Louis Stark

Louis Stark (May 1, 1888 – May 17, 1954) was a Hungarian-born American journalist. He spent most of his career working as an economic reporter for The New York Times. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1942.

He is considered "a pioneer in the field of labor reporting."[1] Harry S. Truman called him the "dean of all reporters on the labor scene."[2]

Louis Stark
BornMay 1, 1888
Tibolddaróc, Hungary
DiedMay 17, 1954 (aged 66)
SubjectIndustrial relations, News reporting
Notable awardsPulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting
Jennie S. House (m. 1916–1954)
ChildrenArthur Stark

Early life and education

Stark was born on May 1, 1888, in Tibolddaróc, Hungary. He was the son of Adolph Stark and Rose (Kohn) Stark, and moved with them to the United States when he was two years old. The family settled in New York, where he attended public schools, DeWitt Clinton High School, and the New York Training School for Teachers.[2][3]


In 1909, Stark taught for six months at Public School 75 in New York. He then worked as a book agent for a New York publisher. From 1909 to 1913, he was employed in publishing and advertising. In 1911, he held a job in the advertising department of The New York Times, then "began to do occasional assignments" for Arthur Greaves, then that newspaper's city editor, who helped Stark find a job with the New York City News Association. After working as a general assignment reporter for the City News from 1913 to 1917, Stark went over to the Evening Sun in 1917, and to the Times later that same year. From 1917 to 1922, he was a staff member at the Times.

He became a labor specialist in 1924 at the suggestion of Carr V. Van Anda, then managing editor of the Times. From then until 1951, he reported on business, economic affairs, and labor news for The New York Times, based in that newspaper's Washington bureau. During his first two days in Washington he "came up with two important exclusives," including the founding of the National Recovery Administration. "He covered all topics that have a connection to employment and the workforce," notes one source, "including strikes, international conventions of labor organizations, and the organization of labor, as well as national legislation and its impact on labor. He had a reputation for his 'accuracy and impartiality.'"[2][3]

In a November 1935 article, "Cars and the Men," Stark reported on automobile workers in Detroit who had lost their jobs owing to increased mechanization.[4] He reported on the 1936 Akron rubber workers strike, on the activities of the National War Labor Board,[5] on the U.S. government's takeover of railroads in December 1943,[6] on the postwar decline of Henry A. Wallace's Progressive Party,[7] on postwar concerns about a potential alliance between "an extremely nationalistic Germany and Soviet Russia,"[8] on efforts in the late 1940s to purge Communists from unions,[9] and on efforts by Communist labor leaders to survive those efforts,[10] among hundreds of other topics.

Stark's Times obituary drew special attention to a series of articles he had written on the battles in the Harlan County, Kentucky, coal fields, and to the "virtual running account" he had provided to Times readers "of the union organizing campaigns, including the rise of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, the sit-down strikes and John L. Lewis." The Times also noted his coverage of the heresy trial of Bishop William Montgomery and of the Sacco-Vanzetti case. An account by Stark of the latter case appeared in a book by Times writers entitled "We Saw It Happen".[2]

Senator Paul Douglas, Democrat of Illinois, once said on the Senate floor: "I have never known Lou Stark to make a factual error in a story."[2]

In 1951, Stark left Washington to become an editorial writer for the Times in New York. At a dinner marking his farewell to Washington, Fred Perkins of the Scripps-Howard Newspaper Alliance said: "We regard Louis Stark as the pioneer of labor reporters. He has made the daily affairs of labor unions sought-for news among the newspapers."[11] When he departed Washington, former President Truman said in a statement: "I want you to know that you carry with you in your new position the respect and admiration of all those who have had the privilege of knowing you and of reading your careful reporting."[2] From 1951 to 1954, he was a member of the Times editorial department in New York.[3]

His last editorial, "Trade Union Democracy," written on the last day of his life, noted approvingly the decision of the Upholsterers International Union of North America to create an independent "court" that would allow any union member at risk of being punished by their unions "to put his case before an impartial nine-man board of jurists, educators and former public officials."[12]


