Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (French pronunciation: ​[lwi tʁɛz]; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who was King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

Shortly before his ninth birthday, Louis became king of France and Navarre after his father Henry IV was assassinated. His mother, Marie de' Medici, acted as regent during his minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie and her Italian favourites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers, including Concino Concini, the most influential Italian at the French court.

Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France. King and cardinal are remembered for establishing the Académie française, and ending the revolt of the French nobility. They systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence (dueling, carrying weapons, and maintaining private armies). By the end of 1620s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the ruling doctrine.[1] The reign of Louis "the Just" was also marked by the struggles against the Huguenots and Habsburg Spain.[2]

Louis XIII
Luis XIII, rey de Francia (Philippe de Champaigne)
Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, 1655
King of France
Reign14 May 1610 – 14 May 1643
Coronation17 October 1610
Reims Cathedral
PredecessorHenry IV
SuccessorLouis XIV
RegentMarie de' Medici (1610–14)
King of Navarre
Reign14 May 1610 – 1620
PredecessorHenry III
Born27 September 1601
Château de Fontainebleau, France
Died14 May 1643 (aged 41)
Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
Burial
SpouseAnne of Austria
IssueLouis XIV, King of France
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
HouseBourbon
FatherHenry IV, King of France
MotherMarie de' Medici
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Signature
Louis XIII's signature

Early life, 1601–10

Born at the Palace of Fontainebleau, Louis XIII was the oldest child of King Henry IV of France and his second wife Marie de' Medici. As son of the king, he was a Fils de France ("son of France"), and as the eldest son, Dauphin of France. His father Henry IV was the first French king of the House of Bourbon, having succeeded his second cousin, Henry III of France (1574–1589), in application of Salic law. Louis XIII's paternal grandparents were Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme, and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre. His maternal grandparents were Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany. Eleonora de' Medici, his maternal aunt, was his godmother.[3] As a child, he was raised under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Montglat.

The ambassador of King James I of England to the court of France, Sir Edward Herbert, who presented his credentials to Louis XIII in 1619, remarked on Louis’s extreme congenital speech impediment and his double teeth:

...I presented to the King [Louis] a letter of credence from the King [James] my master: the King [Louis] assured me of a reciprocal affection to the King [James] my master, and of my particular welcome to his Court: his words were never many, as being so extream [sic] a stutterer that he would sometimes hold his tongue out of his mouth a good while before he could speak so much as one word; he had besides a double row of teeth, and was observed seldom or never to spit or blow his nose, or to sweat much, 'tho he were very laborious, and almost indefatigable in his exercises of hunting and hawking, to which he was much addicted...[4]

Rule of Marie de' Medici, 1610–17

Louis XIII ascended the throne in 1610 upon the assassination of his father, and his mother Marie de' Medici acted as his Regent. Although Louis XIII became of age at thirteen (1614), his mother did not give up her position as Regent until 1617, when he was 16. Marie maintained most of her husband's ministers, with the exception of Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, who was unpopular in the country. She mainly relied on Nicolas de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy, Noël Brûlart de Sillery, and Pierre Jeannin for political advice. Marie pursued a moderate policy, confirming the Edict of Nantes. She was not, however, able to prevent rebellion by nobles such as Henri, Prince of Condé (1588–1646), second in line to the throne after Marie's second surviving son Gaston, Duke of Orléans. Condé squabbled with Marie in 1614, and briefly raised an army, but he found little support in the country, and Marie was able to raise her own army. Nevertheless, Marie agreed to call an Estates General assembly to address Condé's grievances.

The assembly of this Estates General was delayed until Louis XIII formally came of age on his thirteenth birthday. Although his coming-of-age formally ended Marie's Regency, she remained the de facto ruler of France. The Estates General accomplished little, spending its time discussing the relationship of France to the Papacy and the venality of offices, but reaching no resolutions.

France 1643-A Half Louis d'Or
Half Louis d'Or (1643) depicting Louis XIII

Beginning in 1615, Marie came to rely increasingly on the Italian Concino Concini, who assumed the role of her favourite. Concini was widely unpopular because he was a foreigner. This further antagonised Condé, who launched another rebellion in 1616. Huguenot leaders supported Condé's rebellion, which led the young Louis XIII to conclude that they would never be loyal subjects. Eventually, Condé and Queen Marie made peace via the Treaty of Loudun, which allowed Condé great power in government but did not remove Concini. With growing dissatisfaction from nobles due to Concini's position, Queen Marie, with Louis's help, imprisoned Condé to protect Concini, leading to renewed revolts against the Queen and Concini.

