Louis Vuitton

Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton or shortened to LV, is a France fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, sunglasses and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world's leading international fashion houses; it sells its products through standalone boutiques, lease departments in high-end department stores, and through the e-commerce section of its website.[5][6] For six consecutive years (2006–2012), Louis Vuitton was named the world's most valuable luxury brand. Its 2012 valuation was US$25.9 billion.[7] The 2013 valuation of the brand was US$28.4 billion with revenue of US$9.4 billion.[8] The company operates in 50 countries with more than 460 stores worldwide.[9]

Louis Vuitton or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton Photography by david adam kess, madrid 2016
Louis Vuitton's "LV" logo
Louis Vuitton
Division
IndustryFashion
Founded1854
FounderLouis Vuitton
Headquarters,
Key people
Michael Burke
(Chairman & CEO)[1]
Nicolas Ghesquière
Virgil Abloh[2]
(Creative Directors)
ProductsLuxury goods
RevenueIncrease US$9.9 billion (2017)[3]
Number of employees
121,289 (2014)[4]
ParentLVMH
Websitewww.louisvuitton.com
Louis Vuitton, Champs-Elysées 2
Louis Vuitton at Champs-Elysées

History

Founding to World War II

The Louis Vuitton label was founded by Vuitton in 1854 on Rue Neuve des Capucines in Paris, France.[10] Louis Vuitton had observed that the HJ Cave Osilite[11] trunk could be easily stacked. In 1858, Vuitton introduced his flat-topped trunks with trianon canvas, making them lightweight and airtight.[10] Before the introduction of Vuitton's trunks, rounded-top trunks were used, generally to promote water runoff, and thus could not be stacked. It was Vuitton's gray Trianon canvas flat trunk that allowed the ability to stack with ease for voyages. Many other luggage makers imitated LV's style and design.[6]

The company participated in the 1867 Universal Exhibition in Paris.[10] In 1871, Ōyama Iwao became the first recorded Japanese customer, ordering a set of luggage while in Paris as a military observer during the Franco-Prussian War.[12] To protect against the duplication of his look, Vuitton changed the Trianon design to a beige and brown stripes design in 1876.[6] By 1885, the company opened its first store in London on Oxford Street.[10] Soon thereafter, due to the continuing imitation of his look, in 1888, Vuitton created the Damier Canvas pattern, which bore a logo that reads "marque L. Vuitton déposée", which translates into "L. Vuitton registered trademark". In 1892, Louis Vuitton died, and the company's management passed to his son.[6][10]

Advertisement for Louis Vuitton July 1898
Ad for Louis Vuitton luggage, 1898

After the death of his father, Georges Vuitton began a campaign to build the company into a worldwide corporation, exhibiting the company's products at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. In 1896, the company launched the signature Monogram Canvas and made the worldwide patents on it.[6][10] Its graphic symbols, including quatrefoils and flowers (as well as the LV monogram), were based on the trend of using Japanese Mon designs in the late Victorian era.[13] The patents later proved to be successful in stopping counterfeiting. In this same year, Georges traveled to the United States, where he toured cities such as New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, selling Vuitton products. In 1901, the Louis Vuitton Company introduced the Steamer Bag, a smaller piece of luggage designed to be kept inside Vuitton luggage trunks.

By 1913, the Louis Vuitton Building opened on the Champs-Elysees. It was the largest travel-goods store in the world at the time. Stores also opened in New York, Bombay, Washington, London, Alexandria, and Buenos Aires as World War I began. Afterwards, in 1930, the Keepall bag was introduced. During 1932, LV introduced the Noé bag. This bag was originally made for champagne vintners to transport bottles. Soon thereafter, the Louis Vuitton Speedy bag was introduced (both are still manufactured today).[10] In 1936 Georges Vuitton died, and his son, Gaston-Louis Vuitton, assumed control of the company.[10]

Collaboration

During World War II, Louis Vuitton collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France. The French book Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, authored by French journalist Stephanie Bonvicini and published by Paris-based Editions Fayard[14] tells how members of the Vuitton family actively aided the puppet government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain and increased their wealth from their business affairs with the Germans. The family set up a factory dedicated to producing artifacts glorifying Pétain, including more than 2,500 busts.