He wrote Labor and the New Deal: Public Affairs Pamphlets, Number 2 (1936).[3]

Other writings

He also wrote for the annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Survey Graphic, The Atlantic Monthly, The Yale Review, The Nation's Business, The Outlook, and Current History.[2]

Honors and awards

In 1937, he received an Honorary Doctorate of Law from Reed College. "In these times of strife, when the reason of men is clouded by passion and counsel is darkened by warring opinions," read the citation, "the people of this country are deeply indebted to Mr. Stark for his accurate and fair recording of events in the field of industrial relations. ... he leads his readers from darkness to light. He has shown that facts may be interesting and far better than fiction and propaganda. Never seeking publicity for himself, he has brought distinction to a great newspaper by living up to his ideal of searching for and presenting the whole truth."[13]

In 1942, Stark won the Pulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting "for his distinguished reporting of important labor stories during the year."[3]

Personal life

Stark married Jennie S. House in 1916. They had one son, Arthur, who at the time of Stark's death was executive secretary of the New York State Mediation Board.[2]


Stark died suddenly, only three hours after his wife had telephoned his last editorial to the Times offices. His obituary and a memorial tribute appeared in the same issue as his last editorial. He "had suffered a series of mild heart attacks" during the months before his death.[2][14]


A memorial article in the New York Times described Stark as

a colleague for whom we had a warm affection, Quiet and unassuming, with a kindly sense of humor, he had a devotion to duty that found him writing a final editorial on the very day of his death, even though he had excused himself from coming to the office. ... By contributing to full information on the problems of labor, its living conditions, its working conditions, and its aspirations Louis Stark served, by his own efforts, to improve the lot of the working man.[14]

Writing in 1993 about the many New York Times journalists who have won Pulitzer Prizes, Arnold Beichman counted Stark among the small number of those winners who were "truly great journalists," along with William Safire, James Reston, A. M. Rosenthal, and Brooks Atkinson.[15]

In 1955, the U.S. Department of Labor incorporated the Louis Stark Memorial Fund "to foster improvement in labor relations, research and reporting."[16]

The Nieman Foundation awards the Louis Stark Nieman Fellowship in honor of Stark's memory.[1]


  1. ^ a b Romenesko, Jim (24 May 2011). "Nieman Foundation announces 74th class of Nieman Fellows". Archived from the original on 24 February 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Editorial Staff. "Louis. Stark, 66, I Times Newsman; Former Labor Reporter Who Won '42 Pulitzer Prize Dies". The New York Times.
  3. ^ a b c d e Brennan, Elizabeth A.; Clarage, Elizabeth C. (1999). Who's who of Pulitzer Prize winners. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press. p. 594. ISBN 9781573561112.
  4. ^ Stark, Louis (November 1935). "Cars and the Men". Portrain of America: Survey Graphic in the Thirties. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  5. ^ Stark, Louis (28 May 1944). "Wide Powers Claimed by War Labor Board; Dispute Growing Out of Ward Seizure Turns on Board's True Functions". The New York Times. p. E6. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  6. ^ Stark, Louis (28 December 1943). "War is Put First; Roosevelt Says He Must Make Sure Troops Get Goods Without Halt". The New York Times. Washington. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  7. ^ Stark, Louis (1 October 1948). "PAC Sees Decline of Wallace Party; J. Kroll, Listing Primary Votes, Asserts It Is 'No Longer to Be Taken Seriously'". The New York Times. p. 22. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  8. ^ Stark, Louis (22 July 1948). "German-Soviet Tie Declared a Peril; U.S. Trade Union Mission Says Nationalist-Communist Link May Be Fruit of Present Rule". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  9. ^ Stark, Louis (14 November 1948). "AFL Acts to Oust its Reds in Canada". New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  10. ^ Stark, Louis (21 August 1949). "Communists Take Oath to By-Pass Labor Laws; Tactic Adopted by Some Union Chiefs Poses Baffling Legal Problems". New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  11. ^ Nieman Reports (22 September 1994). "Louis Stark: The Reporter Who Blazed the Way". Nieman Foundation, Harvard University. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  12. ^ Stark, Louis (18 May 1954). "Trade Union Democracy". New York Times. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  13. ^ "Reed College Honors White House Aide". New York Times. 11 June 1937. p. 19. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  14. ^ a b "Louis Stark" (PDF). The New York Times. May 18, 1955. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  15. ^ Beichman, Arnold. "Other writers of the Times and elsewhere have discredited this coverage." Citation – To Walter Duranty 1932 – for his series of dispatches from Russia". The Washington Times. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  16. ^ "Louis Stark Fund Gains; Gifts Honoring 'Late Times Man to Aid in Labor Field" (PDF). The New York Times. January 26, 1955. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
1942 Pulitzer Prize

