Louis de Buade de Frontenac

Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau (French pronunciation: ​[lwi də bɥad kɔ̃t də fʁɔ̃tənak e də palɥo]; May 22, 1622 – November 28, 1698) was a French soldier, courtier, and Governor General of New France from 1672 to 1682 and from 1689 to his death in 1698. He established a number of forts on the Great Lakes and engaged in a series of battles against the English and the Iroquois.[1]

In his first term, he supported the expansion of the fur trade, establishing Fort Frontenac (in what is now Kingston, Ontario) and came into conflict with the other members of the Sovereign Council[2] over its expansion and over the corvées required to build the new forts. In particular, despite the opposition of bishop François de Laval, he supported selling brandy to the Aboriginal tribes, which Laval considered a mortal sin. The conflict with the Sovereign Council led to his recall in 1682.

His second term was characterised by the defence of Quebec from a British invasion during King William's War, a successful guerrilla campaign against the Iroquois and English settlements which resulted in the elimination of the Iroquois threat against New France, and a large expansion of the fur trade using Canadian coureurs des bois. He died before his second recall to France.

Louis de Buade de Frontenac
Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac et de Palluau (1622-1698)
Illustration of Frontenac
3rd and 6th Governor General of New France
In office
1672–1682
MonarchLouis XIV
Deputynone (1672–1675)
Jacques Duchesneau de la Doussinière et d'Ambault(1675–1682)
Preceded byDaniel de Rémy de Courcelle
Succeeded byJoseph-Antoine Le Febvre de La Barre
In office
1689–1698
MonarchLouis XIV
DeputyJean Bochart de Champigny
Preceded byJacques-René de Brisay de Denonville, Marquis de Denonville
Succeeded byLouis-Hector de Callière
Personal details
BornMay 22, 1622,
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
DiedNovember 28, 1698 (aged 76)
Chateau St-Louis, Quebec City, New France, French colonial empire
Signature
Louis de Buade de Frontenac's signature

Early life

Frontenac was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the son of Henri de Buade, colonel in the regiment of Navarre, and Anne Phélypeaux, daughter of Raymond Phélypeaux. The details of his early life are meager, as no trace of the Frontenac papers have been discovered. The de Buades, however, were a family of distinction in the principality of Bearn. Antoine de Buade, seigneur de Frontenac, grandfather of the future governor of New France, attained eminence as a councilor of state under Henri IV; and his children were brought up with the dauphin, afterwards Louis XIII.[2]

Frontenac entered the army at an early age. In 1635 he began his military career and he served under the prince of Orange in Holland, and fought with credit and received many wounds during engagements in the Low Countries and in Italy. He was promoted to the rank of colonel in the regiment of Normandy in 1643, and three years later, after distinguishing himself at the siege of Orbetello, where he had an arm broken, he was made maréchal de camp.[2] Seventeenth century warfare ceased during the winter months and Frontenac, being a soldier, needed to keep occupied. Like many military officers, Frontenac took residence at the King’s court.[3] Unfortunately for Frontenac, such a lavish lifestyle proved to be costly and his time at the King’s court only led him to amass more debt. His growing debt led him to seek an Arrêt du Conseil d’ État later in his life in order to protect his properties from his creditors who otherwise would have been able to seize his properties.

Anne de La Grange-Trianon by Circle of François-Hubert Drouais
Frontenac married Anne de La Grange-Trianon in October 1648.

His service seems to have been continuous until the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, when he returned to his father's house in Paris and married, without the consent of her parents, Anne de la Grange-Trianon[2] in October 1648.[4] Frontenac courted her because she was set to inherit a large sum of money from her deceased mother and her father upon his death. Anne de la Grange-Trianon’s father had remarried and had a second child to ensure that his fortune would not go to his daughter and the son-in-law that he disapproved of.[5] Therefore, when Frontenac's father-in-law died, Frontenac did not receive the money he was hoping for as his wife’s father left his fortune to his new wife. The marriage was not a happy one, and after the birth of a son incompatibility of temper led to a separation, the count retiring to his estate on the Indre, where by an extravagant course of living he became hopelessly involved in debt. Little is known of his career for the next fifteen years beyond the fact that he held a high position at court; but in the year 1669, when France sent a contingent to assist the Venetians in the defense of Crete against the Turks, Frontenac was placed in command of the troops on the recommendation of Turenne. In this expedition he won military glory; but his fortune was not improved thereby.[2] In 1664, Frontenac admitted to owing debt of 325,878 livres plus 17,350 livres of interest to his creditors,[6] which was not repaid by 1672 when his property was seized by creditors.[7] Frontenac, however, was offered the position of governor-general of New France which deferred his debts until the end of his governorship. Frontenac was appointed governor and lieutenant general of New France, Acadia, the island of Newfoundland on April 7, 1672 and arrived in Quebec on the 7th of September that same year.

