Louis the Child

Louis the Child (893 – 20/24 September 911), sometimes called Louis III or Louis IV, was the king of East Francia from 900 until his death in 911 and was the last ruler of Carolingian dynasty there. He succeeded his father, king Arnulf of Carinthia in 899, when he was only six. Louis also inherited the crown of Lotharingia with the death of his elder illegitimate half-brother Zwentibold in 900. During his reign the country was ravaged by Magyar raids.

Louis the Child
Die deutschen Kaiser Ludwig das Kind
Louis the Child (900-911).19th century illustration.
King of East Francia
Reign4 February 900 – 20/24 September 911
Coronation4 February 900, Forchheim
PredecessorArnulf of Carinthia
SuccessorConrad I
King of Lotharingia
Reign900 – 20/24 September 911
SuccessorCharles III of France
BornSeptember/October 893
Ötting (Autingas), Bavaria
Died20/24 September 911 (aged 17 or 18)
possibly Frankfurt
monastery of Saint Emmeram in Regensburg
HouseCarolingian Dynasty
FatherArnulf of Carinthia


Louis was born in September or October 893 in Altötting, Duchy of Bavaria. He was the only legitimate son of king Arnulf of Carinthia and his wife, Ota, a member of the Conradine dynasty. He had at least two brothers: his elder, illegitimate brother Zwentibold, who ruled Lotharingia, and another brother named Ratold, who briefly ruled Kingdom of Italy. Ratold's maternity and age are unknown.

Louis was crowned in Forchheim on 4 February 900.[1] This is the earliest East Frankish royal coronation about which records are known to exist. Louis was of a weak personal constitution, often sick, and due to his young age, the reins of government were entirely in the hands of others - the nobles and bishops. Indeed, the coronation was probably a result of the fact that there was little Louis could gain at the expense of the nobles.

The most influential of Louis's councillors were Hatto I, and Solomon III (bishop of Constance). It was these two who assured that the royal court decided in favour of the Conradines against the Babenbergers in the matter of the Duchy of Franconia. They appointed Louis's nephew, Conrad as a duke. In 903 Louis promulgated the Raffelstetten Customs Regulations, the first customs regulations in the East Frankish part of Europe.

In 900, during Hungarian invasions of Europe, Magyar army ravaged Bavaria. Another group of Magyars were defeated by Luitpold, Margrave of Bavaria and Bishop Richer of Passau. In 901 they devastated the Duchy of Carinthia. In 904 Louis invited Kurszán, the kende of Magyars to negotiations, but killed him and his delegation.[2][3] In 906 Magyars twice ravaged Duchy of Saxony. In 907 they inflicted a heavy defeat on the Bavarians who had invaded Hungary, killing the Margrave Liutpold and many high nobles in the Battle of Pressburg. Next year it was the turn of Saxony and Thuringia, in 909 that of Alemannia. On their return, however, Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria inflicted a defeat on them on the river Rott, but in 910 they, in their turn, defeated Louis the Child's army in the Battle of Augsburg.[4] Louis himself tried to take some military control as he grew older, but he had little success against the Magyars. His army was destroyed at Ennsburg in 907.

In a state of despair, possibly afflicted by severe depression, Louis died at Frankfurt am Main on 20 or 24 September 911, only seventeen or eighteen years old. Louis was buried in the monastery of Saint Emmeram in Regensburg, where his father Arnulf of Carinthia lay. His death brought an end to the eastern (German) branch of the Carolingian dynasty.

The vacuum left in the Carolingian East was eventually filled in 919 by the family of Henry the Fowler, a cousin, and heralded the beginning of the Ottonian dynasty. However, in 911 the dukes of East Francia elected Conrad of Franconia as the king of East Francia, while the nobles of Lotharingia elected as their king Charles the Simple, king of West Francia.

In popular culture

In an interview with the Daily Trojan, one member of the EDM duo Louis the Child said, "We went on Wikipedia and hit the random article button a couple of times, then Louis The Child popped up and we thought, 'Yeah, that sounds good and we went with it.'"[5]

See also


  1. ^  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Louis the Child" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 50.
  2. ^ Györffy, György (1959). "Tanulmányok a magyar állam eredetéről". Budapest: Akadémiai Publishing Company.
  3. ^ Andrew L. Simon, Istvan Lazar (2001). Transylvania: A Short History. ISBN 1-931313-21-0.
  4. ^ Gwatking, H. M., Whitney, J. P., et al. Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III—Germany and the Western Empire.
  5. ^ Elder, Jimmy (17 February 2016). "Q&A with USC freshman, half of Louis the Child". Daily Trojan.