The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1942.

Alvan T. Fuller

Alvan Tufts Fuller (February 27, 1878 – April 30, 1958) was an American businessman, politician, art collector, and philanthropist from Massachusetts. He opened one of the first automobile dealerships in Massachusetts, which in 1920 was recognized as "the world's most successful auto dealership", and made him one of the state's wealthiest men. Politically a Progressive Republican, he was elected a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1916, and served as a United States Representative from 1917 to 1921.

From 1925 to 1929 Fuller was Governor of Massachusetts, continuing the fiscally conservative and socially moderate policies of his predecessors. In 1927 he was enveloped in the international controversy surrounding the trial and execution of Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian immigrant anarchists convicted of robbery and murder. Fuller's handling of the affair, in which pressure was applied by both domestic and international sources seeking clemency for the two, effectively ended his political career.

Fuller was an avid collector of art, some of which has since been donated to museums in eastern New England, including the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. He founded the Fuller Foundation, a charity that supports a variety of causes in eastern Massachusetts and the seacoast region of New Hampshire. Fuller Gardens, founded by him in North Hampton, New Hampshire, are now open to the public.

DeWitt Clinton High School

DeWitt Clinton High School is a public high school located since 1929 in The Bronx, New York, United States. Opened in 1897 in Lower Manhattan and initially operated as an all-boys school, it maintained that status for nearly 100 years. In 1983 it became co-ed. From its original building on West 13th Street in Manhattan, it moved in 1906 to its second home on 59th Street and Tenth Avenue (now the site of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice). In 1929 the school moved to its present home on Mosholu Parkway in the Bronx.

After more than a century of operations, producing a raft of accomplished alumni, in the early 21st century, DeWitt Clinton High School has faced serious problems involving student performance and security.

George Eric Rowe Gedye

George Eric Rowe Gedye [geddi] (*27 May 1890 in Clevedon, Somerset, †21 March 1970; often cited as G. E. R. Gedye), was a British journalist, author and intelligence officer.

Harlan County War

The Harlan County War, or Bloody Harlan, was a series of coal mining-related skirmishes, executions, bombings, and strikes (both attempted and realized) that took place in Harlan County, Kentucky during the 1930s. The incidents involved coal miners and union organizers on one side, and coal firms and law enforcement officials on the other. The question at hand: the rights of Harlan County coal miners to organize their workplaces and better their wages and working conditions. It was a nearly decade-long conflict, lasting from 1931 to 1939. Before its conclusion, an indeterminate number of miners, deputies, and bosses would be killed, state and federal troops would occupy the county more than half a dozen times, two acclaimed folk singers would emerge, union membership would oscillate wildly, and workers in the nation's most anti-labor coal county would ultimately be represented by a union.

Joseph A. Loftus

Joseph A. Loftus (1907 – January 3, 1990) was a 20th-century American reporter for The New York Times who covered unions, like the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, extensively and later worked as a communications assistant to George P. Shultz at the U.S. Department of Labor and U.S. Department of the Treasury.