A seventeenth-century painting of Anne de la Grange-Trianon can be seen today at the Chateau de Versailles.

First term in New France

At this period the affairs of New France claimed the unexpected attention of the French court. From the year 1665 the colony had been successfully administered by three men: Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle, the governor, Jean Talon, the intendant, and the Marquis de Tracy, who had been appointed lieutenant general for the French king in America; but a difference of opinion had arisen between the governor and the intendant, and each had demanded the others recall in the public interest. At this crisis in the administration of New France, de Frontenac was appointed to succeed de Courcelle.[2]

From the beginning of Frontenac's term, it was evident that he was prepared to give effect to a policy of colonial expansion. He was also genuinely ambitious to inaugurate an era of prosperity for Canada.[8] He exercised an independence of action that did not coincide with the views of his minister Colbert.[2] As governor, Frontenac was undoubtedly the most powerful figure within the colony. Among his most prominent duties as governor, Frontenac maintained control over military matters and foreign affairs. Situated within the context of the French colony throughout the seventeenth century, foreign affairs largely encompassed the relations between French settlers and indigenous peoples.[9] Although the governor was not allowed to intervene in matters handled by the Sovereign Council and the intendant, persons in these formal posts had to respect the governor as the ultimate voice of authority. Such compliance was based on the notion that the governor was the king’s representative. The governor was not merely an intermediary or a stand-in. The governor extended the king’s authority from France to the North American colony. As one of his first acts as governor, he established his presence as the sovereign delegate of the king by establishing in Canada the three estates – nobles, clergy and people – and convening a colonial Estates General to pledge fealty to him.[10] The arrival of the governor implied that all of the colony’s settlers pledge their allegiance to the king. This was a duty that Frontenac did not take lightly. The royal policy, however, was adverse to the granting of extensive political rights to the Canadians, and Frontenac's reforms in this direction were disapproved.[8] In relation to the hierarchy of authority within the colonial setting, any check on the governor’s power was altogether absent. In Frontenac’s case, France’s finance minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who resided an ocean away, could only impose restraints upon the governor’s powers.[11] Thus, measures were adopted to curb his ambition by increasing the power of the Sovereign Council and by reviving the office of intendant.[2] Responding to his reduction in the Sovereign Council to a figurehead, he expressed his infuriation by challenging the authority of the intendant, Jacques Duchesnau and demanding that the council refer to him as the "chief and president".[12]

Frontenac, however, was a man of dominant spirit, jealous of authority, prepared to exact obedience from all and to yield to none. In the course of events he soon became involved in quarrels with the intendant touching questions of precedence and with the ecclesiastics one or two of whom ventured to criticize his proceedings. The church in New France had been administered for many years by the religious orders; for the see of Quebec, so long contemplated, had not yet been erected. But three years after the arrival of Frontenac a former vicar apostolic, François-Xavier de Montmorency-Laval, returned to Quebec as bishop, with a jurisdiction over the whole of New France. In this redoubtable churchman, the governor found a vigorous opponent who was determined to render the state subordinate to the church. Frontenac, following in this respect in the footsteps of his predecessors, had issued trading licenses which permitted the sale of intoxicants. The bishop, supported by the intendant, endeavored to suppress this trade and sent an ambassador to France to obtain remedial action. The views of the bishop were upheld and henceforth authority was divided. Troubles ensued between the governor and the Sovereign Council, over its expansion and over the corvées required to build the new forts.[2] In particular, despite the opposition of bishop François de Laval, he supported selling brandy to the First Nations, which Laval considered a mortal sin. The king and his minister had to listen to and adjudicate upon the appeals from the contending parties until one incident wore their patience out.[2] After the adolescent son of Duchesneau was verbally abused on the street by a follower of Frontenac, Frontenac physically assaulted him with his cane when he deemed his explanation unacceptable and, after negotiation between himself, the intendant and the bishop, an officer of Frontenac detained and imprisoned Duchesneau’s son.[13] Under the king’s edict of 1679, it was forbidden for a governor to arbitrarily imprison any subjects.[14] Following a deliberation in Versailles, both governor and intendant were recalled to France in the year 1682.[2]

