Louise Bourgeois

Louise Joséphine Bourgeois (French: [lwiz buʁʒwa] (listen); 25 December 1911 – 31 May 2010)[1] was a French-American artist. Although she is best known for her large-scale sculpture and installation art, Bourgeois was also a prolific painter and printmaker. She explored a variety of themes over the course of her long career including domesticity and the family, sexuality and the body, as well as death and the subconscious.[2] These themes connect to events from her childhood which she considered to be a therapeutic process. Although Bourgeois exhibited with the Abstract Expressionists and her work has much in common with Surrealism and Feminist art, she was not formally affiliated with a particular artistic movement.

Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois portrait
Louise Joséphine Bourgeois

25 December 1911
Paris, France
Died31 May 2010 (aged 98)
Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
EducationSorbonne, Académie de la Grande Chaumière, École du Louvre, École des Beaux-Arts
Known forsculpture, installation art, painting, printmaking
Notable work
Spider, Cells, Maman, Cumul I, The Destruction of the Father
MovementModernism, Surrealism, Feminist art
AwardsPraemium Imperiale


Domestic Incidents by Louise Bourgeois Tate Modern Turbine Hall 2006
Sculpture by Bourgeois in the Domestic Incidents group exhibit at London's Tate Modern Turbine Hall, 2006

Early life

Bourgeois was born on 25 December 1911 in Paris, France.[3] She was the second child of three born to parents Joséphine Fauriaux and Louis Bourgeois. She had an older sister and a younger brother.[4] Her parents owned a gallery that dealt primarily in antique tapestries. A few years after her birth, her family moved out of Paris and set up a workshop for tapestry restoration below their apartment in Choisy-le-Roi, for which Bourgeois filled in the designs where they had become worn.[3][5] The lower part of the tapestries were always damaged which was usually the characters' feet and animals' paws.

In 1930, Bourgeois entered the Sorbonne to study mathematics and geometry, subjects that she valued for their stability,[6][7] saying "I got peace of mind, only through the study of rules nobody could change."[7]

Her mother died in 1932, while Bourgeois was studying mathematics. Her mother's death inspired her to abandon mathematics and to begin studying art. She continued to study art by joining classes where translators were needed for English-speaking students, in which those translators were not charged tuition. In one such class Fernand Léger saw her work and told her she was a sculptor, not a painter.[6] Bourgeois took a job as a docent, leading tours at the Musée de Louvre.[8]

Bourgeois graduated from the Sorbonne 1935. She began studying art in Paris, first at the École des Beaux-Arts and École du Louvre, and after 1932 in the independent academies of Montparnasse and Montmartre such as Académie Colarossi, Académie Ranson, Académie Julian, Académie de la Grande Chaumière and with André Lhote, Fernand Léger, Paul Colin and Cassandre.[9]

Bourgeois had a desire for first-hand experience, and frequently visited studios in Paris, learning techniques from the artists and assisting with exhibitions.[10]

Bourgeois briefly opened a print store beside her father's tapestry workshop. Her father helped her on the grounds that she had entered into a commerce-driven profession.[6]

Bourgeois emigrated to New York City in 1938. She studied at the Art Students League of New York, studying painting under Vaclav Vytlacil, and also producing sculptures and prints.[7] "The first painting had a grid: the grid is a very peaceful thing because nothing can go wrong ... everything is complete. There is no room for anxiety ... everything has a place, everything is welcome."[11]

Bourgeois incorporated those autobiographical references to her sculpture Quarantania I, on display in the Cullen Sculpture Garden at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.[12]

Middle years

For Bourgeois the early 1940s represented the difficulties of a transition to a new country and the struggle to enter the exhibition world of New York City. Her work during this time was constructed from junkyard scraps and driftwood which she used to carve upright wood sculptures. The impurities of the wood were then camouflaged with paint, after which nails were employed to invent holes and scratches in the endeavor to portray some emotion. The Sleeping Figure is one such example which depicts a war figure that is unable to face the real world due to vulnerability. Throughout her life, Bourgeois's work was created from revisiting of her own troubled past as she found inspiration and temporary catharsis from her childhood years and the abuse she suffered from her father. Slowly she developed more artistic confidence, although her middle years are more opaque, which might be due to the fact that she received very little attention from the art world despite having her first solo show in 1945.[13] In 1951, her father died and she became an American citizen.[14]

In 1954, Bourgeois joined the American Abstract Artists Group, with several contemporaries, among them Barnett Newman and Ad Reinhardt. At this time she also befriended the artists Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko, and Jackson Pollock.[10] As part of the American Abstract Artists Group, Bourgeois made the transition from wood and upright structures to marble, plaster and bronze as she investigated concerns like fear, vulnerability and loss of control. This transition was a turning point. She referred to her art as a series or sequence closely related to days and circumstances, describing her early work as the fear of falling which later transformed into the art of falling and the final evolution as the art of hanging in there. Her conflicts in real life empowered her to authenticate her experiences and struggles through a unique art form. In 1958, Bourgeois and her husband moved into a terraced house at West 20th Street, in Chelsea, Manhattan, where she lived and worked for the rest of her life.[6]