Caroline Babulle, a spokeswoman for the publisher, Fayard, said: "They have not contested anything in the book, but they are trying to bury it by pretending it doesn't exist."[15] Responding to the book's release in 2004, a spokesman for LVMH said: "This is ancient history. The book covers a period when it was family-run and long before it became part of LVMH. We are diverse, tolerant and all the things a modern company should be."[15] An LVMH spokesman told the satirical magazine Le Canard Enchaîné: "We don't deny the facts, but regrettably the author has exaggerated the Vichy episode. We haven't put any pressure on anyone. If the journalists want to censor themselves, then that suits us fine." That publication was the only French periodical to mention the book, LVMH is the country's biggest advertiser in the press.[15]

1945 through 2000

Louis Vuitton official store in Stasikratous street in Nicosia Republic of Cyprus
Louis Vuitton store in Nicosia, Cyprus
Via Nassa 31 Lugano 2
Louis Vuitton store in Lugano, Switzerland.
LouisVuittonYorkdale
Louis Vuitton store in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

During this period, Louis Vuitton began to incorporate leather into most of its products, which ranged from small purses and wallets to larger pieces of luggage. In order to broaden its line, the company revamped its signature Monogram Canvas in 1959[10] to make it more supple, allowing it to be used for purses, bags, and wallets. It is believed that in the 1920s, counterfeiting returned as a greater issue to continue on into the 21st century.[6] In 1966, the Papillon was launched (a cylindrical bag that is still popular today). By 1977 with annual revenue up to 70 million Francs ($14.27 million US$).[16] A year later, the label opened its first stores in Japan: in Tokyo and Osaka. In 1983, the company joined with America's Cup to form the Louis Vuitton Cup, a preliminary competition (known as an eliminatory regatta) for the yacht race. Louis Vuitton later expanded its presence in Asia with the opening of a store in Taipei, Taiwan in 1983 and Seoul, South Korea in 1984. In the following year, 1985, the Epi leather line was introduced.[10]

1987 saw the creation of LVMH.[10] Moët et Chandon and Hennessy, leading manufacturers of champagne and cognac, merged respectively with Louis Vuitton to form the luxury goods conglomerate. Profits for 1988 were reported to have been up by 49% more than in 1987. By 1989, Louis Vuitton came to operate 130 stores worldwide.[10] Entering the 1990s, Yves Carcelle was named president of LV, and in 1992, his brand opened its first Chinese location at the Palace Hotel in Beijing. Further products became introduced such as the Taiga leather line in 1993, and the literature collection of Voyager Avec... in 1994. In 1996, the celebration of the Centennial of the Monogram Canvas was held in seven cities worldwide.[10]

In 1997, Louis Vuitton made Marc Jacobs its Artistic Director.[17] In March of the following year, he designed and introduced the company's first "prêt-à-porter" line of clothing for men and women. Also in this year products introduced included the Monogram Vernis line, the LV scrapbooks, and the Louis Vuitton City Guide.[10]

The last events in the 20th century were the release of the mini monogram line in 1999, the opening of the first store in Africa in Marrakech, Morocco, in 2000, and finally, the auction at the International Film Festival in Venice, Italy, where the vanity case "amfAR" designed by Sharon Stone was sold, with the proceeds going to the Foundation for AIDS Research (also in 2000).[10]

2001 to 2011

Louis Vuitton Fifth Avenue New York City
The store on Manhattan's Fifth Avenue.
Louis Vuitton, Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
A Louis Vuitton boutique in the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, in Milan, Italy.
USA-NYC-5th Avenue Louis Vuitton0
5th Avenue, NYC, 2013
Louis Vuitton The Landmark Hong Kong
A Louis Vuitton store in Central, Hong Kong.
Lighted polyhedral building Louis Vuitton in Singapore
Louis Vuitton store in Singapore.
Crystals - Exterior East - 2010-03-06
A Louis Vuitton store in Las Vegas.
Louis Vuitton VIP room in Vienna
Louis Vuitton VIP room in Vienna for ordering custom designed goods.

By 2001, Stephen Sprouse, in collaboration with Marc Jacobs, designed a limited-edition line of Vuitton bags[10] that featured graffiti written over the monogram pattern. The graffiti read Louis Vuitton and, on certain bags, the name of the bag (such as Keepall and Speedy). Certain pieces, which featured the graffiti without the Monogram Canvas background, were only available on Louis Vuitton's V.I.P. customer list. Jacobs also created the charm bracelet, the first ever piece of jewelry from LV, within the same year.[10]

In 2002, the Tambour watch collection was introduced.[10] During this year, the LV building in Tokyo's Ginza district was opened, and the brand collaborated with Bob Wilson for its Christmas windows scenography. In 2003, Takashi Murakami,[10] in collaboration with Marc Jacobs, masterminded the new Monogram Multicolore canvas range of handbags and accessories. This range included the monograms of the standard Monogram Canvas but in 33 different colors on either a white or black background. (The classic canvas features gold monograms on a brown background.) Murakami also created the Cherry Blossom pattern, in which smiling cartoon faces in the middle of pink and yellow flowers were sporadically placed atop the Monogram Canvas. This pattern appeared on a limited number of pieces. The production of this limited-edition run was discontinued in June 2003. Within 2003, the stores in Moscow, Russia and in New Delhi, India were opened, the Utah and Suhali leather lines were released, and the 20th anniversary of the LV Cup was held.[10]