During Frontenac's first administration many improvements had been made in the country. The defenses had been strengthened, a fort was built at Cataraqui (now Kingston, Ontario), bearing the governor's name, and conditions of peace had been fairly maintained between the Iroquois on the one hand and the French and their allies, the Ottawas and the Hurons, on the other.[2] Frontenac made his way to Cataraqui to build his post that would facilitate trading with the Iroquois Confederacy. Even though Frontenac was disobeying Colbert's policies, he was able to continuously act in such a way because he represented the King's person. Throughout his first term, Frontenac was engaging in the fur trade to increase his own fortune and those of his associates. According to La Salle, in his personal memoir, Frontenac was also trying to secure a monopoly over a large part of the fur trade.[15] The progress of events during the next few years proved that the recall of the governor had been ill-timed. The Iroquois were assuming a threatening attitude towards the inhabitants, and Frontenac's successor, La Barre, was quite incapable of leading an army against such cunning foes. At the end of a year, La Barre was replaced by the marquis de Denonville, a man of ability and courage, who, though he showed some vigour in marching against the western Iroquois tribes, angered rather than intimidated them, and the massacre of Lachine on August 5, 1689 must be regarded as one of the unhappy results of his administrations.[2]

Second term in New France

Frontenac revient à Québec en 1689
Reception for Frontenac's return to Quebec in October 1689.

The affairs of the colony were now in a critical condition; a man of experience and decision was needed to cope with the difficulties, and Louis XIV, who was not wanting in sagacity, wisely made choice of the choleric count to represent and uphold the power of France. When, therefore, on October 17, 1689, Frontenac arrived in Quebec as governor for the second time, he received an enthusiastic welcome, and confidence was at once restored in the public mind.[16] Quebec was not long to enjoy the blessing of peace.[2]

Frontenac’s return to New France during the Nine Years' War offered him an opportunity to display his military capabilities against England in North America.[17] Despite the tensions created during his first term as governor-general, Frontenac was still unwilling to share power with the Sovereign Council and continued to profit from the Canadian fur trade.[18] In January 1690, Frontenac approved the use of raiding parties composed of Canadians and Indigenous allies to ravage English border settlements. These parties raided the towns of Schenectady and Salmon Falls and indiscriminately murdered English settlers but spared the Iroquois.[19] The raids were intended to deter the English from forming an alliance with the Iroquois, but instead united the English colonies against New France. On 16 October 1690, several New England ships under the command of Sir William Phips, governor of Massachusetts, appeared off the Island of Orleans, and an officer was sent ashore to demand the surrender of the fort.[2] Frontenac, bold and fearless,[2] responded with the famous words: "Non, je n'ai point de réponse à faire à votre général que par la bouche de mes canons et de mes fusils." ("I have no reply to make to your general other than from the mouths of my cannons and muskets.").[20] Frontenac handled so vigorously the forces he had collected as to completely repulse the enemy, who in their hasty retreat left behind a few pieces of artillery on the Beauport shore.[2]

Frontenac receiving the envoy of Sir William Phipps demanding the surrender of Quebec, 1690
Frontenac receiving the envoy of William Phipps demanding the surrender of Quebec prior to the Battle of Quebec in 1690.