Despite the fact that she rejected the idea that her art was feminist, Bourgeois's subject was the feminine. Works such as Femme Maison (1946-1947), Torso self-portrait (1963-1964), Arch of Hysteria (1993), all depict the feminine body. In the late 1960's, her imagery became more explicitly sexual as she explored the relationship between men and women and the emotional impact of her troubled childhood. Sexually explicit sculptures such as Janus Fleuri, (1968) show she was not afraid to use the female form in new ways.[15] She has been quoted to say "My work deals with problems that are pre-gender," she wrote. "For example, jealousy is not male or female."[16] With the rise of feminism, her work found a wider audience. Despite this assertion, in 1976 Femme Maison was featured on the cover of Lucy Lippard's book From the Center: Feminist Essays on Women's Art and became an icon of the feminist art movement.[1]

Later life

In 1973, Bourgeois started teaching at the Pratt Institute, Cooper Union, Brooklyn College and the New York Studio School of Drawing, Painting and Sculpture. From 1974 until 1977, Bourgeois worked at the School of Visual Arts in New York where she taught printmaking and sculpture.[1] She also taught for many years in the public schools in Great Neck, Long Island.

In the early 1970s, Bourgeois held gatherings called "Sunday, bloody Sundays" at her home in Chelsea. These salons would be filled with young artists and students whose work would be critiqued by Bourgeois. Bourgeois’s ruthlessness in critique and her dry sense of humor led to the naming of these meetings. Bourgeois inspired many young students to make art that was feminist in nature.[17] However, Louise's long-time friend and assistant, Jerry Gorovoy, has stated that Louise considered her own work "pre-gender".[18]

Bourgeois aligned herself with activists and became a member of the Fight Censorship Group, a feminist anti-censorship collective founded by fellow artist Anita Steckel. In the 1970s, the group defended the use of sexual imagery in artwork.[19] Steckel argued, "If the erect penis is not wholesome enough to go into museums, it should not be considered wholesome enough to go into women."[20]

In 1978 Bourgeois was commissioned by the General Services Administration to create Facets of the Sun, her first public sculpture.[1] The work was installed outside of a federal building in Manchester, New Hampshire.[1]

Bourgeois received her first retrospective in 1982, by the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Until then, she had been a peripheral figure in art whose work was more admired than acclaimed. In an interview with Artforum, timed to coincide with the opening of her retrospective, she revealed that the imagery in her sculptures was wholly autobiographical. She shared with the world that she obsessively relived through her art the trauma of discovering, as a child, that her English governess was also her father's mistress.[21][22]

In 1989, Bourgeois made a drypoint etching, Mud Lane, of the home she maintained in Stapleton, Staten Island, which she treated as a sculptural environment rather than a living space.[23]

Bourgeois had another retrospective in 1989 at Documenta 9 in Kassel, Germany.[13] In 1993, when the Royal Academy of Arts staged its comprehensive survey of American art in the 20th century, the organizers did not consider Bourgeois's work of significant importance to include in the survey.[21] However, this survey was criticized for many omissions, with one critic writing that "whole sections of the best American art have been wiped out" and pointing out that very few women were included.[24] In 2000 her works were selected to be shown at the opening of the Tate Modern in London.[13] In 2001, she showed at the Hermitage Museum.[25]

In 2010, in the last year of her life, Bourgeois used her art to speak up for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) equality. She created the piece I Do, depicting two flowers growing from one stem, to benefit the nonprofit organization Freedom to Marry. Bourgeois has said "Everyone should have the right to marry. To make a commitment to love someone forever is a beautiful thing."[26] Bourgeois had a history of activism on behalf of LGBT equality, having created artwork for the AIDS activist organization ACT UP in 1993.[27]


Bourgeois died of heart failure on 31 May 2010, at the Beth Israel Medical Center in Manhattan.[28] [29] Wendy Williams, the managing director of the Louise Bourgeois Studio, announced her death.[29] She had continued to create artwork until her death, her last pieces being finished the week before.[30]

The New York Times said that her work "shared a set of repeated themes, centered on the human body and its need for nurture and protection in a frightening world."[31]

Her husband, Robert Goldwater, died in 1973. She was survived by two sons, Alain Bourgeois and Jean-Louis Bourgeois. Her first son, Michel, died in 1990.[32]


Femme Maison

Femme Maison (1946–47) is a series of paintings in which Bourgeois explores the relationship of a woman and the home. In the works, women's heads have been replaced with houses, isolating their bodies from the outside world and keeping their minds domestic. This theme goes along with the dehumanization of modern art.[33]

