition to the existing 8th Brigade were added the new 14th and 15th Brigades, which had been raised from the battalions of the 1st and 2nd Brigades respectively. From Egypt the division was sent to France and then Belgium, where they served in the trenches along the Western Front until the end of the war in November 1918. After the war ended, the division was demobilised in 1919.

The division was re-raised as a Militia formation during the Second World War, and was mobilised for the defence of North Queensland in 1942, when it was believed that the area was a prime site for an invasion by Japanese forces. Most of the division was concentrated in the Townsville area, although the 11th Brigade was detached for the defence of Cairns and Cape York. In 1943, the division took part in the final stages of the Salamaua–Lae campaign, in New Guinea, and then later in 1944 captured Madang during the Huon Peninsula campaign. In 1944–1945, the division was committed to the New Britain campaign, before being relieved in July 1945. The division was disbanded in September 1945 following the end of the war.

Battle of Jodoigne

The Battle of Jodoigne was fought on October 20th, 1568, between Spanish and Dutch Rebel forces.

Bill McCann

Lieutenant Colonel William Francis James McCann, (19 April 1892 – 14 December 1957) was an Australian soldier of World War I, a barrister, and a prominent figure in the military and ex-service community of South Australia during the interwar period. Born and raised in Adelaide, he worked as a teacher before the war. He enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force as a private in 1914, and rose through the ranks to be commissioned during the Gallipoli campaign of 1915. In 1916–1918 he fought on the Western Front in France and Belgium, was wounded twice, and rose to the rank of major. For his gallantry during the war, he was made a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order and twice awarded the Military Cross. After the war, he served as commanding officer of the 10th Battalion until its disbandment in 1919.

Returning home, McCann became a barrister and formed a legal partnership with Victoria Cross recipient Arthur Blackburn. McCann was active in returned servicemen's organisations, as president of the South Australian branch of the Returned Sailors' and Soldiers' Imperial League from 1924 to 1931, and as a state vice-president from 1938 to 1949. He was a foundation member of the Legacy Club of Adelaide, looking after the dependents of deceased servicemen. His service in the part-time Citizen Military Forces saw him reach the rank of lieutenant colonel and command the 43rd Battalion between 1927 and 1930. Appointed as state prices commissioner and deputy Commonwealth prices commissioner from 1938 to 1954; in 1946 an arson attack on his home was linked to his anti–black marketeering work in those roles. In recognition of his work with the ex-service community, McCann was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1935, and a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1956.

Cambrai Memorial to the Missing

The Cambrai Memorial to the Missing (sometimes referred to as the Louverval Memorial) is a Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) memorial for the missing soldiers of World War I who fought in the Battle of Cambrai on the Western Front.

Charles Pope

Charles Pope, VC (5 March 1883 – 15 April 1917) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He received the Victoria Cross posthumously for his actions on 15 April 1917 on the Western Front at the Battle of Lagnicourt, which took place during the First World War.

Charles Sargeant Jagger

Charles Sargeant Jagger (17 December 1885 – 16 November 1934) was a British sculptor who, following active service in the First World War, sculpted many works on the theme of war. He is best known for his war memorials, especially the Royal Artillery Memorial at Hyde Park Corner and the Great Western Railway War Memorial in Paddington Railway Station, both of which are in London, and he also designed several other monuments around Britain and other parts of the world.

Francis Dominic Casey

Flight Commander Francis Dominic Casey (3 August 1890 – 11 August 1917) was an Irish World War I flying ace of the Royal Naval Air Service credited with nine aerial victories. He won the Distinguished Service Cross for valour before his untimely death.

John Joseph Malone

Flight Sub-Lieutenant John Joseph Malone was a Canadian flying ace of the Royal Naval Air Service during World War I. He was credited with 10 aerial victories and won the Distinguished Service Order for his valor before dying in combat.

List of French marquisates

The following page contains an incomplete list (A-Z) of marquisates (French marquisat) that exist or formerly existed in France or within its conquered provinces. They were created by the kings of France and Spain, the dukes of Savoy and Lorraine, the popes in Comtat Venaissin, and other sovereign lords in the present-day Republic of France.

From the late Middle Ages until the French revolution, marquisates were mainly raised by letters patent. In a few cases other official acts, such as brevets royal, were used to create marquisates. These marquisates were given to members of princely houses, nobles, officials, soldiers or land-owners as rewards.

Currently, there does not exist a complete list of marquisates (or other marquess titles, which are not covered in this list), in part, because their creations were numerous, especially during the reigns of Louis XIV and XV.

This list also contains "marquisates of usage", which may only be courtesy titles used by descendants of those who assumed titles, or may be legally created but incompletely documented marquisates. Due to loss of records in fires, wars and deliberate destruction during the French revolution, it has not been established that these seigneuries were ever raised to formal marquisates. Recent archive findings have shown that some titles previously believed to be only courtesy titles are, in fact, raised marquisates.In the "Type" column is an acronym or symbol that identifies the type of marquisate (or margraviate) in that row.

LP indicates a marquisate created by letters patent.

BR indicates a marquisate created by brevet royal.

C LP or C BR indicates a title older than the marquisate is associated with that fief or family; that is, the family had a different title before they acquired the marquisate.

* (asterisk) indicates the marquisate's validity is uncertain.

TC indicates a confirmed, hereditary courtesy title used with a fief.