The prestige of the governor was greatly increased by this event, and he was prepared to follow up his advantage by an attack on Boston from the sea, but his resources were inadequate for the undertaking. New France now rejoiced in a brief respite from her enemies, and during the interval Frontenac encouraged the revival of the drama at the Chateau St-Louis and paid some attention to the social life of the colony.[2]

New France had been under intermittent attack throughout the 17th century. The people however were not subdued and for two years after the Phips attack, a petty warfare was maintained. The sufferings of the colony, infested by war parties, were extreme. The fur trade, which formed its only resource for subsistence, was completely cut off, and a great accumulation of furs remained in the trading posts of the upper lakes, prevented from descending by the watchful enemy.[21] To meet the threat, he dispatched Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes to establish a trading post and fort at Kekionga, present day Fort Wayne, Indiana.[22] At a grand council of the friendly tribes, Frontenac took up a hatchet, brandished it in the air, and sang the war song, his officers following his example. The Christian Indians of the neighboring missions rose and joined them, and so also did the Hurons and the Algonquins of Lake Nipissing, while Frontenac led the dance, whooping like the rest. His allies, roused to martial frenzy, promised war to the death, and several years of conflict followed. At length, after three years of destitution and misery, Frontenac broke the blockade of the Ottawa; the coveted treasure came safely to Montreal, and the colonists hailed him as their father and deliverer.[21]

Frontenac with the Indians
Frontenac with indigenous allies, c. 1690.

In 1696 Frontenac decided to take the field against the Iroquois, although at this time he was seventy-six years of age. On July 6 he left Lachine at the head of a considerable force for the village of the Onondagas, where he arrived a month later. In the meantime the Iroquois had abandoned their villages, and as pursuit was impracticable, the army commenced its return march on August 10. Frontenac endured the fatigue of the march as well as the youngest soldier, and for his courage and prowess he received the cross of St. Louis.[2] Under Frontenac's leadership, the Canadian militia became increasingly adept at guerrilla warfare and took the war into Iroquois territory and attacked a number of English settlements.[23] After waging a war of attrition between 1690 and 1698, the Iroquois fled the raided territory and negotiated for peace with the French.[24] The result was that the threat of the Iroquois to New France was finally diffused.

At the time of his second appointment as governor in 1689, France authorized the importation of slaves to Quebec from the West Indies.

Frontenac died on November 28, 1698 at the Chateau St-Louis after a brief illness, deeply mourned by the Canadian people. The faults of the governor were those of temperament, which had been fostered by early environment. His nature was turbulent, and from his youth he had been used to command; but underlying a rough and hard exterior there was evidence of a kindly heart. He was fearless, resourceful and decisive, and triumphed as few men could have done over the difficulties and dangers of a most critical position.[2]

Quebec's most famous building and landmark, the Château Frontenac, is named after him, as is the Kingston Frontenacs ice hockey team. In Ontario, Frontenac Provincial Park near the site of the former Fort Frontenac and Fort Cataraqui (present day Kingston), is also named in his honour. In Québec, Frontenac National Park commemorates his governorship and leadership of Canada during challenging period of war with the British colonies.

Honours

Statue of Frontenac at Quebec's Parliament Building in Quebec City (left), and a bust at Valiants Memorial in Ottawa.

Frontenac
Frontenac bust

Many sites and landmarks were named to honor Louis de Buade de Frontenac. They include:

Folklore

Frontenac's coat of arms marks the entrance to the Château, part of which lies on the site of his former home. Some have spotted him, dressed in 17th century garb, wandering the halls or floating through the ballroom.[26]