External links

Louis IV of East Francia
Born: September/October 893 Died: 20/24 September 911
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Arnulf of Carinthia
King of East Francia
Succeeded by
Conrad I
Preceded by
King of Lotharingia
Succeeded by
Charles the Simple
Arnulf of Carinthia

Arnulf of Carinthia (c. 850 – December 8, 899) was the duke of Carinthia who overthrew his uncle, Emperor Charles the Fat, became the Carolingian king of East Francia from 887, the disputed King of Italy from 894 and the disputed Holy Roman Emperor from February 22, 896 until his death at Regensburg, Bavaria.

Battle of Rednitz

The Battle of Rednitz on 22 June 910, was a decisive victory of the Magyar cavalry over the East Francian - German kingdoms armies. The location of this battle could be not determined with 100% certitude. The battle happened near the river Rednitz, in Franconia, near the border with Bavaria ("in confinio Bavariae et Franciae"). After the battle, the German king Louis the Child, together with the Swabian, Frankish, Bavarian and Saxonian dukes, accepted to pay tribute to the Hungarian state.We do not know who was the commander of the Hungarian army (he could be a chieftain or a prince), but it was the same who 10 days before the battle of Rednitz, on 12 June 910 at the Battle of Augsburg inflicted a crushing defeat on the German army led by the king Louis the Child.

Caroline Ailin

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Charles the Simple

Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23. He was a member of the Carolingian dynasty.

Conrad I of Germany

Conrad I (German: Konrad; c. 881 – 23 December 918), called the Younger, was the king of East Francia from 911 to 918. He was the first king not of the Carolingian dynasty, the first to be elected by the nobility and the first to be anointed. He was chosen as the king by the rulers of the East Frankish stem duchies after the death of young king Louis the Child. Ethnically Frankish, prior to this election he had ruled the Duchy of Franconia from 906.

Duchy of Bavaria

The Duchy of Bavaria (German: Herzogtum Bayern) was a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom from the sixth through the eighth century. It was settled by Bavarian tribes and ruled by dukes (duces) under Frankish overlordship. A new duchy was created from this area during the decline of the Carolingian Empire in the late ninth century. It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.

During internal struggles of the ruling Ottonian dynasty, the Bavarian territory was considerably diminished by the separation of the newly established Duchy of Carinthia in 976. Between 1070 and 1180 the Holy Roman Emperors were again strongly opposed by Bavaria, especially by the ducal House of Welf. In the final conflict between the Welf and Hohenstaufen dynasties, Duke Henry the Lion was banned and deprived of his Bavarian and Saxon fiefs by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Frederick passed Bavaria over to the House of Wittelsbach, which held it until 1918. The Bavarian dukes were raised to prince-electors during the Thirty Years' War in 1623.

Future bass

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Gebhard, Duke of Lorraine

Gebhard of Lahngau (c. 860/868 – 22 June 910), of the Conradine dynasty, son of Odo (died 879), count of Lahngau, and Judith, was himself count of Wetterau (909–910) and Rheingau (897–906) and then duke of Lotharingia (Lorraine).

In 903, Louis the Child, king of Germany, gave him the government of Lotharingia with the title of duke (Kebehart dux regni quod a multis Hlotharii dicitur). Gebhard died in battle against the Magyars, somewhere by Augsburg.With his wife Ida, he had two children:

Herman (died 949), duke of Swabia

Odo (died 949), count of Wetterau (from 914), Lahngau (from 918), and Rheingau (from 917), married Cunigunda, daughter of Herbert I of Vermandois

Hatto I

Hatto I (c. 850 – 15 May 913) was archbishop of Mainz (Mayence) from 891 until his death.

Hatto belonged to a Swabian family, and was probably educated at the monastery of Reichenau, of which be became abbot in 888. He was also abbot of Ellwangen Abbey.