Louis-Vuitton-Paris
Louis Vuitton situated on the famous Champs-Elysées.
Night Ekaterinburg Louis Vuitton
The store in Yekaterinburg (Russia)
Louis Vuitton, Briggate (20th February 2013)
Louis Vuitton on Briggate, Leeds.

In 2004, Louis Vuitton celebrated its 150th anniversary. The brand also inaugurated stores in New York City (on Fifth Avenue), São Paulo, Mexico City, Cancun and Johannesburg. It also opened its first global store in Shanghai. By 2005, Louis Vuitton reopened its Champs-Élysées store in Paris designed by the American Architect Eric Carlson and released the Speedy watch collection. In 2006, LV held the inauguration of the Espace Louis Vuitton on its 7th floor.[10] In 2008, Louis Vuitton released the Damier Graphite canvas. The canvas features the classic Damier pattern but in black and grey, giving it a masculine look and urban feel. Also in 2008, Pharrell Williams co-designed a series of jewelry ("Blason") and glasses for Louis Vuitton.[18]

In 2010, Louis Vuitton opened what it described as their most luxurious store in London.[19]

In early 2011, Louis Vuitton hired Kim Jones as its "Men Ready-to-Wear Studio and Style Director". He became the lead designer of menswear while working under the company-wide artistic directorship of Marc Jacobs.[20]

On 17 September 2011, the company opened its Louis Vuitton Island Maison at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore.[21]

2012 to present

As of September 2013, the company hired Darren Spaziani to lead its accessory collection.[22]

On 4 November 2013, the company confirmed that Nicolas Ghesquière had been hired to replace Marc Jacobs as artistic director of women's collections. Ghesquière's first line for the company was shown in Paris in March 2014.[23]

On 7 April 2014, Edouard Schneider became the head of press and public relations at Louis Vuitton under Frédéric Winckler, who is Vuitton's communications and events director.[24]

On 26 March 2018, Virgil Abloh was named artistic director of men's wear—he is the label's first African-American artistic director and one of few black designers of a major European fashion house.[25] His debut show was held at the 2018 Paris Men's Fashion Week and staged in the historical Palais-Royal gardens' courtyard.[26][27]

Brand

The Louis Vuitton brand and the LV monogram are among the world's most valuable brands.[28] According to a Millward Brown 2010 study, Louis Vuitton was then the world's 19th most valuable brand, and was estimated to be worth over US$19 billion.[29] For six consecutive years, Louis Vuitton was number one of the 10 most powerful brands list published by the Millward Brown Optimor's 2011 BrandZ study with value of $24.3 billion. It was more than double the value of the second ranking brand.[30]

Louis Vuitton wallet
A Louis Vuitton "Sarah Wallet"

Louis Vuitton is one of the most counterfeited brands in the fashion world due to its image as a status symbol.[28] Ironically, the signature Monogram Canvas was created to prevent counterfeiting.[31] In 2004, Louis Vuitton fakes accounted for 18% of counterfeit accessories seized in the European Union.[32]

The company actively seeks to eradicate counterfeiting, and employs a team of lawyers and special investigation agencies to pursue offenders through the courts worldwide. The company allocates approximately half of its communications budget to counteract counterfeiting of its goods.[6] LVMH, Vuitton's parent company, has described "Some 60 people at various levels of responsibility working full-time on anti-counterfeiting in collaboration with a wide network of outside investigators and a team of lawyers."[33] The company closely controls the distribution of its products.[6] Until the 1980s, Vuitton products were widely sold in department stores, such as Neiman Marcus and Saks Fifth Avenue. Today, Vuitton products are primarily available at company-owned Louis Vuitton boutiques,[6] with a small number of exceptions noted in upscale shopping districts or inside luxury department stores. Company boutiques within department stores operate independently, and are operated by company managers and employees. LV has an official online store, through its main website.[34]

In 2006, the company filed a lawsuit against Colorado-based Manifest Information Services Ltd. (aka Manifest Hostmaster and Manifest.com), through WIPO, in order to compel Manifest transfer the domain name LV.com to Louis Vuitton; the legal action failed and the domain was subsequently acquired by Liverpool Victoria (LV=), England's largest fraternal insurance company.[35]