Notes

  1. ^ Moogk, Peter N. (15 June 2015). "Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac". The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainDoughty, Arthur George (1911). "Frontenac et Palluau, Louis de Buade, Comte de" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 249–250.
  3. ^ Eccles, William John (1955). Frontenac and New France, 1672–1698 (PhD). Montreal, Quebec: McGill University. p. 34.
  4. ^ Eccles (1955), p. 39.
  5. ^ Eccles (1955), p. 42.
  6. ^ W. J. Eccles, Frontenac: The Courtier Governor (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1959), 23.
  7. ^ Arthur Quinn, A New World: An Epic of Colonial America from the Founding of Jamestown to the Fall of Quebec (Boston: Faber & Faber, 1994), 277
  8. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Frontenac, Louis de Buade" . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  9. ^ Eccles, Frontenac, 2–3.
  10. ^ Quinn, A New World, 296.
  11. ^ Eccles, Frontenac, 31.
  12. ^ Eccles, Frontenac, 134-36.
  13. ^ Eccles, Frontenac, 149-51.
  14. ^ Eccles, Frontenac, 151.
  15. ^ Eccles, Frontenac, 79.
  16. ^ Colby, Charles William (1915). The Fighting Governor: A Chronicle of Frontenac. New York: Glasgow, Brook & Company. pp. M1 p. 112.
  17. ^ Quinn, A New World, 277.
  18. ^ Eccles, Frontenac, 274-75.
  19. ^ Eccles, Frontenac, 224-26
  20. ^ Ronald E. Gaffney. Battleground: Nova Scotia: The British, French, and First Nations at War in the North-East 1675–1760.
  21. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Parkman, Francis (1900). "Frontenac, Louis de Buade, Comte de" . In Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J. (eds.). Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
  22. ^ "Vincennes, Sieur de (Jean Baptiste Bissot)," The Encyclopedia Americana (Danbury, CT: Grolier, 1990), 28:130.
  23. ^ Quinn, A New World, 320-21.
  24. ^ Quinn, A New World, 325-26.
  25. ^ http://www.canadianrosesociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=80&Itemid=55 Frontenac rose
  26. ^ https://www.canadianpostagestamps.ca/stamps/18543/the-fairmont-le-chateau-frontenac-ghost--louis-de-buade

References

  • Burke, Peter. The Fabrication of Louis XIV. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
  • Eccles, W. J. Frontenac: The Courtier Governor. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1959.
  • Eccles, W.J. Frontenac: The Courtier Governor. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.
  • Eccles, William John. "Frontenac and New France, 1672–1698." PhD diss., McGill University, 1955.
  • Quinn, Arthur. A New World: An Epic of Colonial America from the Founding of Jamestown to the Fall of Quebec. Boston: Faber & Faber, 1994.

External links

Government offices
Preceded by
Daniel de Courcelle
Governor General of New France
1672–1682
Succeeded by
Joseph-Antoine de La Barre
Preceded by
Marquis de Denonville
Governor General of New France
1689–1698
Succeeded by
Hector de Callière
1698 in France

Events from the year 1698 in France.

Anne de La Grange-Trianon

Anne de La Grange-Trianon (1632 - January 20, 1707) was a French courtier and wife to Louis de Buade de Frontenac, twice Governor General of New France. Though she never set foot in Canada, La Grange played an important role in the development of the colony as Frontenac's ambassador in the court of Louis XIV.

Antoine de Buade

Antoine de Buade (c. 1567-1626), seigneur de Frontenac, was a French soldier and diplomat.

Antoine de Buade belonged to an old family that had originated in Guyenne.

In 1555 his father Geoffroy de Buade, lord of the small estate of Frontenac, had entered the service of Antoine of Navarre, governor of Guyenne.

His mother was Anne de Carbonniere.

At a young age Antoine de Buade entered the service of Antoine of Navarre's son Henri of Navarre, later to become Henri IV of France, as a personal equerry.

The two men became close friends, and Antoine would accompany Henri on his amorous adventures.Antoine de Buade married Anne de Secondat in 1583.

In 1594 he was appointed governor of the castle of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

He assisted in negotiating the marriage of Henri IV to Marie de' Medici in 1600.

In 1605 Antoine de Buade was master of the queen's house and master of the waters and forests of Laye.

He was said to be avaricious, lending money at high rates of interest.

Thus in 1606 he acquired the estate of Palluau by foreclosing on a mortgage.

In 1607 this fief was made a barony.In 1609 Antoine de Buade sold the Château de Pontchartrain and its estates to Paul Phélypeaux, secretary to Queen Marie de' Medici.

Antoine's son Henri de Buade (1596–1622) was a playmate of the future king Louis XIII.

Antoine arranged for Henri to marry Anne Phélypeaux in 1613.

Her father and uncle were Raymond Phélypeaux and Paul Phélypeaux, both secretaries of state and highly influential men.Antoine de Buade was made a Knight of the Order of Saint Esprit in 1619.