Destruction of the Father

Destruction of the Father (1974) is a biographical and a psychological exploration of the power dominance of father and his offspring. The piece is a flesh-toned installation in a soft and womb-like room. Made of plaster, latex, wood, fabric, and red light, Destruction of the Father was the first piece in which she used soft materials on a large scale. Upon entering the installation, the viewer stands in the aftermath of a crime. Set in a stylized dining room (with the dual impact of a bedroom), the abstract blob-like children of an overbearing father have rebelled, murdered, and eaten him.[34]

... telling the captive audience how great he is, all the wonderful things he did, all the bad people he put down today. But this goes on day after day. There is tragedy in the air. Once too often he has said his piece. He is unbearably dominating although probably he does not realize it himself. A kind of resentment grows and one day my brother and I decided, 'the time has come!' We grabbed him, laid him on the table and with our knives dissected him. We took him apart and dismembered him, we cut off his penis. And he became food. We ate him up ... he was liquidated the same way he liquidated the children.[35]

Exorcism in Art

In 1982, The Museum of Modern Art in New York City featured unknown artist, Louise Bourgeois's work. She was 70 years old and a mixed media artist who worked on paper, with metal, marble and animal skeletal bones. Childhood family traumas "bred an exorcism in art" and she desperately attempted to purge her unrest with her work. She felt she could get in touch with issues of female identity, the body, the fractured family, long before the art world and society considered them expressed subjects in art. This was Bourgeous's way to find her center and stabilize her emotional unrest. The New York Times said at the time that "her work is charged with tenderness and violence, acceptance and defiance, ambivalence and conviction." [36]


While in her eighties, Bourgeois produced two series of enclosed installation works she referred to as Cells. Many are small enclosures into which the viewer is prompted to peer inward at arrangements of symbolic objects; others are small rooms into which the viewer is invited to enter. In the cell pieces, Bourgeois uses earlier sculptural forms, found objects as well as personal items that carried strong personal emotional charge for the artist.

The cells enclose psychological and intellectual states, primarily feelings of fear and pain. Bourgeois stated that the Cells represent "different types of pain; physical, emotional and psychological, mental and intellectual ... Each Cell deals with a fear. Fear is pain ... Each Cell deals with the pleasure of the voyeur, the thrill of looking and being looked at."[37]


Maman de Louise Bourgeois - Bilbao
Bourgeois's Maman sculpture at the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao

In the late 1990s, Bourgeois began using the spider as a central image in her art. Maman, which stands more than nine metres high, is a steel and marble sculpture from which an edition of six bronzes were subsequently cast. It first made an appearance as part of Bourgeois's commission for The Unilever Series for Tate Modern's Turbine Hall in 2000, and recently, the sculpture was installed at the Qatar National Convention Centre in Doha, Qatar.[38] Her largest spider sculpture titled Maman stands at over 30 feet (9.1 m) and has been installed in numerous locations around the world.[39] It is the largest Spider sculpture ever made by Bourgeois.[35] Moreover, Maman alludes to the strength of her mother, with metaphors of spinning, weaving, nurture and protection.[35] The prevalence of the spider motif in her work has given rise to her nickname as Spiderwoman.[40]

The Spider is an ode to my mother. She was my best friend. Like a spider, my mother was a weaver. My family was in the business of tapestry restoration, and my mother was in charge of the workshop. Like spiders, my mother was very clever. Spiders are friendly presences that eat mosquitoes. We know that mosquitoes spread diseases and are therefore unwanted. So, spiders are helpful and protective, just like my mother.

— Louise Bourgeois[35]

Maisons fragiles / Empty Houses

Bourgeois's Maisons fragiles / Empty Houses sculptures are parallel, high metallic structures supporting a simple tray. One must see them in person to feel their impact. They are not threatening or protecting, but bring out the depths of anxiety within you. Bachelard's findings from psychologists' tests show that an anxious child will draw a tall narrow house with no base. Bourgeois had a rocky/traumatic childhood and this could support the reason behind why these pieces were constructed.[11]


Bourgeois's printmaking flourished during the early and late phases of her career: in the 1930s and 1940s, when she first came to New York from Paris, and then again starting in the 1980s, when her work began to receive wide recognition. Early on, she made prints at home on a small press, or at the renowned workshop Atelier 17. That period was followed by a long hiatus, as Bourgeois turned her attention fully to sculpture. It was not until she was in her seventies that she began to make prints again, encouraged first by print publishers. She set up her old press, and added a second, while also working closely with printers who came to her house to collaborate. A very active phase of printmaking followed, lasting until the artist's death. Over the course of her life, Bourgeois created approximately 1,500 printed compositions.

In 1990, Bourgeois decided to donate the complete archive of her printed work to The Museum of Modern Art. In 2013, The Museum launched the online catalogue raisonné, "Louise Bourgeois: The Complete Prints & Books." The site focuses on the artist's creative process and places Bourgeois's prints and illustrated books within the context of her overall production by including related works in other mediums that deal with the same themes and imagery.

