|The Louisville Leader|
|Owner(s)||I. Willis Cole, Rosa Cole|
|Publisher||I. Willis Cole, Rosa Cole|
|Editor||I. Willis Cole|
|Ceased publication||September, 1950|
|Headquarters||930 West Walnut Street (now West Muhammad Ali Boulevard) Louisville, Kentucky|
Cole died in February 1950 and his wife tried to continue to publish the newspaper until it eventually stopped that September.
In 1954, the Louisville Defender had called the Leader "one of the largest Negro newspaper organizations" in Louisville. View Jefferson County Sunday School Association for examples of how important this newspaper was in connecting various organizations and keeping everyone aware of local civil rights activities.
The Jefferson County Sunday School Association was a church-based organization founded in 1925 in Louisville, Kentucky. It played a pivotal role in local civil rights activities and was part of the grassroots effort for anti-discrimination campaigns with an emphasis on employment opportunities for African-Americans.List of crowdsourcing projects
Below is a list of projects that rely on crowdsourcing. See also open innovation.List of defunct newspapers of the United States
This is a list of defunct newspapers of the United States. Only notable names among the thousands of such newspapers are listed, primarily major metropolitan dailies which published for ten years or more.The list is sorted by distribution and state and labeled with their city of publication if not evident from their name.Louisville Defender
Louisville Defender is a weekly newspaper in Louisville, Kentucky. It was founded in 1933 by Alvin Bowman of Louisville and John Sengstacke of Chicago. It joined The Louisville Leader and Louisville News as African-American newspapers in the city. Frank Stanley Sr. bought Sengstacke's share in 1936, and published the paper for the next 37 years.Stanley's column, "Being Frank", became nationally syndicated in the 1940s. After his death, his wife and sons became co-publishers, and the family eventually sold its ownership in 1985.Mississippi
Mississippi ( (listen)) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd largest and 34th-most populous of the 50 United States. Mississippi is bordered to north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by the Gulf of Mexico, to the southwest by Louisiana, and to the northwest by Arkansas. Mississippi's western boundary is largely defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson is both the state's capital and largest city. Greater Jackson, with an estimated population of 580,166 in 2018, is the most populous metropolitan area in Mississippi and the 95th-most populous in the United States.
On December 10, 1817, Mississippi became the 20th state admitted to the Union. By 1860, Mississippi was the nation's top cotton producing state and enslaved persons accounted for 55% of the state population. Mississippi declared its secession from the Union on March 23, 1861, and was one of the seven original Confederate States. Following the Civil War, it was restored to the Union on February 23, 1870. Until the Great Migration of the 1930s, African Americans were a majority of Mississippi's population. Mississippi was the site of many prominent events during the American Civil Rights movement, including the 1962 Ole Miss riots, the 1963 assassination of Medgar Evers, and the 1964 Freedom Summer murders. Since the Civil Rights era, Mississippi frequently ranks low among states in measures of health, education, poverty, and development. In 2010, 37.3% of Mississippi's population was African American, the highest percentage for any state.
Mississippi is almost entirely within the Gulf coastal plain, and is generally comprised of lowland plains and low hills. The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. Mississippi's highest point is Woodall Mountain at 807 feet (246 m) above sea level adjacent to the Cumberland Plateau; the lowest is the Gulf of Mexico. Mississippi has a humid subtropical climate classification.The Negro Motorist Green Book
The Negro Motorist Green Book (also The Negro Motorist Green-Book, The Negro Travelers' Green Book, or simply the Green Book) was an annual guidebook for African-American roadtrippers. It was originated and published by African American, New York City mailman Victor Hugo Green from 1936 to 1966, during the era of Jim Crow laws, when open and often legally prescribed discrimination against African Americans especially and other non-whites was widespread. Although pervasive racial discrimination and poverty limited black car ownership, the emerging African-American middle class bought automobiles as soon as they could, but faced a variety of dangers and inconveniences along the road, from refusal of food and lodging to arbitrary arrest. In response, Green wrote his guide to services and places relatively friendly to African-Americans, eventually expanding its coverage from the New York area to much of North America, as well as founding a travel agency.
Many Black Americans took to driving, in part to avoid segregation on public transportation. As the writer George Schuyler put it in 1930, "all Negroes who can do so purchase an automobile as soon as possible in order to be free of discomfort, discrimination, segregation and insult." Black Americans employed as athletes, entertainers, and salesmen also traveled frequently for work purposes.
African-American travelers faced hardships such as white-owned businesses refusing to serve them or repair their vehicles, being refused accommodation or food by white-owned hotels, and threats of physical violence and forcible expulsion from whites-only "sundown towns". Green founded and published the Green Book to avoid such problems, compiling resources "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable." The maker of a 2019 documentary film about the book offered this summary: "Everyone I was interviewing talked about the community that the Green Book created: a kind of parallel universe that was created by the book and this kind of secret road map that the Green Book outlined".From a New York-focused first edition published in 1936, Green expanded the work to cover much of North America, including most of the United States and parts of Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Bermuda. The Green Book became "the bible of black travel during Jim Crow", enabling black travelers to find lodgings, businesses, and gas stations that would serve them along the road. It was little known outside the African-American community. Shortly after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed the types of racial discrimination that had made the Green Book necessary, publication ceased and it fell into obscurity. There has been a revived interest in it in the early 21st century in connection with studies of black travel during the Jim Crow era.
Four issues (1940, 1947, 1954, and 1963) have been republished in facsimile (as of December 2017), and have sold well.The Negro Star
The Negro Star was an African-American newspaper created by Hollie T. Sims that ran from 1908 to 1953. Sims founded the paper in Greenwood, Mississippi but moved it to Wichita, Kansas in 1919 as a result of racial hostility. Bringing national news to Wichita, the Star was one of few newspapers that provided African Americans news and access to African-American updates during the early to mid-1900s.The New Orleans Tribune
The New Orleans Tribune is a newspaper serving the African-American community of New Orleans, Louisiana, as well as the name of a bilingual publication that served the area in the 1860s. The current publication was founded in 1985. The Tribune is published by McKenna Publishing Co., which also publishes The Blackbook, a community directory of African-American businesses, and Welcome, a guide for Black tourists to New Orleans.
The original and only other version of The New Orleans Tribune became America’s first Black daily newspaper. That enterprise was founded in 1864 by physician and publisher Louis Charles Roudanez; it was created after the demise of his former paper L'Union. Francophone astronomer, author, and abolitionist from Europe Jean-Charles Houzeau worked with Roudanez at L'Union and thenThe New Orleans Tribune. He wrote an account of his experiences at the paper along with the volcanic politics of the day. After intraparty feuding over political candidates for the 1868 gubernatorial election, including disputes between local "mulattoes" such as Roudanez against "carpetbaggers"
and freedmen within the Republican Party, the paper lost outside support and closed in 1870.Transition Magazine
Transition Magazine was established in 1961 by Rajat Neogy and was published from 1961 to 1976 on the African continent, and since 1991 in the United States. It is published three times per year by Indiana University Press.