In 1622 Louis XIII made the barony of Palluau a county.

Henri de Buade was killed in 1622 during a military campaign.

Antoine de Buade de Frontenac died four years later.

Henri's son Louis de Buade de Frontenac later became Lieutenant General of the colony of New France in North America.

Bar of Montreal

The Bar of Montreal (French: Barreau de Montréal) is the section of the Bar of Quebec for lawyers in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It has it beginnings in 1693 when, as a Royal Province of the French colonial empire, Canadien lawyers first tried to obtain official recognition but were refused by Governor General of New France Louis de Buade de Frontenac who upheld the 1678 edict by the Sovereign Council that denied recognition of the legal profession.

For nearly a century, the Canadien lawyers would not be given recognition until after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham they became British colonial subjects. In the new British Province of Quebec, in 1765 Governor James Murray authorized the creation of the "Community of Lawyers" (Communauté des avocats) which granted commissions to its members that allowed them to practice law in the triple capacity of lawyer, notary and land surveyor. The precursor of the present-day Bar of Montreal, the Community of Lawyers adopted the first-ever code of ethics and conduct.

The Bar of Montreal became an independent corporation alongside the Bar of Lower Canada in 1849 through the Act to incorporate the Bar of Lower Canada (11-12 Vict. (1849), c.46.).

Battle of Quebec (1690)

The Battle of Quebec was fought in October 1690 between the colonies of New France and Massachusetts Bay, then ruled by the kingdoms of France and England, respectively. It was the first time Quebec's defences were tested.

Following the capture of Port Royal in Acadia, during King William's War, the New Englanders hoped to seize Quebec itself, the capital of New France. The loss of the Acadian fort shocked the Canadiens, and Governor-General Louis de Buade de Frontenac ordered the immediate preparation of the city for siege.

When the envoys delivered the terms of surrender, the Governor-General famously declared that his only reply would be by "the mouth of my cannons." Major John Walley led the invading army, which landed at Beauport in the Basin of Quebec. However, the militia on the shore were constantly harassed by Canadian militia until their retreat, while the expedition's ships, commanded by Sir William Phips, were nearly destroyed by cannon volleys from the top of the city.

Both sides learned from the battle: the French improved the city's defences, while the New Englanders realized they needed more artillery and better support from England to take the city.

Bonaventure River

The Bonaventure River is a river in the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec, Canada. It rises in the Chic-Choc Mountains and flows south to empty into Baie des Chaleurs near the town of Bonaventure, Quebec. The river is about 115 km (71 mi) long.The indigenous Mi'kmaq called the river Wagamet, meaning "clear water". The river is still noted for its clear, cold water, making it well known as a great place for Atlantic Salmon fishing and recreational canoeing.

The origin of the river's name is uncertain. It may come from the French bonne aventure (meaning "good fortune"); or named in honour of Simon-Pierre Denys de Bonaventure; or named after the ship Bonaventure of Lord La Court de Pré-Ravillon et de Granpré who entered the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in 1591. In any case, this name was already in use in 1697 when Governor Louis de Buade de Frontenac and Superintendent Jean Bochart de Champigny granted both sides of the river as the Seignory of the Bonavanture [sic] River to Charles-Henry de La Croix.

Charles-Paul Marin de la Malgue

Charles-Paul Marin de la Malgue, (1633 – 14 April 1713), was an officer in the colonial regular troops. The first record of his activity is in 1682 when he set out from Fort Frontenac to investigate the death of a prominent member of the Seneca tribe. In 1688, he was released from duties to go to France; his country of birth.

He returned to Canada, resumed his military duties, and married Catherine Niquet in 1691. They had six children, four of whom lived to be adults and the eldest being Paul Marin de la Malgue. Charles-Paul was mentioned by Governor Louis de Buade de Frontenac as being sent, along with Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville to attack Fort Nelson, a fur trading post at the mouth of the Nelson River. The attack was cancelled because of inadequate ships. He has also been mentioned as a recipient of the cross of Saint Louis but this does not appear in official records and was likely an invention of his heirs.