FD indicates a feudal marquisate or a margraviate.The titleholder of a marquisate before the French revolution was addressed as Marquis de X. The title was attached to the fief, therefore a non-noble purchaser of a marquisate needed royal confirmation to properly bear the title. Otherwise, he or she could formally only be styled Seigneur/Dame de Marquisat de X (Lord/Lady of the Marquisate of X). Enforcement in this matter was fairly lax, however, and confirmations were rather few, which often did not hinder usage of the title of marquis. In most cases, once a fief was raised, the feudal rank of marquisate remained even if the fief passed to new owners through marriage, inheritance, or purchase. In the following list, titles borne by descendants of a title-user who had not obtained confirmation at the time of the revolution, are designated in the Current Status column as parenthetically "(Extant)", while titles still borne by a descendant of the first beneficiary are designated as "Extant".

With the French revolution, feudalism was abolished and titles became disconnected from the land to which they were previously attached. Therefore, after the French revolution, it was no longer possible to purchase a marquisate and thereby obtain the title of marquis, or any other noble title. Only a few marquisates in France were specifically transferable through marriage (unlike Italy and Spain). This means many titles became extinct when the last direct male descendant of the pre-revolutionary titleholder died. An adoption of another male person by the last, legal, male title holder could, in some respects, be treated as a legal transfer of the title itself, but never a transfer of nobility if the adopted male was not noble.

List of World War I memorials and cemeteries in Artois

List of World War I memorials and cemeteries in Artois, within the historic County of Artois and present day Pas-de-Calais Department of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, located in northeastern France. World War I battles in this area of the Western Front include the First Battle of Artois (December 1914–January 1915), the Second Battle of Artois (9–15 May 1915), and the Third Battle of Artois (25 September–15 October 1915).

It divides this part of the Western Front into four distinct sections:

the area from south of Ploegsteert to Festubert.

the area from La Bassée and Béthune to Lens

the area around the two ridges of Notre Dame de Lorette and Vimy

the area around Arras and Cambrai.

Memorial to the Missing

Memorial to the Missing may refer to any of the following monuments:

The Cambrai Memorial to the Missing (also known as the Louverval Memorial), at Louverval, France, by H Chalton Bradshaw,

The Thiepval Memorial (fully the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme), at

The Ploegsteert Memorial to the Missing, near Ypres, Belgium

Tyne Cot (fully the Tyne Cot Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery and Memorial to the Missing), near Passendale, Belgium

The West Coast Memorial to the Missing of World War II, near San Francisco, California, United States

The Menin Gate (fully the Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing), in Ypres, Belgium

The La Ferté-sous-Jouarre memorial (also known as the Memorial to the Missing of the Marne), La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, France

The Ramleh Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery (fully the Ramleh Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery and Memorial to the Missing), near Ramla, Israel

Operation Michael

Operation Michael was a major German military offensive during the First World War that began the Spring Offensive on 21 March 1918. It was launched from the Hindenburg Line, in the vicinity of Saint-Quentin, France. Its goal was to break through the Allied (Entente) lines and advance in a north-westerly direction to seize the Channel Ports, which supplied the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and to drive the BEF into the sea. Two days later General Ludendorff, the chief of the German General Staff, changed his plan and pushed for an offensive due west, along the whole of the British front north of the River Somme. This was designed to separate the French and British Armies and crush the British forces by pushing them into the sea. The offensive ended at Villers-Bretonneux, to the east of the Allied communications centre at Amiens, where the Allies managed to halt the German advance; the German Armies had suffered many casualties and were unable to maintain supplies to the advancing troops.

Much of the ground fought over was the wilderness left by the Battle of the Somme in 1916. The action was therefore officially named by the British Battles Nomenclature Committee as The First Battles of the Somme, 1918, whilst the French call it the Second Battle of Picardy (2ème Bataille de Picardie). The failure of the offensive marked the beginning of the end of the First World War for Germany. The arrival in France of large reinforcements from the United States replaced Entente casualties but the German Army was unable to recover from its losses before these reinforcements took the field. Operation Michael failed to achieve its objectives and the German advance was reversed during the Second Battle of the Somme, 1918 (21 August – 3 September) in the Allied Hundred Days Offensive.

Roy Inwood

Reginald Roy Inwood, VC (14 July 1890 – 23 October 1971) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in battle that can be awarded to a member of the Australian armed forces. Inwood enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force in August 1914, and along with the rest of the 10th Battalion, he landed at Anzac Cove, Gallipoli on 25 April 1915. He fought at Anzac until being evacuated sick to Egypt in September. He remained there until he rejoined his unit on the Western Front in June 1916. In August, he fought in the Battle of Mouquet Farm.

In 1917, Inwood was with his battalion when it fought in the Battle of Lagnicourt in April, then the Second Battle of Bullecourt the following month. During the Battle of Menin Road in September, he was involved in the elimination of a German machine gun post and other actions, for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. He reached the rank of sergeant before being sent back to Australia in August 1918. During World War II, he volunteered for service in the Citizens Military Forces, and reached the rank of warrant officer class one, serving in the Australian Provost Corps and Military Prison and Detention Barracks Service. After the war he returned to work with the City of Adelaide, and upon his death he was buried with full military honours in the AIF Cemetery, West Terrace. His medals are displayed in the Adelaide Town Hall.

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