Pervasive themes

One theme of Bourgeois's work is that of childhood trauma and hidden emotion. After Louise's mother became sick with influenza Louise's father began having affairs with other women, most notably with Sadie, Louise's English tutor. Louise was extremely watchful and aware of the situation. This was the beginning of the artist's engagement with double standards related to gender and sexuality, which was expressed in much of her work. She recalls her father saying "I love you" repeatedly to her mother, despite infidelity. "He was the wolf, and she was the rational hare, forgiving and accepting him as he was."[41] Her 1993 work "Cell: You Better Grow Up", part of her "Cell" series, speaks directly to Louise's childhood trauma and the insecurity that surrounded her. 2002's "Give or Take" is defined by hidden emotion, representing the intense dilemma that people face throughout their lives as they attempt to balance the actions of giving and taking. This dilemma is not only represented by the shape of the sculpture, but also the heaviness of the material this piece is made of.

Architecture and memory are important components of Bourgeois's work. In numerous interviews, Louise describes architecture as a visual expression of memory, or memory as a type of architecture. The memory which is featured in much of her work is an invented memory - about the death or exorcism of her father. The imagined memory is interwoven with her real memories including living across from a slaughterhouse and her father's affair. To Louise her father represented injury and war, aggrandizement of himself and belittlement of others and most importantly a man who represented betrayal.[41] Her 1993 work "Cell (Three White Marble Spheres)" speaks to fear and captivity. The mirrors within the present an altered and distorted reality.

Sexuality is undoubtedly one of the most important themes in the work of Louise Bourgeois. The link between sexuality and fragility or insecurity is also powerful. It has been argued that this stems from her childhood memories and her father's affairs. 1952's "Spiral Woman" combines Louise's focus on female sexuality and torture. The flexing leg and arm muscles indicate that the Spiral Woman is still above though she is being suffocated and hung. 1995's "In and Out" uses cold metal materials to link sexuality with anger and perhaps even captivity.

The spiral in her work demonstrates the dangerous search for precarious equilibrium, accident-free permanent change, disarray, vertigo, whirlwind. There lies the simultaneously positive and negative, both future and past, breakup and return, hope and vanity, plan and memory.

Louise Bourgeois's work is powered by confessions, self-portraits, memories, fantasies of a restless being who is seeking through her sculpture a peace and an order which were missing throughout her childhood.[11]


Do Not Abandon Me

This collaboration took place over a span of two years with British artist Tracey Emin. The work was exhibited in London months after Bourgeois's death in 2010. The subject matter consists of male and female images. Although they appear sexual, it portrays a tiny female figure paying homage to a giant male figure, like a God. Louise Bourgeois did the water colors and Tracey Emin did the drawing on top. It took Emin two years to decide how to figure out what she would contribute in the collaboration. When she knew what to do, she finished all of the drawings in a day and believes every single one worked out perfectly. "I Lost You" is about losing children, losing life. Bourgeois had to bury her son as a parent. Abandonment for her is not only about losing her mother but her son as well. Despite the age gap between the two artists and differences in their work, the collaboration worked out gently and easily.[42]

Selected works


  • 1982 – Louise Bourgeois. The Museum of Modern Art. 1982. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-87070-257-0.
  • 1994 – The Prints of Louise Bourgeois. The Museum of Modern Art. 1994. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-8109-6141-8.
  • 1994 – Louise Bourgeois: The Locus of Memory Works 1982-1993. Harry N. Abrams. 1994. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-8109-3127-5.
  • 1996 – Louise Bourgeois: Drawings and Observations. Bulfinch. 1995. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-8212-2299-7.
  • 1998 – Louise Bourgeois Destruction of the Father / Reconstruction of the Father. MIT Press in association with Violette Editions. 1998. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-262-52246-5.
  • 2000 – Louise Bourgeois: Memory and Architecture. Actar. p. 316. ISBN 978-84-8003-188-2.
  • 2001 – Louise Bourgeois: The Insomnia Drawings. Scalo Publishers. p. 580. ISBN 978-3-908247-39-5.
  • 2001 – Louise Bourgeois's Spider: The Architecture of Art-Writing. University of Chicago Press. 29 June 2001. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-226-03575-8.
  • 2008 – Louise Bourgeois: The Secret of the Cells. Prestel USA. 2008. p. 168. ISBN 978-3-7913-4007-4.
  • 2011 – To Whom it May Concern. Violette Editions. 2011. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-900828-36-9.
  • 2012 – The Return of the Repressed. Violette Editions. 2012. p. 500. ISBN 978-1-900828-37-6.


  • 1987 – Bourgeois, Louise. Louise Bourgeois: ART/new york No. 27. Inner-Tube Video.[43]
  • 2008 – Bourgeois, Louise. Louise Bourgeois: The Spider, the Mistress, and the Tangerine. Zeitgeist Films.