List of Gunsmoke television episodes

Gunsmoke is an American western television series developed by Charles Marquis Warren and based on the radio program of the same name. The series ran for 20 seasons, making it the longest-running western in television history. The first episode aired in the United States on September 10, 1955, and the final episode aired on March 31, 1975. All episodes were broadcast in the U.S. by CBS. In the United Kingdom Gunsmoke was originally broadcast under the title Gun Law.Gunsmoke was originally a half-hour program filmed in black-and-white. The series expanded to an hour in length with season seven and began filming in color in season twelve. During its run 635 episodes were broadcast, of which 233 were 30 minutes in length and 402 were 60 minutes in length. Of the hour-long episodes 176 were in black-and-white and 226 in color. During season two, Gunsmoke became one of the ten most popular programs on American television and moved to number one in the third season. It remained at number one until 1961 and stayed in the top twenty until 1964. The series returned to prominence in 1967 following a shift in its programming time from Saturday to Monday night. From there Gunsmoke remained in the top twenty for the next seven years, dropping out only in its final season. In May 1975 CBS canceled the series. Alan Wagner, the network's vice president at the time, said, "It's better to get rid of a program one year too soon than one year too late." Between 1987 and 1994 five television movies based on the series were aired by CBS.Gunsmoke is set in and around Dodge City, Kansas, in the post-Civil War era and centers on United States Marshal Matt Dillon (James Arness) as he enforces law and order in the city. In its original format the series also focuses on Dillon's friendship with three other citizens of Dodge City: Doctor Galen "Doc" Adams (Milburn Stone), the town's physician; Kitty Russell (Amanda Blake), saloon girl and later owner of the Long Branch Saloon; and Chester Goode (Dennis Weaver), Dillon's assistant. In season eight (1962–63) a fifth regular character was added to the cast: blacksmith Quint Asper (Burt Reynolds), who remained until the end of season ten (1964–65). Dennis Weaver left the series during season nine (1963–64) and was replaced by Ken Curtis as Festus Haggen, who became deputy to Marshall Dillon. Both Chester and Festus appear together in the season nine episode "The Prairie Wolfer," and Festus had initially appeared the previous season, playing the same character as a quasi-outlaw helping Dillon track a killer in "Us Haggens". In season eleven (1965–66), another deputy, Clayton Thaddeus Greenwood (Roger Ewing), was added to the cast. Ewing's character was replaced in season thirteen (1967–68) by Newly O'Brien (Buck Taylor). Amanda Blake left the series at the end of season nineteen (1973–74) and was replaced in the final season by a new character, Miss Hannah, portrayed by Fran Ryan.As of February 5, 2019, all episodes from the first fourteen seasons of Gunsmoke have been released on DVD while two other collections contain selected episodes from all twenty seasons. All five television movies have been released on DVD as well.

List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times

Since 1918, The New York Times daily newspaper has won 125 Pulitzer Prizes, a prize awarded for excellence in journalism in a range of categories.

List of coal mines and landmarks in the Nanaimo area

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Pins and Needles

Pins and Needles is an idiom revue with a book by Arthur Arent, Marc Blitzstein, Emmanuel Eisenberg, Charles Friedman, David Gregory, Joseph Schrank, Arnold B. Horwitt, John Latouche, and Harold Rome and music and lyrics by Harold Rome. The title Pins and Needles was created by Max Danish, long-time editor of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU)'s newspaper Justice. It ran on Broadway from 1937 to 1940, was revived in 1978, and produced again in London in 2010 to positive reviews. In 2016, the show ran at the Provincetown Playhouse in New York City, where it was produced by the Steinhardt School at New York University. The revue was also performed in 1938 in the White House for Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt.

Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting

This Pulitzer Prize has been awarded since 1942 for a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs in the United States. In its first six years (1942–1947), it was called the Pulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting – National.

Sacco and Vanzetti

Nicola Sacco (April 22, 1891 – August 23, 1927) and Bartolomeo Vanzetti (June 11, 1888 – August 23, 1927) were Italian-born American anarchists who were controversially convicted of murdering a guard and a paymaster during the April 15, 1920 armed robbery of the Slater and Morrill Shoe Company in Braintree, Massachusetts, United States. Seven years later, they were electrocuted in the electric chair at Charlestown State Prison. Both men adhered to an anarchist movement.