Hatto soon became known to the German king, Arnulf, who appointed him archbishop of Mainz in 891, and he became such a trustworthy and loyal counsellor that he was popularly called the heart of the king. He presided over the important synod at Tribur in 895 and accompanied the king to Italy in 894 and 895, where he was received with great favor by Pope Formosus. In 899, when Arnulf died, Hatto became regent of the Empire and guardian of the young king, Louis the Child, whose authority he compelled Zwentibold, duke of Lorraine, an illegitimate son of Arnulf, to recognize.

During these years Hatto did not neglect his own interests, for in 896 he secured for himself the abbey of Ellwangen and in 898 that of Lorsch. He assisted the Franconian family of the Conradines in its feud with the Babenbergs for supremacy in Franconia; after the battle of Fritzlar on September 9 906 between the Babenbergs and Conradines he arranged for the capture and execution of Count Adalbert of Babenberg, breaking his promise of safe conduct. Hatto retained his influence during the entire reign of Louis the Child and on the king's death in 911 was prominent in securing the election of Conrad, duke of Franconia, to the vacant throne. When trouble arose between Conrad and Henry the Fowler, duke of Saxony, afterwards King Henry I, the attitude of Conrad was ascribed by the Saxons to the influence of Hatto, who wished to prevent Henry from securing authority in Thuringia, where the see of Mainz had extensive possessions. He was accused of complicity in a plot to murder Henry, who in return ravaged the archiepiscopal lands in Saxony and Thuringia.

Hatto died on 15 May 913, one legend saying he was struck by lightning, and another that he was thrown alive by the devil into the crater of Mount Etna. His memory was long regarded in Saxony with great abhorrence, and stories of cruelty and treachery gathered round his name.

The legend of the Mouse Tower at Bingen is connected with Hatto I and Hatto II, who was archbishop of Mainz from 968 to 970. This latter Hatto built the church of St. George on the island of Reichenau, was generous to the see of Mainz and to the abbeys of Fulda and Reichenau, and was a patron of the chronicler Regino, abbot of Prum.


Kristine Meredith Flaherty (born June 30, 1985), better known as K.Flay, is an American singer, songwriter, rapper, and musician. Her debut album Life as a Dog was released in 2014, peaking on the Billboard Heatseekers Albums chart at number two and Billboard's Rap Albums chart at number 14. In 2016, she signed with Interscope Records as the first artist signed to Dan Reynolds' Night Street Records imprint. K.Flay was nominated for two awards at the 60th Annual Grammy Awards: Best Engineered Album, Non-Classical (for Every Where Is Some Where), and Best Rock Song (for "Blood in the Cut").

Louis, King of Sicily

Louis the Child (Italian: Ludovico or Luigi; 4 February 1338 – 16 October 1355) was King of Sicily (also known as "Trinacria") from 15 September 1342 until his death. He was a minor upon his succession, and was under a regency until 1354. His actual rule was short, for he died in an outbreak of plague the next year. His reign was marked by civil war.

Louis, the Child King

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Louis the Child (DJs)

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Ota (wife of Arnulf of Carinthia)

Ota, also called Oda, Uota, or Uta (c. 874 – between 899 and 903) was Queen of the East Franks by marriage to Arnulf of Carinthia. She was the mother of Louis the Child. By birth she was probably a member of the Conradine Dynasty.

Ratold of Italy

Ratold was a King of Italy who reigned for a month or so in 896. He was an illegitimate son of King Arnulf of East Francia. He and his half-brother Zwentibold are described by the Annals of Fulda as being born "by concubines" (ex concubinis). Their mothers are not named, and it is possible that their status was only downgraded to that of concubinage after Arnulf's marriage to Uota in 888. They may have originally been in Friedelehen, "consent-based marriages", a kind of common-law marriage.His birth date is unknown; he may have been a "mature man" by the time he was appointed to rule Italy. In 889, Arnulf persuaded the East Frankish nobility to recognise Zwentibold and Ratold as his heirs in the event that no legitimate son was born to the queen. One historian suggests that it was Arnulf's plan all along to secure subkingdoms for his illegitimate sons (Lotharingia for Zwentibold and Italy for Ratold) while reserving East Francia itself for his legitimate issue. After Arnulf was crowned Emperor in Rome in 896, he fell ill and quickly returned to Germany by May, leaving, in the words of the Annals of Fulda, "his little son called Ratold, who had been born to him by a concubine, at Milan to receive the fidelity of the Italian people." The somewhat elliptical passage leaves open whether Ratold was merely his father's "deputy" or a full-fledged "sub-king" in Italy. Soon after Arnulf left, his rival, Duke Lambert II of Spoleto, took control of Italy and nothing more is heard of Ratold. Arnulf's legitimate son, Louis the Child, was recognised as his heir by the nobility in 897.