Fort de Buade

Fort de Buade was a French fort in the present U.S. state of Michigan's Upper Peninsula across the Straits of Mackinac from the northern tip of lower Michigan's "mitten". It was garrisoned between 1683 and 1701. The city of St. Ignace developed at the site, which also had the historic St. Ignace Mission founded by Jesuits. The fort was named after New France's governor at the time, Louis de Buade de Frontenac.

Frontenac (1912–73 electoral district)

Frontenac was the name of a defunct provincial electoral district in the province of Quebec, Canada. It was located in the Estrie region, and is not to be confused with the existing Frontenac electoral district located in the Chaudière-Appalaches region, which re-used the name.

Sources differ on whether the pre-1973 and post-1973 Frontenac electoral districts should be considered different or one and the same. The 1966 version of Frontenac and the 1973 version of Frontenac were drastically different but actually had a small overlap of territory around the area of the modern municipality of Adstock.

It was created for the 1912 election from parts of the existing Beauce and Compton districts. It last existed in the 1970 election. Its successor electoral district was Mégantic-Compton.

It was named after a former governor of New France, Louis de Buade de Frontenac.

Frontenac (provincial electoral district)

Frontenac is a former provincial electoral district in the Chaudière-Appalaches region of the province of Quebec, Canada, which elected members to the National Assembly of Quebec. As of its final election, it included the city of Thetford Mines and the municipality of Disraeli.

It is not to be confused with the pre-1973 Frontenac electoral district located in the Estrie region. Sources differ on whether the pre-1973 and post-1973 Frontenac electoral districts should be considered different or one and the same. The 1966 version of Frontenac and the 1973 version of Frontenac were drastically different but actually had a small overlap of territory around the area of the modern municipality of Adstock.

It was created for the 1973 election, and its final election was in 2008. It disappeared in the 2012 election and its successor electoral districts were the newly created Lotbinière-Frontenac and Mégantic.The riding is named after a former governor of New France, Louis de Buade de Frontenac.

Frontenac County, Quebec

Frontenac County was a county of Quebec, Canada. It existed between 1912 and the early 1980s. The territory it covered is today divided into the regional county municipalities of Le Granit in the administrative regions of the Estrie and Beauce-Sartigan in Chaudière-Appalaches. Its capital was the municipality of Lac-Mégantic.

The county was created in 1912 from parts of the counties of Compton and Beauce.The county name comes from that of the governor of New France, Louis de Buade de Frontenac.

The county was formed in 19 townships. The townships in Compton County were Winslow, Whitton, Marston, Chesham and Clinton. The townships from Beauce County were Price, Lambton, Adstock, Aylmer, Forsyth, Woburn, Dorset Gayhurst, Spalding, Ditchfield, Louise and Risborough as well as parts of Shenley and Marlow.

Governor General of New France

Governor General of New France was the vice-regal post in New France from 1663 until 1760 and was the last French vice-regal post. It was replaced by the British post of Governor of the Province of Quebec following the fall of New France. While the districts of Montreal and Trois-Rivières had their own governors, the Governor General of New France and the Governor of the district of Quebec were the same person.

Henri de Buade

Henri de Buade de Frontenac (1596–1622) was a French aristocrat during the age of Louis XIII of France, best known as the father of Louis de Buade de Frontenac, the future Lieutenant General of the colony of New France in North America.

Henri de Buade de Frontenac was born in 1596, son of Antoine de Buade and Anne de Secondat.

His father, from a family that originated in Guyenne, was an intimate of King Henry IV of France

As a child Henri de Buade was a playmate of the future king Louis XIII. It is said that one day when King Henri IV was in poor health,

he had the two boys stage a fight on his bed to amuse him.In May 1612 King Louis XIII granted him some land behind the Château du Louvre in Paris, then used only for a hen house,

on which he could build a house.

His father Antoine arranged for Henri to marry Anne Phélypeaux in 1613.

Her father and uncle were Raymond Phélypeaux and Paul Phélypeaux, both secretaries of state and highly influential men.

His son, Louis de Buade, Compte de Frontenac at de Pulluau, was born in 1620.

King Louis XIII acted as godfather to the boy, who was named after him.Henri de Buade became a colonel in the Regiment of Navarre.