Several high-profile rap music artists have mentioned the company in song lyrics, most notably: Bohemia, Kanye West, Juicy J, and Wiz Khalifa.[36][37]

Products

HK CH LV Landmark 60421
Louis Vuitton products
Louis vuitton shop window, Galleria, Houston
Louis Vuitton shopwindow (2019) Houston, United States

Since the 19th century, Louis Vuitton trunks have been made by hand.[6] Contemporary Fashion gives a preview of the creation of the LV trunks: "The craftsmen line up the leather and canvas, tapping in the tiny nails one by one and securing the five-letter solid pick-proof brass locks with an individual handmade key, designed to allow the traveler to have only one key for all of his or her luggage. The wooden frames of each trunk are made of 30-year-old poplar that has been allowed to dry for at least four years. Each trunk has a serial number and can take up to 60 hours to make, and a suitcase as many as 15 hours."[6]

Iconic bags of Louis Vuitton include the Speedy bag and Neverfull bags. Each season Louis Vuitton produces rare, limited edition bags that are generally only available by reservation through larger Louis Vuitton stores.

Many of the company's products utilize the brown Damier and Monogram Canvas materials, both of which were first used in the late 19th century. All of the company's products exhibit the eponymous LV initials. The company markets its product through its own stores located throughout the world, which allows it to control product quality and pricing. It also allows LV to prevent counterfeit products entering its distribution channels. In addition, the company distributes its products through the company's own website, LouisVuitton.com.[6]

Advertising campaigns

The Louis Vuitton company cultivates a celebrity following and has featured famous models, musicians and actors, such as Jennifer Lopez, Keith Richards, Madonna, Sean Connery, Matthias Schoenaerts, Angelina Jolie, Gisele Bündchen, Mikhail Gorbachev, and David Bowie in its marketing campaigns.[38]

The company commonly uses print ads in magazines and billboards in cosmopolitan cities. Louis Vuitton Posters by Razzia were popular in the 1980s. It previously relied on selected press for its advertising campaigns (frequently involving prestigious stars like Steffi Graf, Andre Agassi and Catherine Deneuve) shot by Annie Leibovitz. However, Antoine Arnault, director of the communication department, has recently decided to enter the world of television and cinema: The commercial (90 seconds) is exploring the theme "Where will life take you?" and is translated into 13 different languages. This is the first Vuitton commercial ad ever and was directed by renowned French ad director Bruno Aveillan.[39]

In 2002, president and CEO of LVMH Watches Daniel Lalonde (later, global CEO for LVMH brands Moët and Dom Pérignon) recruited celebrities, such as Maria Sharapova, Brad Pitt, Tiger Woods, and Uma Thurman, for advertising campaigns photographed by Patrick Demarchelier. Ads featuring Woods reportedly led to a 30% boost in sales, resulting in TAG Heuer being rated as the No. 2 luxury watch brand in America by 2005.[40]

Special collaborations

Louis Vuitton has had many collaborations with prominent artists and designers. Takashi Murakami created special edition collections, such as the Monogramouflage Collection, which debuted in 2008, and a previous collection, released in 2002, which featured some of his artwork. The creations were "painted" over the traditional monogram canvas, which brought a radical new twist to the timeless design. Marc Jacobs also commemorated a previous collaboration, designed by Stephen Sprouse. This collection, originally released in 2001, featured bold print that looked like graffiti, over the traditional canvas. The recreation of the collab used the same idea, but gave it a new twist using bold colors, like hot pink, neon green, and orange, that also glow in the dark. This recreated version of the graffiti collection was finally released in 2009 to much fanfare. Louis Vuitton also collaborated with Kanye West in 2009, designing his own limited run of shoes. Most recently, Jacobs teamed up with Yayoi Kusama to create the "Infinitely Kusama" Collection, which features bold colors of dots over the vernis leather or the monogram canvas. These pieces come in black with white dots, red with white dots, and yellow with black dots. It was released in July 2012. Louis Vuitton Collaborated in their Spring-Summer 2016 collection advertising campaign. with the highly popular japanese Video game Franchise Final Fantasy and their Games Main Heroin called Lighting from Final Fantasy 13. In 2017 Louis Vuitton collaborated with American streetwear brand Supreme (brand), releasing products in various pop-up stores in major cities around the world. Items feature the Louis Vuitton monogram canvas mixed with the Supreme box-logo design. Also in 2017, Louis Vuitton collaborated with artist Jeff Koons for two collections in an effort to "further [explore] the intersection of fashion and art."[41]