In the meantime, Charles d'Albert, the Grand Falconer of France, convinced Louis XIII that he should break with his mother and support the rebels. Louis staged a palace coup d'état. As a result, Concino Concini was assassinated on 24 April 1617. His widow, Leonora Dori Galigaï, was tried for witchcraft, condemned, beheaded, and burned on 8 July 1617, and Marie was sent into exile in Blois. Later, Louis conferred the title of Duke of Luynes on d'Albert.

Ascendancy of Charles de Luynes, 1617–21

Louis XIII on Horseback. Circa 1615-1620 CE. Bronze, from France (probably Paris). The Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Louis XIII on Horseback. Circa 1615–1620. Bronze, from France (probably Paris). Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Luynes soon became as unpopular as Concini had been. Other nobles resented his monopolisation of the King. Luynes was seen as less competent than Henry IV's ministers, many now elderly or deceased, who had surrounded Marie de' Medici.

The Thirty Years' War broke out in 1618. The French court was initially unsure which side to support. On the one hand, France's traditional rivalry with the House of Habsburg argued in favour of intervening on behalf of the Protestant powers (and Louis's father Henry IV of France was once a Huguenot leader). On the other hand, Louis XIII had a strict Catholic upbringing, and his natural inclination was to support the Holy Roman Emperor, the Habsburg Ferdinand II.

The French nobles were further antagonised against Luynes by the 1618 revocation of the paulette tax and by the sale of offices in 1620. From her exile in Blois, Marie de' Medici became the obvious rallying point for this discontent, and the Bishop of Luçon (who became Cardinal Richelieu in 1622) was allowed to act as her chief adviser, serving as a go-between Marie and the King.

French nobles launched a rebellion in 1620, but their forces were easily routed by royal forces at Les Ponts-de-Cé in August 1620. Louis then launched an expedition against the Huguenots of Béarn who had defied a number of royal decisions. This expedition managed to re-establish Catholicism as the official religion of Béarn. However, the Béarn expedition drove Huguenots in other provinces into a rebellion led by Henri, Duke of Rohan.

In 1621 Louis XIII was formally reconciled with his mother. Luynes was appointed Constable of France, after which he and Louis set out to quell the Huguenot rebellion. The siege at the Huguenot stronghold of Montauban had to be abandoned after three months owing to the large number of royal troops who had succumbed to camp fever. One of the victims of camp fever was Luynes, who died in December 1621.

Rule by Council, 1622–24

Louis-XIII by-Franz-II-Pourbus
Louis XIII, by Frans Pourbus the younger (1620)

Following the death of Luynes, Louis determined that he would rule by council. His mother returned from exile and, in 1622, entered this council, where Condé recommended violent suppression of the Huguenots. The 1622 campaign, however, followed the pattern of the previous year: royal forces won some early victories, but were unable to complete a siege, this time at the fortress of Montpellier.

The rebellion was ended by the Treaty of Montpellier, signed by Louis XIII and the Duke of Rohan in October 1622. The treaty confirmed the tenets of the Edict of Nantes: several Huguenot fortresses were to be razed, but the Huguenots retained control of Montauban and La Rochelle.

Louis ultimately dismissed Noël Brûlart de Sillery and Pierre Brûlart in 1624 because of his displeasure with how they handled the diplomatic situation over the Valtellina with Spain. Valtellina was an area with Catholic inhabitants under the suzerainty of the Protestant Three Leagues. It served as an important route to Italy for France and it provided an easy connection between the Spanish and the Holy Roman empires, especially in helping each other with armies if necessary. Spain was constantly interfering in the Valtellina, which angered Louis, as he wanted to hold possession of this strategically important passageway. (In these years, the French kingdom was literally surrounded by the Habsburg realms as the Habsburgs were the Kings of Spain as well as Holy Roman Emperors. In addition, the Spanish and Holy Roman empires included the territories of today's Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, and Northern Italy.) He therefore found a better servitor in his Superintendent of Finances Charles de La Vieuville, who held similar views of Spain as the king, and who advised Louis to side with the Dutch via the Treaty of Compiègne.[5] However, La Vieuville was dismissed by the middle of 1624, partly due to his bad behaviour (during his tenure as superintendent he was arrogant and incompetent) and because of a well-organized pamphlet campaign by Cardinal Richelieu against his council rival.[6] Louis needed a new chief advisor; Cardinal Richelieu would be that counsellor.