Honors and awards

Art market

In 2011 one of Bourgeois's works, titled Spider, sold for $10.7 million, a new record price for the artist at auction,[68] and the highest price paid for a work by a woman at the time.[69] In late 2015, the piece sold at another Christie's auction for $28.2 million.[70]


  1. ^ a b c d e Deborah, Wye (2017). Louise Bourgeois : an unfolding portrait : prints, books, and the creative process. Lowry, Glenn D.,, Gorovoy, Jerry,, Harlan, Felix,, Shiff, Ben,, Kang, Sewon,, Bourgeois, Louise, 1911-2010. New York, New York. ISBN 978-1633450417. OCLC 973157279.
  2. ^ Christiane., Weidemann (2008). 50 women artists you should know. Larass, Petra., Klier, Melanie, 1970-. Munich: Prestel. ISBN 9783791339566. OCLC 195744889.
  3. ^ a b "Art Encyclopedia: Louise Bourgeois". Answers.com. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  4. ^ "The Spider's Web". The New Yorker. 28 January 2002. Retrieved 4 February 2002.
  5. ^ Cotter, Holland (31 May 2010). "Louise Bourgeois, Influential Sculptor, Dies at 98". The New York Times. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d McNay, Michael (31 May 2010). "Louise Bourgeois obituary". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
  7. ^ a b c Cotter, Holland (31 May 2010). "Louise Bourgeois, Influential Sculptor, Dies at 98". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  8. ^ Greenberg, J (2003) Runaway Girl: The Artist Louise Bourgeois. Harry N. Abrams, Inc P.30. ISBN 978-0810942370
  9. ^ (fr) Xavier Girard, Louise Bourgeois face à face, Seuil, 2016, p 27
  10. ^ a b "Biography – Louise Bourgeois". Cybermuse. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
  11. ^ a b c Bouregois, Louise (1985). Louise Bourgeois: Retrospective 1947-1984. Paris: Galerie Maeght Lelong. ISBN 978-2855871318.
  12. ^ "A Confessional Sculpture by Louise Bourgeois | The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston". www.mfah.org. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  13. ^ a b c "Actualité Culture - Musique, Cinéma, Télé, Art, Livre". LExpress.fr.
  14. ^ Bernadac, Marie-Laure (1996). Louise Bourgeois. Paris-New York: Flammarion. p. 174. ISBN 2-08016-600-3 Check |isbn= value: checksum (help).
  15. ^ Larratt-Smith, Phillip (19 March – 19 June 2011). "Louise Bourgeois: The Return of the Repressed". Art Tattler. Archived from the original on 14 March 2015.
  16. ^ "Louise Bourgeois Passes Away – RIP". Pop Cultured. 31 May 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  17. ^ The Art Story Foundation. "Loise Bourgeois". Theartstory.org. The Art Story Foundation.
  18. ^ ""The Empty House": Louise Bourgeois at Schinkel Pavillon in Berlin. Feminism, poetics and the effects of psychoanalysis | Rotunda Magazine". Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  19. ^ Meyer, Richard. "Not Me:' Joan Semmel's Body of Painting". Joan Semmel. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  20. ^ Raub, Deborah Fineblum. "Of Peonies & Penises: Anita Steckel's Legacy". July 12, 2012. Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  21. ^ a b Dorment, Richard (1 June 2010). "Louise Bourgeois invented confessional art". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  22. ^ Dorment, Richard (9 October 2007). "Louise Bourgeois: The shape of a child's torment". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  23. ^ "Louise Bourgeois. Mud Lane (c. 1989)". MoMA.org. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  24. ^ "Editorial: Names in rape cases that need to be named". 3 May 2013.
  25. ^ "The State Hermitage Museum: Hermitage News". Hermitagemuseum.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  26. ^ "Louise Bourgeois Edition". Freedom To Marry. 2010. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
  27. ^ Wagner, James (31 May 2010). "Louise Bourgeois (1911-2010)". Retrieved 9 June 2010.
  28. ^ Kessler, Felix (31 May 2010). "Louise Bourgeois, Sculptor of Freaky Giant Spiders, Dies at 98". Bloomberg. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  29. ^ a b Cotter, Holland (31 May 2010). "Louise Bourgeois, Artist and Sculptor, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  30. ^ Peltz, Jennifer (31 May 2010). "Artist Louise Bourgeois dies in NYC at 98". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 3 June 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  31. ^ Cotter, Holland (31 May 2010). "Louise Bourgeois, Artist and Sculptor, Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  32. ^ Peltz, Jennifer (31 May 2010). "Artist Louise Bourgeois, sculptor who plumbed female feelings, dies in NYC". Newser. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  33. ^ Makufka, Brittany (29 March 2010). "Louise Bourgeois". philandfem.com. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  34. ^ Conn, Cyndi. "Delicate Strength". Retrieved 1 May 2011.
  35. ^ a b c d "Tate acquires Louise Bourgeois's giant spider, Maman". Tate. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  36. ^ Bourgeois, Louise (1998). People Weekly (Special Collectors ed.). New York, NY: Time, Inc. Home Entertainment. p. 122.
  37. ^ "Centre Pompidou Louise Bourgeois Exhibition Itinerary". Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
  38. ^ Celebrated sculpture finds home at QNCC Archived 8 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine in the Gulf Times, 24 October 2011
  39. ^ "Maman". Collections. The National Gallery of Canada. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
  40. ^ "US sculptor Louise Bourgeois dies aged 98". BBC News. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  41. ^ a b [1], additional text.
  42. ^ "2/2 Tracey Emin on Louise Bourgeois: Women Without Secrets - Secret Knowledge".
  43. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: ART/new york No. 27". artnewyork.org. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  44. ^ chicagowomenspark.com Public art
  45. ^ "Louise Bourgeois". Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  46. ^ "Louise Bourgeois Full Career Retrospective". Artabase.net. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  47. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: Conscious and Unconscious". Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
  48. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: The Return of The Repressed". Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  49. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: Late Works". Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  50. ^ "Louise Bourgeois 1911-2010". Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  51. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: A Woman Without Secrets". Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  52. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: A Woman Without Secrets at Southampton City Art Gallery". Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  53. ^ "Louise Bourgeois. Structures of Existence: the Cells". Archived from the original on 3 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  54. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: I Have Been to Hell and Back". Retrieved 6 March 2015.
  55. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: Structures of Existence: The Cells". Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  56. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: Human Nature: Doing, Undoing, Redoing". Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  57. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: Spiders". Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  58. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: Twosome". Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  59. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: An Unfolding Portrait". Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  60. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: The Empty House". Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  61. ^ "Louise Bourgeois: To Unravel a Torment". 9 May 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  62. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  63. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  64. ^ "Medal Day History". MacDowell Colony. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  65. ^ "MacDowell Medal winners 1960-2011". London: The Daily Telegraph. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  66. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF) (in German). p. 1709. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  67. ^ "Dernières photos... dernières images de Louise Bourgeois... NY... F.Arrabal". Ceci n’est pas un blog. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  68. ^ Louise Bourgeois, Spider (1996) Christie's Post-War Contemporary Evening Sale, 8 November 2011, New York.
  69. ^ "The price of being female: Post-war artists at auction". Prospero blog. The Economist. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
  70. ^ Scott Reyburn and Robin Pogrebin (November 10, 2015), Mixed Night in ‘Strange’ Christie’s Contemporary and Postwar Sale New York Times.