Controversy and disputes

Britney Spears video

On 19 November 2007 Louis Vuitton, in further efforts to prevent counterfeiting, successfully sued Britney Spears for violating anti-counterfeiting laws. A part of the music video for the song "Do Somethin'" shows fingers tapping on the dashboard of a hot pink Hummer with what looks like Louis Vuitton's "Cherry Blossom" design bearing the LV logo. Britney Spears herself was not found liable, but a civil court in Paris ordered Sony BMG and MTV Online to stop showing the video. They were also fined €80,000 to each group. An anonymous spokesperson for LVMH stated that the video constituted an "attack" on Louis Vuitton's brands and its luxury image.[42]

"Simple Living"

Simpleliving lg
"Simple Living" image (left) and Vuitton's Audra bag, created by Takashi Murakami (right)

On 13 February 2007, Louis Vuitton sent a cease-and-desist order to Danish art student Nadia Plesner for using an image of a bag that allegedly infringed Louis Vuitton's intellectual property rights. Plesner had created a satirical illustration, "Simple Living", depicting a malnourished child holding a designer dog and a designer bag, and used it on T-shirts and posters to raise funds for the charity "Divest for Darfur".[43] On 25 March, the court ruled in favour of LV that the image was a clear infringement of copyright.[44] Despite the ruling, Plesner continued to use the image, arguing artistic freedom, and posted copies of the cease-and-desist order on her website. On 15 April 2008, Louis Vuitton notified Plesner of the lawsuit being brought against her. Louis Vuitton demanded $7,500 (€5,000) for each day Plesner continues to sell the "Simple Living" products, $7,500 for each day the original cease-and-desist letter is published on her website and $7,500 a day for using the name "Louis Vuitton" on her website, plus legal and enforcement costs.[45]

An LVMH spokeswoman interviewed by New York Magazine said that Louis Vuitton were forced to take legal action when Plesner did not respond to their original request to remove the contested image, nor to the subsequent cease-and-desist order.[44] In October 2008, Louis Vuitton declared that the company had dropped its lawsuit[46] but have since reopened it along with a new €205,000 claim due to a painting by the same artist.[47] In May 2011, the court in The Hague found in favour of Plesner's right to freedom of expression.[48]

Craftsmen advertisements

In May 2010, the British Advertising Standards Authority banned two of the company's advertising spots, depicting craftsmen at work on its products, for being in breach of its 'Truthfulness clause'. The ASA said that the evidence supplied by Louis Vuitton fell short of what was needed to prove the products were made by hand. The ASA said that the two adverts would lead consumers to interpret that Louis Vuitton bags and wallets were almost entirely hand-crafted when they were predominantly created by machine.[49]

The ASA stated: 'We noted that we had not seen documentation that detailed the entire production process for Louis Vuitton products or that showed the proportion of their manufacture that was carried out by hand or by machine. Vuitton denied that their production was automated, arguing that over 100 stages were involved in the making of each bag; they, however, admitted that sewing machines had been used in production process.'[49]

Checker-pattern chair in Hong Kong barber shop

In February 2013, Louis Vuitton issued a complaint against the owner of a barber shop in Hong Kong for allegedly violating its intellectual property rights in relation to a stool using fabric coating that is similar to the checker pattern in Louis Vuitton's handbags. According to the Hong Kong-based Apple Daily newspaper, the company was seeking a compensation of HK$25,000 (around US$3,200) and the publication of an apology in the form of newspaper advertisement. The owner had sourced basic furniture and equipment from the PRC for starting his shop. Facing this accusation, the barbershop owner said he had no means to tackle Louis Vuitton and may have to close down his shop which has been operating for one year in a remote local district on Hong Kong Island. The controversy had caused tremendous concern on Hong Kong news forums and viral protest on Facebook pages.[50]

S-Lock copyright in Hong Kong

In another legal warning dated back to September 2012, Louis Vuitton had filed complaints against two small retail shops in Hong Kong for allegedly violating its intellectual property rights in relation to the "S-Lock" design for Louis Vuitton's handbags. According to the Hong Kong-based Apple Daily newspaper, the company was seeking compensation of HK$40,000 (around $US 5,000) and a public apology in the newspaper. The shopkeeper refused to pay, and Louis Vuitton demanded further damages up to HK$150,000 in February 2013. The shop claimed to have sourced two such handbags from Japan at around HK$120, which it retailed at HK$220. In the case of the other small shop selling two handbags, they argued with Louis Vuitton that the designs were different, and got LV's demand reduced to HK$5,000 (around US$640). The owner refused to pay and said they were ready to face LV in court. [51]