Ministry of Cardinal Richelieu, 1624–42

Philippe de Champaigne - Louis XIII Crowned by Victory (Siege of La Rochelle, 1628) - WGA4712
Louis XIII Crowned by Victory (Siege of La Rochelle, 1628), Philippe de Champaigne, musée du Louvre

Cardinal Richelieu played a major role in Louis XIII's reign from 1624, determining France's direction over the course of the next eighteen years. As a result of Richelieu's work, Louis XIII became one of the first examples of an absolute monarch. Under Louis and Richelieu, the crown successfully intervened in the Thirty Years' War against the Habsburgs, managed to keep the French nobility in line, and retracted the political and military privileges granted to the Huguenots by Henry IV (while maintaining their religious freedoms). Louis XIII successfully led the important Siege of La Rochelle. In addition, Louis had the port of Le Havre modernised, and he built a powerful navy.

Louis also worked to reverse the trend of promising French artists leaving for Italy to work and study. He commissioned the painters Nicolas Poussin and Philippe de Champaigne to decorate the Louvre Palace. In foreign matters, Louis organised the development and administration of New France, expanding its settlements westward along the Saint Lawrence River from Quebec City to Montreal.

Expansion overseas under Louis XIII

Morocco

Louis XIII
Louis XIII, warrior King

In order to continue the exploration efforts of his predecessor Henry IV, Louis XIII considered a colonial venture in Morocco, and sent a fleet under Isaac de Razilly in 1619.[7] Razilly was able to explore the coast as far as Mogador. In 1624 he was given charge of an embassy to the pirate harbour of Salé in Morocco, in order to solve the affair of the library of Mulay Zidan.[8]

In 1630, Razilly was able to negotiate the purchase of French slaves from the Moroccans. He visited Morocco again in 1631, and helped negotiate the Franco-Moroccan Treaty (1631).[9] The Treaty gave France preferential treatment, known as Capitulations: preferential tariffs, the establishment of a Consulate, and freedom of religion for French subjects.[10]

Americas

Unlike other colonial powers, France, under the guidance of Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu, encouraged a peaceful coexistence in New France between the Natives and the Colonists. Indians, converted to Catholicism, were considered as "natural Frenchmen" by the Ordonnance of 1627:

"The descendants of the French who are accustomed to this country [New France], together with all the Indians who will be brought to the knowledge of the faith and will profess it, shall be deemed and renowned natural Frenchmen, and as such may come to live in France when they want, and acquire, donate, and succeed and accept donations and legacies, just as true French subjects, without being required to take letters of declaration of naturalization."[11]

Acadia was also developed under Louis XIII. In 1632, Isaac de Razilly became involved, at the request of Cardinal Richelieu, in the colonization of Acadia, by taking possession of the Habitation at Port-Royal (now Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia) and developing it into a French colony. The King gave Razilly the official title of lieutenant-general for New France. He took on military tasks such as taking control of Fort Pentagouet at Majabigwaduce on the Penobscot Bay, which had been given to France in an earlier Treaty, and to inform the English they were to vacate all lands North of Pemaquid. This resulted in all the French interests in Acadia being restored.

In Brazil, the colony of Equinoctial France was established in 1612, but only lasted 4 years until it was eliminated by the Portuguese.

Asia

Fleet of Montmorency led by Augustin de Beaulieu 1619 1622
"Fleet of Montmorency", led by Augustin de Beaulieu, in the East Indies, 1619–22

France-Japan relations started under Louis XIII in 1615 when Hasekura Tsunenaga, a Japanese samurai and ambassador, sent to Rome by Date Masamune, landed at Saint-Tropez for a few days. In 1636, Guillaume Courtet, a French Dominican priest, reciprocated when he set foot in Japan.[12]

Also in 1615, Marie de' Medici incorporated the merchants of Dieppe and other harbours to found the Company of the Moluccas. In 1619, an armed expedition composed of three ships (275 crew, 106 cannon) and called the "Fleet of Montmorency" under General Augustin de Beaulieu was sent from Honfleur, to fight the Dutch in the Far East. In 1624, with the Treaty of Compiègne, Cardinal Richelieu obtained an agreement to halt the Dutch–French warfare in the Far East.[13]

Duke of Orléans

On two occasions the king's younger brother, Gaston, Duke of Orléans, had to leave France for conspiring against the King's government and for attempting to undermine the influence of both his mother and Cardinal Richelieu. After waging an unsuccessful war in Languedoc, he took refuge in Flanders. In 1643, on the death of Louis XIII, Gaston became lieutenant-general of the kingdom and fought against Spain on the northern frontiers of France.