Further reading

  • Heartney, Eleanor; Posner, Helaine; Princenthal, Nancy; Scott, Sue (2007). After the Revolution: Women Who Transformed Contemporary Art. Prestel Publishing Ltd. p. 351. ISBN 978-3-7913-4755-4.
  • Armstrong, Carol (2006). Women Artists at the Millennium. October Books. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-262-01226-3.
  • Herskovic, Marika (2003). American Abstract Expressionism of the 1950s: An Illustrated Survey. New York School Press. p. 372. ISBN 978-0-9677994-1-4.
  • Herskovic, Marika (2000). New York School: Abstract Expressionists. New York School Press. p. 393. ISBN 978-0-9677994-0-7.
  • Deepwell, Katy (May 1997). Deepwell, Katy (ed.). "Feminist Readings of Louise Bourgeois or Why Louise Bourgeois is a Feminist Icon". n.paradoxa. London: KT Press (3): 28–38. ISSN 1461-0426.
  • Wasilik, Jeanne M. (1987). Assemblage. Kent Fine Art, Inc. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-878607-15-7.

External links

Louise Bourgeois in The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston: https://www.mfah.org/blogs/inside-mfah/a-confessional-sculpture-by-louise-bourgeois

1563 in France

Events from the year 1563 in France

Eye Benches I, II and III

Eye Benches I, II and III is a 1996–1997 series of outdoor sculptures by Louise Bourgeois, installed at Olympic Sculpture Park in Seattle, Washington. The installation includes three sets of two functional benches. The sets are individually known as Eye Benches I, Eye Benches II, and Eye Benches III.

Father and Son (Bourgeois)

Father and Son is an outdoor 2005 fountain and sculpture by Louise Bourgeois, installed at Olympic Sculpture Park in Seattle, Washington. It is made of stainless steel, aluminum, water and bronze (bell).

Femme Maison

The Femme Maison (1946–47) series of paintings by French American artist Louise Bourgeois address the question of female identity. In these paintings, the heads and bodies of nude female figures have been replaced by architectural forms such as buildings and houses. Femme Maison translates from the French as ‘housewife’: literally, ‘woman house’. In 1984 Bourgeois produced a small series of Femme Maison prints based on the works of 1947 .

Goulandris Museum of Cycladic Art

The Nicholas P. Goulandris Foundation - Museum of Cycladic Art is a museum of Athens. It houses a notable collection of artifacts of Cycladic art.