After a few hours' deliberation on July 14, 1921, the jury convicted Sacco and Vanzetti of first-degree murder and they were sentenced to death by the trial judge. Anti-Italianism, anti-immigrant bias, and anti-left political motives were suspected as having heavily influenced the verdict. A series of appeals followed, funded largely by the private Sacco and Vanzetti Defense Committee. The appeals were based on recanted testimony, conflicting ballistics evidence, a prejudicial pre-trial statement by the jury foreman, and a confession by an alleged participant in the robbery. All appeals were denied by trial judge Webster Thayer and also later denied by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. By 1926, the case had drawn worldwide attention. As details of the trial and the men's suspected innocence became known, Sacco and Vanzetti became the center of one of the largest causes célèbres in modern history. In 1927, protests on their behalf were held in every major city in North America and Europe, as well as in Tokyo, Sydney, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Johannesburg, and Auckland.Celebrated writers, artists, and academics pleaded for their pardon or for a new trial. Harvard law professor and future Supreme Court justice Felix Frankfurter argued for their innocence in a widely read Atlantic Monthly article that was later published in book form. The two were scheduled to die in April 1927, accelerating the outcry. Responding to a massive influx of telegrams urging their pardon, Massachusetts governor Alvan T. Fuller appointed a three-man commission to investigate the case. After weeks of secret deliberation that included interviews with the judge, lawyers, and several witnesses, the commission upheld the verdict. Sacco and Vanzetti were executed in the electric chair just after midnight on August 23, 1927. Subsequent riots destroyed property in Paris, London, and other cities.

Investigations in the aftermath of the executions continued throughout the 1930s and 1940s. The publication of the men's letters, containing eloquent professions of innocence, intensified belief in their wrongful execution. Additional ballistics tests and incriminating statements by the men's acquaintances have clouded the case. On August 23, 1977—the 50th anniversary of the executions—Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis issued a proclamation that Sacco and Vanzetti had been unfairly tried and convicted and that "any disgrace should be forever removed from their names".

Scott Joplin (film)

Scott Joplin is a 1977 biographical film directed by Jeremy Kagan and based on the life of American composer and pianist Scott Joplin. It stars Billy Dee Williams and Clifton Davis. It won an award from the Writers Guild of America in 1979. The only other composers mentioned as worthy equals in the film are John Philip Sousa and Jelly Roll Morton.

Sylvia Stark

Sylvia Estes Stark (1839 – 1944) is a noted African-American pioneer and Salt Spring Island resident, who was among 600 African Americans who migrated to the newly formed Colony of British Columbia.

Tom C. Clark

Thomas Campbell Clark (September 23, 1899 – June 13, 1977) was an American lawyer who served as the 59th United States Attorney General from 1945 to 1949. He was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1949 to 1967.Born in Dallas, Texas, Clark graduated from the University of Texas School of Law after serving in World War I. He practiced law in Dallas until 1937, when he accepted a position in the United States Department of Justice. After Harry S. Truman became President of the United States in 1945, he chose Clark as his Attorney General. In 1949, Truman successfully nominated Clark to fill the Supreme Court vacancy caused by the death of Associate Justice Frank Murphy. Clark remained on the court until his retirement in 1967, and was succeeded by Thurgood Marshall. Clark retired so that his son, Ramsey Clark, could assume the position of Attorney General.

Clark served on the Vinson Court and the Warren Court. He voted with the Court's majority in the several cases concerning racial segregation, including the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education. He wrote the majority opinion in landmark Mapp v. Ohio, which ruled that the Fourth Amendment prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures applies to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment. He also wrote the majority opinion in Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States, which upheld the public accommodations provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the majority opinions in Garner v. Board of Public Works, Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson, and Abington School District v. Schempp.

Workers Communist League (Gitlowites)

The Workers Communist League or Gitlowites were a Right Opposition Communist group that split from the main group of the American Right Opposition, the Communist Party of the USA (Opposition) in 1933. It was the only split from that organization which created a new group.

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