Marriage

Anna of Austria by Rubens (1622-1625, Norton Simon Museum)
Anne of Austria, Queen of France, wife of Louis XIII (by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625)

On 24 November 1615, Louis XIII married Anne of Austria, daughter of Philip III of Spain. This marriage followed a tradition of cementing military and political alliances between the Catholic powers of France and Spain with royal marriages. The tradition went back to the marriage of Louis VII of France and Constance of Castile. The marriage was only briefly happy, and the King's duties often kept them apart. After twenty-three years of marriage and four stillbirths, Anne finally gave birth to a son on 5 September 1638, the future Louis XIV.

Many people regarded this birth as a miracle and, in show of gratitude to God for the long-awaited birth of an heir, his parents named him Louis-Dieudonné ("God-given"). As another sign of gratitude, according to several interpretations, seven months before his birth, France was dedicated by Louis XIII to the Virgin Mary, who, many believed, had interceded for the perceived miracle.[14][15][16] However, the text of the dedication does not mention the royal pregnancy and birth as one of its reasons. Also, Louis XIII himself is said to have expressed his scepticism with regard to the miracle after his son's birth.[17] In gratitude for having successfully given birth, the queen founded the Benedictine abbey of the Val-de-Grâce, for which Louis XIV himself laid the cornerstone of its church, an early masterpiece of French Baroque architecture.

Issue

The couple had the following children:

Name Portrait Lifespan Notes
stillborn child Dec 1619
stillborn child 14 Mar 1622
stillborn child 1626
stillborn child Apr 1631
Louis Dieudonne of France (later King Louis XIV) LouisXIV-child 5 Sep 1638 – 1 Sep 1715 Married Maria Theresa of Spain (Spanish: María Teresa de Austria; French: Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche) (1638–83) in 1660. Had issue.
Philippe of France, Duke of Anjou (later Duke of Orléans) A young King Louis XIV of France (wearing Fleur-de-lis) sitting on a throne with his brother Philippe, Duke of Orléans 21 Sep 1640 – 8 Jun 1701 married (1) Princess Henrietta of England (1644–70) in 1661. Had issue. Married (2) Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palainate (1652–1722) in 1671. Had issue.

Sexuality

There is no evidence that Louis kept mistresses (a distinction that earned him the title "Louis the Chaste"), but persistent rumours insinuated that he may have been homosexual or at least bisexual. His interests as a teenager increasingly focused on his male courtiers, and he quickly developed an intense emotional attachment to his favourite, Charles d'Albert, although there is no clear evidence of a physical sexual relationship.[18] Gédéon Tallemant des Réaux, drawing from rumours told to him by a critic of the King (the Marquise de Rambouillet), explicitly speculated in his Historiettes about what happened in the king's bed.

A further liaison with an equerry, François de Baradas, ended when the latter lost favour fighting a duel after duelling had been forbidden by royal decree.[19]

Louis was also allegedly captivated by Henri Coiffier de Ruzé, Marquis of Cinq-Mars, who was later executed for conspiring with the Spanish enemy in time of war. Tallemant described how on a royal journey, the King "sent M. le Grand [de Cinq-Mars] to undress, who returned, adorned like a bride. 'To bed, to bed' he said to him impatiently... and the mignon was not in before the king was already kissing his hands."[20]

Death

Louis XIII died in Paris on 14 May 1643, the 33rd anniversary of his father's death. According to his biographer A. Lloyd Moote,

"his intestines were inflamed and ulcerated, making digestion virtually impossible; tuberculosis had spread to his lungs, accompanied by habitual cough. Either of these major ailments, or the accumulation of minor problems, may have killed him, not to mention physiological weaknesses that made him prone to disease or his doctors' remedies of enemas and bleedings, which continued right to his death."[21]

Composer and lute player

Louis XIII shared his mother's love of the lute, developed in her childhood in Florence. One of his first toys was a lute and his personal doctor, Jean Héroard, reports him playing it for his mother in 1604, at the age of three.[22] In 1635, Louis XIII composed the music, wrote the libretto and designed the costumes for the "Ballet de la Merlaison." The king himself danced in two performances of the ballet the same year at Chantilly and Royaumont.[23]

Influence on men's fashion

In the sphere of the men's fashion, Louis helped introduce the wearing of wigs among men in 1624 that became fashionable for the first time since antiquity. This would be a dominant style among men in European and European-influenced countries for nearly 200 years until the fashion changes brought about by the French Revolution.[24]