The museum was founded in 1986 in order to house the collection of Cycladic and Ancient Greek art belonging to Nicholas and Dolly Goulandris. Starting in the early 1960s, the couple collected Greek antiquities, with special interest in the prehistoric art from the Cyclades islands of the Aegean Sea.

The Museum's main building, erected in the centre of Athens in 1985, was designed by the Greek architect Ioannis Vikelas. In 1991, the Museum acquired a new wing, the neo-classical Stathatos Mansion at the corner of Vassilissis Sofias Avenue and Herodotou Street.

The museum has housed temporary exhibitions of some of the most important Greek and international modern and contemporary artists.

October 2002 - February 2003: Salvador Dalí - Myth and Singularity

April 2006 - July 2006: Caravaggio - Caravaggio and the 17th Century

October 2007 - January 2008: El Greco - El Greco and his Workshop/El Greco y su taller

June 2009 - September 2009: Thomas Struth

September 2009 - October 2009: Palle Nielsen Man, Dream and Fear - Orpheus and Eurydice Through the Eyes of Palle Nielsen

May 2010 - September 2010: Louise Bourgeois - Personages

April 2012 - September 2012: Jannis Kounellis

May 2012 - October 2012: Ugo Rondinone - Nude

October 2013 - January 2014: Martin Kippenberger - Martin Kippenberger: A cry for freedom

October 2015 - January 2016: Mario Merz - Numbers are prehistoric

March 2016 - May 2016: Wols and Eileen Quinlan - Always stars with encounter | Wols / Eileen Quinlan

May 2016 - October 2016: Ai Weiwei - Ai Weiwei at Cycladic: The subversive artist Ai Weiwei for the first time in Greece

November 2017 - February 2018: Mike Kelley - Mike Kelley: Fortress of Solitude

June 2018 - October 2018: George Condo - George Condo at Cycladic: Τhe first major solo museum exhibition of the American artist George Condo in Greece

July 2018 - October 2018: Paul Chan | Odysseus and the Bathers

Helmut Lang (artist)

Helmut Lang (born 10 March 1956) is an Austrian artist and former fashion designer who lives and works in New York and on Long Island.

Jean-Louis Bourgeois

Jean-Louis Bourgeois (born 1940) is an author and the son of artist Louise Bourgeois and art historian Robert Goldwater. Bourgeois studied literature and architectural history at Harvard University.

In 1969 and 1970 Bourgeois worked at ArtForum before becoming interested in the production and history of mud brick architecture. He is the author of the volume "Spectacular Vernacular: the Adobe Tradition" (with photographs taken by Carollee Pelos) which established him as an expert on the subject. He owns a home in Djenne, Mali and has actively been involved in architectural conservation efforts there including the preservation of the world's largest adobe building the Great Mosque of Djenne, and has written extensively on the subject While living in Djennê, Bourgeois opposed the Talo Dam project, and became a fixture in the city's cultural life. He appeared in the biopic on his mother Louise Bourgeois: The Spider, the Mistress, and the Tangerine. Bourgeois owns an adobe house in Taos, New Mexico and has written on the Southwestern American Indian Adobe tradition

In December, 2016 Jean-Louis Bourgeois announced he was giving his $4 million historical house in New York City to the Ramapough Lenape native americans who intend to use it as a meeting house. The building, located at 6 Weehawken Street in the West Village (also known as 392-393 West Street) was formerly a historical public market. The deed has been transferred to a non-profit organization run by the Lenape tribe, who were among the original inhabitants of Manhattan.

Jean Frémon

Jean Frémon (born 1946 in Paris) is a French gallerist and writer. His written work spans and fuses genres, and contributed importantly to a trans-genre tendency in contemporary French letters. Working principally in the modes of ekphrasis, art criticism, literary commentary, narrative, and poetry, Frémon is perhaps unique in his fusion of late 20th century experimentalisms with the deeply rooted French tradition of belles lettres.After taking a degree in law, Frémon joined the Galerie Maeght, well known for representing important early and mid-20th century artists such as Joan Míro, Marc Chagall, Henry Matisse, and Alexander Calder. After the death of its founder, Aimé Maeght, in 1981, Frémon, along with Daniel Lelong and Jacques Dupin, founded the Galerie Lelong, which continued and extended the work of the Galerie Maeght in its same location at 13 rue de Téhéran in the 8th arrondisement in Paris.Galerie Lelong, of which Frémon is now the president, also has a branch in the Chelsea district of New York and participates in all the principal annual international art fairs including Art Basel, Art Basel Miami, and FIAC Paris. Artists shown by the gallery include Etel Adnan, Pierre Alechinsky, Francis Bacon, Louise Bourgeois, Nicola De Maria, Jan Dibbets, Günther Förg, Andy Goldsworthy, David Hockney, Donald Judd, Konrad Klapheck, Jannis Kounellis, Wolfgang Laib, Nalini Malani, Ana Mendieta, David Nash, Jaume Plensa, Arnulf Rainer, Robert Ryman, Antonio Saura, Sean Scully, Richard Serra, Kiki Smith, Nancy Spero, Antoni Tapies, Barthélémy Toguo, and Juan Uslé.