Alleged mistreatment of models

In May 2017, media reported on alleged mistreatment of Louis Vuitton exclusive model Ulrikke Høyer who was to appear on a Louis Vuitton cruise show in Kyoto. The 20-year-old model, who, on arrival, measured 91.5 cm (36 in) around her hips, was told she was "too bloated" and "too big" for her ensemble and instructed to drink only water for 24 hours. The model alleged that she was only informed via her agent in France, who received an email including the text "[she] came yesterday in Tokyo to do her final fitting, and she doesn't fit the exact same dress anymore. She has a belly, her face is more puffy [sic] and the back of her dress is open and you can see it is tight." Despite following the instructions, she was eventually excluded from the show. The model stated that she has "received hundreds of messages from models" who have experienced similar mistreatment from the same Louis Vuitton casting director. The casting director denied the allegations and explained the instructions regarding intake of water as a misunderstanding, that the model was instructed that her intake of liquids was to be limited to water.[52][53]

See also

References

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1983 Louis Vuitton Cup

The 1983 Louis Vuitton Cup was held in Newport, Rhode Island, United States in 1983. The winner, Australia II, went on to challenge for the 1983 America's Cup.

1987 Louis Vuitton Cup

The 2nd Louis Vuitton Cup was held in Fremantle, Australia in 1987. The winner, Stars & Stripes, went on to challenge for and win the 1987 America's Cup.

1992 Louis Vuitton Cup

The 3rd Louis Vuitton Cup was held in San Diego, United States in 1992. The winner, Il Moro di Venezia, went on to challenge for the 1992 America's Cup.

1995 Louis Vuitton Cup

The 4th Louis Vuitton Cup was held in San Diego, United States in 1995. The winner, Team New Zealand, went on to challenge for and win the 1995 America's Cup.

2000 Louis Vuitton Cup

The 5th Louis Vuitton Cup was held in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2000. The winner, Prada Challenge, went on to challenge for the 2000 America's Cup. It was the first time in the competition's history that there would not be an American challenger or defender.

2003 Louis Vuitton Cup

The 6th Louis Vuitton Cup was held in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2003. The winner, Alinghi, went on to challenge for and win the 2003 America's Cup.

2013 Louis Vuitton Cup

The 8th Louis Vuitton Cup was held during July and August 2013, in San Francisco, California, United States of America. The three contenders were Artemis Racing (Sweden), Emirates Team New Zealand (New Zealand), and Luna Rossa Challenge (Italy). After a preliminary round robin to determine seeding, Artemis Racing was eliminated in the semi-final round by Luna Rossa Challenge by four races to none. In the final, Emirates Team New Zealand beat Luna Rossa Challenge by seven races to one, and went on to challenge Oracle Team USA for the 2013 America's Cup.

2017 Louis Vuitton Challenger’s Trophy

The 2017 Louis Vuitton Challenger’s Trophy (officially, the Trophy was given to the winner of the 2017 Louis Vuitton America’s Cup Challenger Playoffs) was a sailing competition held to determine the challenger in the 2017 America's Cup. The races ran from 5 to 12 June 2017 in Bermuda and were preceded by the 2015–16 America's Cup World Series. It was won by Emirates Team New Zealand who defeated Artemis Racing in the final. The races were conducted using AC50 yachts, a new class of 50 feet (15 m) hydrofoiling wingsail catamarans, larger than the AC45F yachts used in the world series and smaller than the AC72 yachts used in 2013. Emirates Team New Zealand went on to compete with defending champions Oracle Team USA in the 2017 America's Cup match.

The tournament was an expansion of the Louis Vuitton Cup format, with the defender competing in the first round robin stage.

Gavin Brady

Gavin Brady (born 1 November 1973 in Timaru) is a New Zealand sailor who has competed in the Summer Olympics and multiple America's Cups.

After sailing the sponsor boat for New Zealand Challenge at the 1992 Louis Vuitton Cup, Brady was the tactician for Tag Heuer Challenge at the 1995 Louis Vuitton Cup. He then sailed the 1997–98 Whitbread Round the World Race as the helmsman on Chessie Racing.Brady was third at the 1999 ISAF Open Match Racing World Championship. He then joined AmericaOne for the 2000 Louis Vuitton Cup.

In 1999 he was helming inshore races in the winning Dutch |Champagne Mumm Admiral's Cup Team.

Alongside Jamie Gale, Brady competed at the 2000 Star World Championships and finished 7th. Gale and Brady then sailed for New Zealand at the 2000 Summer Olympics. They placed ninth in the Star class. He competed in the 2001 Star World Championships with George Iverson and the pair finished second. He then competed in his second Round the World Race, sailing on Team SEB during the 2001–02 Volvo Ocean Race.