In fiction and film

  • Louis XIII, his wife Anne, and Cardinal Richelieu became central figures in Alexandre Dumas, père's novel The Three Musketeers and subsequent television and film adaptations. The book depicts Louis as a man willing to have Richelieu as a powerful advisor but aware of his scheming; he is portrayed as a bored and sour man, dwarfed by Richelieu's intellect. Films such as the 1948, the 1973 or the 2011 versions tend to treat Louis XIII as a comical character by depicting him as bumbling and incompetent.
  • The 2014 BBC TV series, The Musketeers, merging the historical with the fictional, portrayed the King as both incompetent and strong, whose alliance with Spain is ever faltering. He is portrayed by Ryan Gage.
  • Louis XIII, his wife Anne, his younger brother Gaston, Cardinal Richelieu, Cardinal Mazarin and members of the Royal family are mentioned throughout the course of the 1632 series of novels and other writings by Eric Flint et al., especially 1636: The Cardinal Virtues.
  • Louis XIII appears in novels of Robert Merle's Fortune de France series (1977–2003).
  • Louis XIII was portrayed by Edward Arnold in the 1935 film Cardinal Richelieu, with George Arliss portraying the Cardinal.
  • Ken Russell directed the 1971 film The Devils, in which Louis XIII is a significant character, albeit one with no resemblance to the real man. Louis XIII is portrayed as an effeminate homosexual who amuses himself by shooting Protestants dressed up as birds. The film was based on Aldous Huxley's book The Devils of Loudun.
  • Louis XIII appears in the 2002 Doctor Who audio drama The Church and the Crown.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Tilly, Charles (1985). "War making and state making as organized crime," in Bringing the State Back In, eds P.B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer, & T. Skocpol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. p. 174.
  2. ^ "Schneider, Robert A. ''History 1450–1789: Louis XIII.''". Answers.com. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  3. ^ James 1897, pp. 421
  4. ^ Herbert of Cherbury 1830, pp. 116
  5. ^ Moote 1989, p. 135.
  6. ^ Moote 1989, p. 114.
  7. ^ "The narrative really begins in 1619, when the adventurer, Admiral S. John de Razilly, resolved to go to Africa. France had no colony in Morocco; hence, King Louis XIII gave whole-hearted support to de Razilly." In Round table of Franciscan research, Volumes 17–18 Capuchin Seminary of St. Anthony, 1952
  8. ^ Dubé, Jean-Claude & Rapley, Elizabeth (2005). The Chevalier de Montmagny (1601–1657): First Governor of New France. Google Books. University of Ottawa Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780776605593.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ García-Arenal, Mercedes; Garcia-Arenal, Fernando; Wiegers, García-Arenal; Wiegers, Gerard Albert; Wiegers, Professor Gerard (19 May 2003). ''A Man of Three Worlds'' Mercedes García-Arenal, Gerard Albert Wiegers. p. 114. ISBN 9780801872259. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  10. ^ Tapié, Victor L (12 July 1984). ''France in the age of Louis XIII and Richelieu'' by Victor Lucien Tapié p. 259. ISBN 9780521269247. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  11. ^ Acte pour l'établissement de la Compagnie des Cent Associés pour le commerce du Canada, contenant les articles accordés à la dite Compagnie par M. le Cardinal de Richelieu, le 29 avril 1627
  12. ^ Butler's Lives of the Saints by Alban Butler, Paul Burns, p. 259
  13. ^ Lach, Donald F. Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. 1. pp. 93–94, 398.
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Our Lady of Graces and the birth of Louis XIV, The website of the Sanctuary of Our Lady at Cotignac, Provence Archived 13 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 24 January 2008
  15. ^ Bremond 1908, pp. 381 "Sans l'assurance d'avoir un fils, Louis XIII n'aurait pas fait le voeu de 1638." Translation: "Without the assurance of having a son, Louis XIII would not have made the vow of 1638."
  16. ^ Louis XIV. MSN Encarta. 2008. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  17. ^ Dulong, Claude, Anne d’Autriche. Paris: Hachette, 1980. "Irrité de voir tant de courtisans parler de "miracle", Louis XIII aurait répliqué que "ce n'était point là si grand miracle qu'un mari couchât avec sa femme et lui fasse un enfant." Translation: "Irritated to see so many courtiers speak of a “miracle”, Louis XIII is said to have replied: “it was not such a great miracle that a husband slept with his wife and made a child with her.”"
  18. ^ Moote 1989, p. 148.
  19. ^ Crompton 2006, pp. 338 The grandson of Henry III, Saint-Luc, penned the irreverent rhyme: "Become a bugger, Baradas / if you are not already one / like Maugiron my grandfather / and La Valette".
  20. ^ Crompton 2006, pp. 338
  21. ^ Moote 1989, p. 292.
  22. ^ "INTERVIEW with Miguel Yisrael, lutenist, about the lute in France in the 17th century". classiquenews.com.
  23. ^ "CND - Centre National de la Danse". cnd.fr. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  24. ^ ""Horrid Bushes of Vanity": A History of Wigs". Randomhistory.com. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
  25. ^ a b Anselme 1726, pp. 143–144.
  26. ^ a b Leonie Frieda (14 March 2006). Catherine de Medici: Renaissance Queen of France. HarperCollins. p. 386. ISBN 978-0-06-074493-9. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  27. ^ a b Anselme 1726, pp. 328–329.
  28. ^ a b Anselme 1726, p. 211.
  29. ^ a b "The Medici Granducal Archive and the Medici Archive Project" (PDF). p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2006.
  30. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Johanna von Oesterreich (Tochter des Kaisers Ferdinand I.)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 290 – via Wikisource.