He was killed in 1622 during a military campaign.

His heart was removed, sealed in a lead box, and buried in the church at Palluau.

Henri's son Louis later became Lieutenant General of the colony of New France in North America.

Hugues Randin

Hugues Randin (1628 – c. 1680) was a French engineer in the employ of Governor Louis de Buade de Frontenac. He was also a cartographer and, in the practice of the day, an architect on at least one project.

The first we know of Hugues Randin is his arrival in New France in 1665 as part of the Carignan-Salières Regiment. The regiment was repatriated in 1668 and he stayed in New France.

By 1671, he was working for Frontenac and made a trip to Fort Pentagouet to determine its condition. The next year he was granted a seigneury on the St. Lawrence.

In 1673, Randin designed and supervised construction of Fort Frontenac, a trading post and military fort built in what is now Kingston, Ontario, Canada. He remained in Frontenac's service and received another seigneury, this time in Acadia. After his death, this property was given to Hôtel-Dieu de Québec by his heir.

Jacques de Meulles

Jacques de Meulles, seigneur of La Source (died 1703), was intendant (1682–86) and interim governor general of New France. He was the son of Pierre de Meulles, king's councillor, treasurer-general of war supplies; d. 1703.

As chief administrator of the Colony, he issued playing cards as legal tender from 1684 onwards owing to a shortage of coins. The funds were used, in part, to pay soldiers who arrived in New France since 1665 to protect and built the colony.He frequently came into conflict with Louis de Buade de Frontenac, the governor of New France, including a dispute over the siting of Quebec (Meulles wanted to rebuild it further into the lower-town). After his colonial career, he retired to Orléans.

List of seignories of Quebec

Seignories have existed in Québec from 1627 until the British conquest of New France in 1763 and continued in the British colony of the Province of Quebec (1763–1791) Then in Lower Canada (1840 ) and in the Province of Canada until 1854.The numbering is based on the A.E.B. Courchene map.

Raid on Haverhill (1697)

The Raid on Haverhill was a military engagement that took place on March 15, 1697 during King William's War. Ordered by Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor General of New France, French, Algonquin, and Abenaki warriors descended on Haverhill, then a small frontier community in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. In the surprise attack, the Abenaki killed 27 colonists and took 13 captive. The natives burned six homes. The raid became famous in the nineteenth century because of Hannah Dustin's captivity narrative as a result of the raid.

Raymond Phélypeaux

Raymond Phélypeaux, seigneur d'Herbault et de La Vrillière (died 2 May 1629), was a French politician.

Raymond Phélypeaux was son of Louis Phélypeaux, lord of La Cave and La Vrillière.

His family could be traced back to the 13th century.

His father had married in 1557 and had five sons and three daughters.

The fourth son, Paul, was born in Blois in 1569.Raymond, lord of Herbault and Verger, became Secretary of the King's chamber in 1590.

He married Claude Gobelin, daughter of Balthazar Gobelin. They were to have four daughters and three sons, all of whom married well.

He was made treasurer of the Épargne in 1599, in charge of the royal finances.

His daughter Anne Phélypeaux married Henri de Buade de Frontenac in 1613.

In 1620 she gave birth to Louis de Buade de Frontenac, who later became Lieutenant General of the colony of New France in North America.Raymond's brother Paul fell ill at the siege of Montauban, and died at Castel-Sarrazin on 21 October 1621 at the age of fifty-two.

Paul's son Louis was just nine years old when he died. Raymond Phélypeaux assumed Paul's position of Secretary of State for Protestant Affairs,

saying that he would hold it until Louis came of age, but in fact the position remained in the La Vrillière side of the family.

He became Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 11 March 1626 until his death on 2 May 1629.

His son Louis Phélypeaux (1598–1681) inherited his estates.

Seignory of Lac-Mitis

The seignory of Lac-Mitis (French: seigneurie du Lac-Mitis) was a seignory during the French colonisation of New France. It was located in present-day La Mitis Regional County Municipality in Bas-Saint-Laurent. It was granted to Louis Rouer de Villeray by Louis de Buade de Frontenac, the governor of New France, on February 10, 1693.

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