Brady sailed for Luna Rossa Challenge at the 2003 Louis Vuitton Cup. Brady was the tactician for Oracle Racing at the 2007 Louis Vuitton Cup. In 2009 he sailed for the Greek Challenge at the Louis Vuitton Pacific Series before returning to Oracle for the Louis Vuitton Trophy Nice Côte d’Azur. In 2010 he sailed in the Louis Vuitton Trophy Auckland and Louis Vuitton Trophy La Maddalena for Mascalzone Latino.He is also a four time winner of the Congressional Cup.

LVMH

LVMH Moët Hennessy – Louis Vuitton SE (French pronunciation: ​[moɛt hɛnɛsi lwi vɥitɔ̃]), also known as LVMH, is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate headquartered in Paris. The company was formed in 1987 under the merger of fashion house Louis Vuitton with Moët Hennessy, a company formed after the 1971 merger between the champagne producer Moët & Chandon and Hennessy, the cognac manufacturer. It controls around 60 subsidiaries that each manage a small number of prestigious brands. The subsidiaries are often managed independently. The oldest of the LVMH brands is wine producer Château d'Yquem, which dates its origins back to 1593.Christian Dior SE is the main holding company of LVMH, owning 40.9% of its shares, and 59.01% of its voting rights. Bernard Arnault, majority shareholder of Dior, is Chairman and CEO of both companies. In 2017, Arnault purchased all the remaining Christian Dior shares in a reported $13.1 billion buy out. The Dapifer reports that LVMH will gain ownership of Christian Dior haute couture, leather, both men's and women's ready-to-wear, and footwear lines.Arnault's successful integration of various famous aspirational brands into a single group has inspired other luxury companies to do the same. Thus, the French conglomerate Kering (formerly named PPR) and the Swiss-based Richemont have also created extended portfolios of luxury brands. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.

List of IACC regattas

The following is a list of regattas that involve IACC yachts. International America's Cup Class (IACC) yachts were designed for the America's Cup, with specifications released in 1989 after the debacle of the 1988 America's Cup. Since then they have been used for every America's Cup from 1989 until 2010 when the class was replaced, as well as a series of other events, such as the IACC Worlds and the Louis Vuitton regattas. The IACC class was not used during the 2010 America's Cup due to a disagreement between defender Alinghi and the challenger of record BMW Oracle. A deed of gift match was instead setup that favored newly designed multihulls, which was won by the trimaran design of BMW Oracle. Equalized IACC class yachts were being match raced through the Louis Vuitton Trophy through 2010. The IACC class was replaced at the 34th America's Cup in 2013, by the catamarans of the AC72 class, and in the America's Cup World Series (which replaced the Louis Vuitton Series) with AC45 class.

Currently 100 sail numbers have been issued to IACC yachts.

Louis Vuitton (designer)

Louis Vuitton (4 August 1821 – 27 February 1892) was a French fashion designer and businessman. He was the founder of the Louis Vuitton brand of leather goods now owned by LVMH. Prior to this, he had been appointed as trunk-maker to Empress Eugénie de Montijo, wife of Napoleon III.

Louis Vuitton Acts

The Louis Vuitton Acts were a series of International America's Cup Class regattas leading up to the 2007 Louis Vuitton Cup and 2007 America's Cup. Thirteen regattas or acts were held in total. These regattas involved all eleven challengers plus the holder of the America's Cup, Alinghi, and allowed the challengers to earn bonus points that went towards the Louis Vuitton Cup. The 2004-2007 period was the first time this format had been used in America's Cup racing.

Louis Vuitton Cup

The Louis Vuitton Cup was a yachting competition connected with the America's Cup. Since 1983 until 2017, the Louis Vuitton Cup was used as the selection series in any year where multiple yachting syndicates are vying for the right to become the challenger for the America's Cup. Starting in 2017, a new Louis Vuitton Challenger’s Trophy was created—it was presented, for the first time, to the winner of the 2017 Louis Vuitton America’s Cup Challenger Playoffs, the competition held to determine the challenger in that year's America's Cup.Five out of the nine winners of the Louis Vuitton Cup competitions subsequently won the America's Cup itself.