References

Further reading

  • Blanchard, Jean-Vincent, Éminence: Cardinal Richelieu and the Rise of France (2011) NewYork: Walker & Company. ISBN 978-0-8027-1704-7
  • Howell, James "Louis XIII" English historiographer Royal 1661–1666
  • Huxley, Aldous. "The Devils of Loudun" (1952). The trial of Urbain Grandier, priest of the town who was tortured and burned at the stake in 1634
  • Knecht, Robert, Renaissance France, genealogies, Baumgartner, genealogical tables
  • Willis, Daniel A. (comp). The Descendants of Louis XIII (1999). Clearfield

External links

Louis XIII of France & II of Navarre
Cadet branch of the House of Capet
Born: 27 September 1601 Died: 14 May 1643
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Henry IV and III
King of France
1610 – 1643
Succeeded by
Louis XIV
King of Navarre
1610 – 1620
French annexation
French royalty
Preceded by
Francis
Dauphin of France
1601 – 1610
Succeeded by
Louis
Battle of La Marfée

The Battle of La Marfée took place during Thirty Years' War near Sedan, France, on 6 July 1641, between a Royal army of Louis XIII under Marshall Gaspard III de Coligny, and French malcontents led by Prince Louis de Bourbon, Count of Soissons, and Duke Frédéric Maurice de La Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon, who were supported by an Imperial-Spanish army under general Guillaume de Lamboy sent from the Spanish Netherlands by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria. The French malcontents and the Habsburg forces dealt a serious defeat to the French Royal Army, and for a moment, Cardinal Richelieu feared that the rebels, supported by the Spanish forces, would advance on Paris. Shortly after, however, Soissons fell dead, either murdered by an assassin or killed by himself accidentally, and the rebellion vanished.

Catalan Republic (1641)

The Catalan Republic (Catalan: República Catalana, IPA: [rəˈpubːlikə kətəˈlanə]) was a short-lived independent state under French protection proclaimed in 1641 by the States-General of Catalonia led by Pau Claris, during the Reaper's War.The States-General of Catalonia, headed by the President of the Deputation of the General of Catalonia (or Generalitat) Pau Claris, proclaimed the Catalan Republic on January 17, 1641. On January 23, 1641, the Braços Generals led by Pau Claris proclaimed Louis XIII of France as Count of Barcelona, putting the Principality of Catalonia under French sovereignty. Louis XIII was succeeded upon his death in 1643 by Louis XIV (the 'Sun King'), who remained Count of Barcelona until 1652, when Catalonia was reincorporated into the Spanish Monarchy.

Concino Concini

Concino Concini, 1st Marquis d'Ancre (c1575 – 24 April 1617), was an Italian politician, best known for being a minister of Louis XIII of France, as the favourite of Louis's mother, Marie de Medici, Queen of France.

Day of the Dupes

Day of the Dupes (in French: la journée des Dupes) is the name given to a day in November 1630 on which the enemies of Cardinal Richelieu mistakenly believed that they had succeeded in persuading Louis XIII, King of France to dismiss Richelieu from power. The actual day is thought to have been on the 10th, 11th, or 12th of the month.