Stem duchy

A stem duchy (German: Stammesherzogtum, from Stamm, meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians and Swabians) was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911) and through the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century. The Carolingians had dissolved the original tribal duchies of the Frankish Empire in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Empire declined in the late 9th century, the old tribal areas assumed new identities as subdivisions of the realm. These are the five stem duchies (sometimes also called "younger stem duchies" in contrast to the pre-Carolingian tribal duchies):

Bavaria, Franconia, Lotharingia (Lorraine), Saxony and Swabia (Alemannia).

The Salian emperors (reigned 1027–1125) retained the stem duchies as the major divisions of Germany, but they became increasingly obsolete during the early high-medieval period under the Hohenstaufen, and Frederick Barbarossa finally abolished them in 1180 in favour of more numerous territorial duchies.

The term Stammesherzogtum as used in German historiography dates to the mid-19th century, and from the beginning was closely related to the question of national unification. The term's applicability, and the nature of the stem duchies in medieval Germany, consequently have a long history of controversy.

The overly literal or etymologizing English translation "stem duchy" was coined in the early 20th century. While later authors tend to clarify the term by using the alternative translation "tribal", use of the term "stem duchies" has become conventional.

Ultra Music

Ultra Music is a worldwide music entity, comprising Ultra Records, Ultra Music Publishing, and Empire Artist Management. Ultra Music was formed in New York City in 1995 by former Polygram and Virgin Records executive Patrick Moxey, who is the owner. As of December 23, 2012, Ultra entered a global alliance with Sony Music, giving its artists access to Sony's international marketing and promotional resources. Moxey also holds the title as president of Sony's Worldwide Electronic Music efforts.Ultra Music' roster includes Sofi Tukker, Kygo, Steve Aoki, Mr. Probz, DVBBS, Shaun Frank, Era Istrefi, Deorro, Flosstradamus, Carnage, Louis The Child, Alina Baraz & Galimatias, Lost Frequencies, Tep No, Benny Benassi, Mako, Klingande, Giiants, Iceleak and Headhunterz. Ultra has featured releases from Deadmau5, Calvin Harris, Tiesto, Kaskade, Above & Beyond, Armin Van Buuren, Sak Noel, Paul Oakenfold, Avicii, David Guetta, Pitbull, The Crystal Method, The Bloody Beetroots, Sasha, Melanie Martinez and John Digweed.

Wigeric of Lotharingia

Wigeric or Wideric (French: Wigéric or Wéderic; died before 923) was the count of the Bidgau (pagus Bedensis) and held the rights of a count within the city of Trier. He received also the advocacy of the Abbey of Saint Rumbold at Mechelen from Charles III of France. From 915 or 916, he was the count palatine of Lotharingia. He was the founder of the House of Ardennes.

Medieval historians have been unable to precisely pin down Wigeric's origins or rise to power. He possessed lands in the region of Bitburg, in the middle Moselle valley, in the Gutland, the western Eifel, and the Meuse region.At the death of Louis the Child, the Lotharingians rejected the suzerainty of Conrad I and elected Charles of France as their king. At the time, the military authority in Lotharingia was assigned to Count Reginar I of Hainaut (died 915), but at his death it fell to Wigeric, who became count palatine, exercising as such the military authority in Lotharingia.

Wigeric founded the monastery of Hastière (French: L'abbaye d'Hastière) now in Hastière-par-delà(fr), of which he also assumed the advocacy.

There is no historical trace of Wigeric after 919: he probably died between 916 and 919, and was buried in the monastery of Hastière.


Zwentibold (Zventibold, Swentiboldo, Sventibaldo, Sanderbald; c. 870 – 13 August 900), a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was the illegitimate son of Emperor Arnulf. In 895, his father, then king of East Francia, granted him the Kingdom of Lotharingia, which he ruled until his death. After his death he was declared a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church.

East Francia within the
Carolingian Empire (843–911)
East Francia (911–962)
Kingdom of Germany within the
Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813)
German Confederation (1815–1848)
German Empire (1848/1849)
German Confederation (1850–1866)
North German Confederation (1867–1871)
German Empire (1871–1918)

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