Louis Vuitton Foundation

The building of the Louis Vuitton Foundation (previously Louis Vuitton Foundation for Creation, in French "Fondation Louis-Vuitton pour la création"), started in 2006, is an art museum and cultural center sponsored by the group LVMH and its subsidiaries. It is run as a legally separate, nonprofit entity as part of LVMH's promotion of art and culture.The art museum opened in October 2014. The building was designed by the architect Frank Gehry, and is adjacent to the Jardin d'Acclimatation in the Bois de Boulogne of the 16th arrondissement of Paris. More than 1 400,000 people visited the Louis Vuitton Foundation in 2017. The actual cost of the museum, initially projected to be €100 million, was revealed in 2017 to have been nearly eight times that sum. A November 2018 report of the French Court of Audit indicated that from 2007 to 2014, the construction of the building constituted the main activity of the Foundation. Earlier that month, FRICC, a French anti-corruption group, filed a complaint in court in Paris accusing the Louis Vuitton Foundation of committing fraud and tax evasion in the construction of its museum. It claims that the nonprofit branch of the LVMH conglomerate was able to deduct about 60% of the cost of the museum from its taxes, and request tax refunds on some other costs. In all, FRICC claims that LVMH and the Louis Vuitton Foundation received nearly €603 million from the government toward the nearly €790 million construction costs of the museum.

Louis Vuitton Pacific Series

The Louis Vuitton Pacific Series was a match race regatta in America's Cup Class yachts in Auckland, New Zealand during January and February 2009. Racing started on 30 January. The Louis Vuitton Pacific Series was organised in association with the New Zealand Government, Emirates Team New Zealand, the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron, Auckland City and Skycity Entertainment Group. Bruno Troublé was Louis Vuitton's organizer and spokesperson for the Series.

The creation of the event was in response to the legal battle surrounding the America's Cup yachting competition at the time. Because of the long delays from the legal action, and the fact that the 33rd America's Cup became a Deed of Gift match without a defender or challenger selection series, the Louis Vuitton Pacific Series was established as a competition for other America's Cup racing syndicates.

Ten syndicates took part in the regatta, which used four International America's Cup Class boats loaned to the regatta by Team New Zealand and BMW Oracle Racing. This made participation more affordable for the teams.Described by its creators as a "fun and friendly event", the Louis Vuitton Pacific Series relied on the concept of loaned boats and quick and short races with an abbreviated schedule to pack 53 match races into a three-week period. Racing was held every day except on one scheduled lay day.

Team New Zealand won the Louis Vuitton Pacific Trophy, beating the Swiss Alinghi team 3-1 in the Cup Final.

In September 2009, this initial event was expanded into the four Louis Vuitton Trophy regattas, held between November 2009 and November 2010. These events continued to be relatively low cost, using a small number of loaned boats to keep syndicates active while waiting for the 8th Louis Vuitton Cup to determine the challenger for the 34th America's Cup.

Louis Vuitton Trophy

The Louis Vuitton Trophy was a series of four match race regattas in International America's Cup Class boats, held between November 2009 and November 2010.

The Louis Vuitton Trophy was organised after the success of the Louis Vuitton Pacific Series in Auckland and the continued legal battle surrounding the America's Cup yachting competition at the time. Because of the long delays from the legal action, and the fact that the 33rd America's Cup became a Deed of Gift match without a defender or challenger selection series, the Louis Vuitton Trophy series was established as a competition for other America's Cup racing syndicates.

Each of the four Trophy regattas featured between eight and ten teams in a round robin, with two teams advancing to a final to determine that regatta's Trophy winner. Five different syndicates lent their own International America's Cup Class boats for shared use in the regattas, making participation more affordable for the teams.Supported by Louis Vuitton, the World Sailing Team Association and a group of ten America's Cup syndicates from seven countries, these relatively low cost events running on loaned boats kept syndicates active while waiting for the 8th Louis Vuitton Cup to determine the challenger for the 34th America's Cup.

Luna Rossa Challenge

Luna Rossa Challenge (Italian: literally, Red Moon Challenge), originally named Prada Challenge, is an Italian sailboat racing syndicate first created to compete for the 2000 America's Cup. The team has won the Louis Vuitton Cup once, in 2000, and therefore was the Challenger for the final America's Cup race against the defending champion team, losing to Team New Zealand. It is sponsored by Prada, and from 2005 also by Telecom Italia.

On 26 June 2017, Grant Dalton announced Luna Rossa were the Challenger of Record for the 36th America's Cup. On 13 March 2018, Jimmy Spithill, skipper for the team in the 2007 Louis Vuitton Cup, announced he was returning to Luna Rossa Challenge. to compete for the Cup once again in 2021

Team New Zealand

Team New Zealand or TNZ is a sailing team based in Auckland, New Zealand representing the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron.

Team New Zealand became a household name in their home country following their consecutive wins in the America's Cup in 1995 and 2000, under the leadership of Sir Peter Blake, when becoming the first team from a country outside the United States to win and successfully defend the America's Cup. In 2017, skippered by Glenn Ashby, they went on to retake the America's Cup.

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