In November 1630, the political relations between the cardinal and the queen mother, the Italian-born Marie de' Medici, reached a crisis. In a stormy scene on 10 November, in the Luxembourg Palace, Marie de' Medici and the cardinal met in the king's presence. The queen mother demanded the cardinal's dismissal, declaring that the king had to choose between him and her.No immediate decision came from this conference, but the king retired to his hunting lodge in Versailles. Richelieu seems to have believed that his political career was over, but the intercession of influential friends saved the minister from impending disgrace. While the apartments of the Luxembourg Palace were thronged by the cardinal's enemies celebrating his fall, Richelieu followed the king to Versailles, where the monarch assured him of continued support. Marie eventually exiled herself to Compiègne.The "Day of the Dupes," as this event was called, marks the complete restoration of the cardinal to royal favor.

Descendants of Louis XIII of France

Descendants of Louis XIII of France may refer to:

Descendants of Louis XIV of France

Descendants of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans

Gaston, Duke of Orléans

Gaston, Duke of Orléans (24 April 1608 – 2 February 1660), was the third son of King Henry IV of France and his wife Marie de' Medici. As a son of the king, he was born a Fils de France. He later acquired the title Duke of Orléans, by which he was generally known during his adulthood. As the eldest surviving brother of King Louis XIII, he was known at court by the traditional honorific Monsieur.

Louis, Count of Soissons

Louis de Bourbon (1 May 1604 – 6 July 1641) was Count of Soissons. He was the son of Charles de Bourbon, Count of Soissons and Anne de Montafié. He was the second cousin of King Louis XIII of France and held the rank of prince of the blood.

Louis XIII (cognac)

Louis XIII (French pronunciation: ​[lwi tʁɛz]) is a cognac produced by Rémy Martin, a company headquartered in Cognac, France, and owned by the Rémy Cointreau Group. The name was chosen as a tribute to King Louis XIII of France, the reigning monarch when the Rémy Martin family settled in the Cognac region. He was the first monarch to recognize cognac as a category in its own right in the world of eaux-de-vie.Louis XIII cognac is produced in the Grande Champagne region of Cognac, from the growing of the grapes to the distillation and aging of the eaux-de-vie. The final blend is composed of up to 1,200 individual eaux-de-vie from Grande Champagne vineyards, ranging from at least 40 years to 100 years in age.

Louis XIII style

The Louis XIII style or Louis Treize was a fashion in French art and architecture, especially affecting the visual and decorative arts. Its distinctness as a period in the history of French art has much to do with the regency under which Louis XIII began his reign (1610–1643). His mother and regent, Marie de' Medici, imported mannerism from her homeland of Italy and the influence of Italian art was to be strongly felt for several decades.

Louis XIII-style painting was influenced from the north, through Flemish and Dutch Baroque, and from the south, through Italian mannerism and early Baroque. Schools developed around Caravaggio and Peter Paul Rubens. Among the French painters who blended Italian mannerism with a love of genre scenes were Georges de La Tour, Simon Vouet, and the Le Nain brothers. The influence of the painters on subsequent generations, however, was minimised by the rise of classicism under Nicolas Poussin and his followers.

Louis XIII architecture was equally influenced by Italian styles. The greatest French architect of the era, Salomon de Brosse, designed the Palais du Luxembourg for Marie de' Medici. De Brosse began a tradition of classicism in architecture that was continued by Jacques Lemercier, who completed the Palais and whose own most famous work of the Louis XIII period is the chapel of the Sorbonne (1635). Under the next generation of architects, French Baroque would take an even greater classical shift.

Furniture of the period was typically large and austere.

Marie de' Medici

Marie de' Medici (French: Marie de Médicis, Italian: Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon. She was a member of the wealthy and powerful House of Medici. Following the assassination of her husband in 1610, which occurred the day after her coronation, she acted as regent for her son, King Louis XIII of France, until 1617, when he came of age. She was noted for her ceaseless political intrigues at the French court and extensive artistic patronage.

Peace of Alès

The Peace of Alais, also known as the Edict of Alès or the Edict of Grace, was a treaty negotiated by Cardinal Richelieu with Huguenot leaders and signed by King Louis XIII of France on 28 June 1629. It confirmed the basic principles of the Edict of Nantes, but differed in that it contained additional clauses, stating that the Huguenots no longer had political rights and further demanding they relinquish all cities and fortresses immediately. It ended the religious warring while granting the Huguenots amnesty and guaranteeing tolerance for the group. The Peace did not last permanently; Louis XIV resumed persecution of Protestants, culminating in a revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685.