Lillie and Hugh Roy Cullen Sculpture Garden

The Lillie and Hugh Roy Cullen Sculpture Garden is a sculpture garden located at the Museum of Fine Arts (MFAH) in Houston, Texas, United States. The garden consists of 25 works of the MFAH, including sculptures by Henri Matisse, Alexander Calder, David Smith, Frank Stella, and Louise Bourgeois. There are also sculptures created specifically for the site, including Ellsworth Kelly's Houston Triptych and Tony Cragg's New Forms. The garden also features works by local Texas artists, including Joseph Havel's Exhaling Pearls, Jim Love's Can Johnny Come Out and Play?, and Linda Ridgway's The Dance.

List of artworks by Louise Bourgeois

This is a list of individual works of visual art (sculpture, drawings, and paintings) by Louise Bourgeois, sorted by year.

Louise Bourgeois Boursier

Louise (Bourgeois) Boursier (1563–1636) was a French midwife. Called "The Scholar" by her contemporaries, she was midwife to King Henry IV of France and his wife Marie de Médicis. Through her prodigious writings and common-sense-based methods, she helped raise midwifery from folklore to science.

Maman (sculpture)

Not to be confused with Louise Bourgeois' similar sculptures: Spider or Crouching SpiderMaman (1999) is a bronze, stainless steel, and marble sculpture by the artist Louise Bourgeois. The sculpture, which depicts a spider, is among the world's largest, measuring over 30 ft high and over 33 ft wide (927 x 891 x 1024 cm). It includes a sac containing 32 marble eggs and its abdomen and thorax are made of ribbed bronze.

The title is the familiar French word for Mother (akin to Mummy). The sculpture was created in 1999 by Bourgeois as a part of her inaugural commission of The Unilever Series (2000), in the Turbine Hall at London's Tate Modern. This original was created in steel, with an edition of six subsequent castings in bronze.

Quarantania I

Quarantania I is an outdoor sculpture by Louise Bourgeois, installed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston's Lillie and Hugh Roy Cullen Sculpture Garden in the U.S. state of Texas. The bronze sculpture was designed during 1947–1953/1981 and cast in 1984.

Real Art Ways

Real Art Ways is a non-profit art space established in 1975. Located at 56 Arbor Street in the Parkville neighborhood of Hartford, Connecticut, Real Art Ways exhibits visual art, houses an independent cinema and presents live music, theater, and literary and community events.It has shown such artists as Sol LeWitt, Pepon Osorio, Jenny Holzer, Cindy Sherman, Robert Longo, David Salle, Roxy Paine, and Louise Bourgeois. Real Art Ways has also hosted notable performances by John Cage, Philip Glass, Ornette Coleman, Steve Reich, Laurie Anderson, Allen Ginsberg and others. The cinema at Real Art Ways regularly wins Best Art Cinema in the Hartford Advocate's annual Best of Hartford awards.

Spider (Bourgeois)

Spider is a sculpture by Louise Bourgeois.

Executed in 1996 as an edition of six and cast in 1997; bronze with a silver nitrate patina, with the first of the edition being steel.An example was acquired by the Denver Art Museum for its new addition in 2006.

Other locations in permanent collections include the National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden, Washington DC, and the Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, Missouri.

Steilneset Memorial

The Steilneset Memorial is a monument in Vardø, Norway, commemorating the trial and execution in 1621 of 91 people for witchcraft. The memorial was designed by artist Louise Bourgeois and architect Peter Zumthor and was opened in 2011. It was Bourgeois' last major work.

Western Gateway Park

Western Gateway Park is an urban park located in downtown Des Moines, Iowa. Opened in 2006, the park has served as the host to political rallies, the Des Moines Arts Festival, the 80/35 Music Festival, and various athletic events and festivals.The central branch of the Des Moines Public Library, the Temple for Performing Arts, and the Des Moines center for the University of Iowa are located within the park. In 2009, 4.4 acres of the park were converted from open green space to a sculpture park, known as the John and Mary Pappajohn Sculpture Park. The Pappajohns' contributed 28 works to the park - the most significant donation of artwork ever made to the Des Moines Art Center. The sculpture park is administered by the Des Moines Art Center and contains work by many artists such as Louise Bourgeois, Jaume Plensa, Deborah Butterfield, and Judith Shea.On October 31, 2008, the 44th president of the United States, Barack Obama held a rally and gave a speech in the park just four days before being elected president.

Another Western Gateway Park is located in Penn Valley, California as part of the Western Gateway Recreation & Park District.

Awards for Louise Bourgeois

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.