Saint Sebastian Tended by Saint Irene (Georges de La Tour, Louvre)

Saint Sebastian Tended by Saint Irene is a c.1649 painting by Georges de La Tour. It is the largest known painting by the artist and his most ambitious composition. It was rediscovered in 1945 in the parish church of Bois-Anzeray and acquired by the société des amis du Louvre for the Louvre in 1979 as inventory number R.F. 1979-53.A second version is held in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin - it was long held to be the original work until being compared with the Louvre work in 1972 at an exhibition of the artist's work at the Orangerie des Tuileries. The Berlin work is now considered to be a studio copy - Jacques Thuillier has attributed it to Georges' son Étienne de La Tour with retouching by Georges.It is thought the painter sent the first version to Charles IV of Lorraine (1604-1675) in 1633, before painting a second version for Louis XIII of France, who liked it so much that he hung it alone in a room. A third version was also painted for the governor of Nancy in 1649. There are copies in Ruan, the chapel in Bois-Anzeray and the church in Broglie.

Siege of Alès

The Siege of Alès was undertaken by Louis XIII of France, and the city captured on 17 June 1629.

Siege of Montauban

The Siege of Montauban (French: Siège de Montauban) was a siege accomplished by the young French king Louis XIII from August to November 1621, against the Protestant stronghold of Montauban. This siege followed the Siege of Saint-Jean-d'Angély, in which Louis XIII had succeeded against Rohan's brother Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise.Despite a strength of about 25,000 men, Louis XIII was unable to capture the city of Montauban, and he had to raise the siege and abandon after 2 months. After a lull, Louis XIII resumed his campaign with the Siege of Montpellier, which ended in stalemate, leading to the 1622 Peace of Montpellier, which temporarily confirmed the right of the Huguenots in France.The city would be finally captured in 1629, in the Redition of Montauban.

Siege of Montpellier

The Siege of Montpellier was a siege of the Huguenot city of Montpellier by the Catholic forces of Louis XIII of France, from August to October 1622. It was part of the Huguenot rebellions.

Siege of Privas

The Siege of Privas was undertaken by Louis XIII of France from 14 May 1629, and the city of Privas was captured on 28 May 1629. It was one of the last events of the Huguenot rebellions (1621-1629).

The Vow of Louis XIII

The Vow of Louis XIII is an 1824 painting by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, now in Montauban Cathedral. It shows a vow to the Virgin Mary by Louis XIII of France. It is an oil painting on canvas measuring 421 x 262 cm.

It was commissioned by France's Ministry of Interior in August 1820 for the cathedral of Notre-Dame in Montauban. The subject of the painting was to be Louis XIII's vow in 1638 to consecrate his kingdom to the Virgin in Her Assumption. When Ingres accepted the commission, he was living in Florence. Although he had experienced success as a portrait painter, his ambition was to establish a reputation in the more prestigious genre of history painting. He went to work with his usual diligence, and spent four years bringing the large canvas to completion.

He travelled to Paris with it in October 1824. It was a critical success at that year's Salon and was later seen as representing Ingres as the main representative of classicism, in opposition to the romanticism represented at the same Salon by The Massacre at Chios by Delacroix. Conceived in a Raphaelesque style relatively free of the archaisms for which he had been reproached in the past, it marked Ingres' grand return to the Paris art world after his years in Rome and Florence, and his abandonment of a more daring style. Ingres found himself celebrated throughout France. In January 1825 he was awarded the Cross of the Légion d'honneur by Charles X, and in June 1825 he was elected to the Institute.

Treaty of Montpellier

The Treaty of Montpellier (or the Peace of Montpellier) was signed in Montpellier on 18 October 1622 between King Louis XIII of France and Duke Henry II of Rohan. The treaty followed the Siege of Montpellier and ended hostilities between French royalists and the Huguenots. Moreover, it confirmed the tenets of the Edict of Nantes, pardoned Henry II, and allowed the Huguenots to maintain their numerous forts and garrisons.

Église Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis

Église Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis is a church on rue Saint-Antoine in the Marais quarter of Paris. The present building was constructed from 1627 to 1641 by the Jesuit architects Étienne Martellange and François Derand, on the orders of Louis XIII of France. It gives its name to Place Saint-Paul and its nearest Metro station, Saint-Paul.

Next door to the church is the Lycée Charlemagne, also founded by the Jesuits.

Ancestors of Louis XIII of France
8. Charles, Duke of Vendôme[27]
4. Antoine of Navarre[25]
9. Françoise of Alençon[27]
2. Henry IV of France
10. Henry II of Navarre[28]
5. Jeanne III of Navarre[25]
11. Marguerite of Angoulême[28]
1. Louis XIII of France
12. Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany[29]
6. Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany[26]
13. Eleanor of Toledo[29]
3. Marie de' Medici
14. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor[30]
7. Joanna of Austria[26]
15. Anne of Bohemia and Hungary[30]
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